Bone was the son of Henry Bone, the notable enamel painter, and Elizabeth Van der Meulen, a descendant of the distinguished battle-painter Adam Frans van der Meulen. His brother was the artist Robert Trewick Bone (1790-1840). He received his art education from his father.
He commenced as a painter in oils, and exhibited some portraits at the age of twenty. In 1806 he began painting classical subjects, and continued doing so until 1833, when he reverted to his father's art of enameling, which he continued to practise until the year of his death.
In 1846 he published a catalogue of his enamels. He was appointed successively enamel painter to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen and to Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Though his enamels did not attain the quality of his father's, they display very considerable ability, and he was not only a rapid sketcher, but his designs for classical and scripture subjects were bold and skilful.