Help:IPA/Spanish
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Help:IPA/Spanish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-es}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters.

In general, Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions except for some words with /?/ and /?/:

  • For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (for example, haya and halla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ?ll? can be transcribed with [?].
  • For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with ?z? and with ?c? (only when it occurs before ?i? or ?e?) can be transcribed with [s].

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol best
? bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva between baby and bevy
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead, but putting the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth
ð diva; arder; admirar this
f fase; café face
?[1] gato; lengua; guerra got
? trigo; amargo; sigue; signo go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
?[1][2] ayuno; poyo you
[1][2] cónyuge; abyecto job
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
?[1][2] llave; pollo million
m[3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio mother
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need
?[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar canyon
?[3] cinco; venga; conquista sing
p pozo; topo spouse
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; paterno trilled r
?[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno batter (American English)
s[5] saco; espita; xenón sack
?[5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
t tamiz; átomo stand, but putting the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth
t? chubasco; acechar choose
v[6] afgano van
x jamón; general; México;[7]hamster[8] Scottish loch
z[6] isla; mismo; deshuesar quiz
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
?[9] show; Rocher; Freixenet shack
ts abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar father
e vehemente set
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso more
u cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[10]
IPA Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w[11] cuadro; fuego; Huila; arduo; pingüino wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
' ciudad [?ju'ðað] domain
. o ['mi.o] Mayan

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f /b, d, ?, ?/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [, ð?, , ] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /?/, after an /l/. Then, they are stops [b, d, ?, ] like English b, d, g, j, but they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts. When it is distinct from /?/, /?/ is realized as an approximant [?] in all positions (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. ^ a b c Most speakers no longer distinguish /?/ from /?/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ^ a b c d The nasal consonants /n, m, ?/ contrast only before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [?], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. ^ a b The rhotic consonants /?/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [?] is found elsewhere.
  5. ^ a b Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ?s? (/s/) and soft ?c? or ?z? (/?/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ?c?, ?z? and even ?s? as /?/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. ^ a b [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. ^ The letter ?x? represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
  8. ^ The letter ?h? represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
  9. ^ /?/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [t?] or [s]; e.g. show [t?ou]~[sou].
  10. ^ The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  11. ^ Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [?]; e.g. Huila ['?wila]~['wila].

References

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/s0025100303001373 

External links


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