The Chengdu Hoshuko (Japanese?, Simplified Chinese?), a hosh? jugy? k?
in the Hiroshima-Sichuan Sino-Japanese Friendship Convention Center (Japanese?, Simplified Chinese?) in Wuhou District
Hosh? jugy? k? (), or hosh?k? () are supplementary Japanese schools located in foreign countries. Hosh? jugy? k? take Japanese children who attend local day schools and operate on weekends, after school, and other times not during the hours of operation of the day schools.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), as of 1985, encouraged the opening of hosh? jugy? k? in developed countries while it encouraged the development of Japanese day schools, or nihonjin gakk?, in developing countries. In 1971 there were 22 supplementary Japanese schools worldwide. In May 1986 there were 112 supplementary schools worldwide having a total of 1,144 teachers, most of them Japanese residents, and 15,086 students. The number of supplementary schools increased to 120 by 1987. As of April 15, 2010, there are 201 Japanese supplementary schools in 56 countries.
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These schools, which usually hold classes on weekends, are primarily designed to serve temporary residents residing in foreign countries so, upon returning to their home country, they can easily re-adapt to the Japanese educational system. As a consequence, students at these schools, whether they are Japanese nationals and/or permanent residents of the host country, are generally taught in the age-appropriate Japanese curriculum specified by MEXT. Article 26 of the Constitution of Japan guarantees compulsory education for Japanese children in grades one through nine, so many weekend schools serving those grades opened. Some weekend schools also serve high school and preschool/kindergarten. Several Japanese weekend schools operate in facilities rented from other educational institutions.
The majority of the instruction is kokugo (Japanese language instruction), and the remainder consists of other academic subjects, including mathematics, social studies, and sciences. In order to cover all of the material mandated by the government of Japan in a timely fashion, each school assigns a portion of the curriculum as homework because it is not possible to cover all material during class hours. Naomi Kano ( Kan? Naomi), author of "Japanese Community Schools: New Pedagogy for a Changing Population," stated in 2011 that the supplementary schools were dominated by "a monoglossic ideology of protecting the Japanese language from English".
The Japanese government sends full-time teachers to supplementary schools that offer lessons that are similar to those of nihonjin gakk? and/or those which each have student bodies of 100 students or greater. The number of teachers sent depends upon the enrollment: one teacher is sent for a student enrollment of 100 or more, two for 200 or more students, three for 800 or more students, four for 1,200 or more students, and five for 1,600 or more students. MEXT also subsidizes weekend schools which each have over 100 students.
In North America, the hosh?k? are usually operated by the local Japanese communities. They are equivalent to hagwon in ethnic Korean communities and buxiban in ethnic Chinese communities. These Japanese schools primarily serve Japanese nationals from families temporarily in the United States, or kikokushijo, and second-generation Japanese Americans. The latter may be only U.S. citizens or they may have dual U.S.-Japanese citizenship. Few Japanese children with Japanese as a first language in North America attend full-time Japanese schools; therefore the majority of Japanese as a first language children on the continent receive their primary education in English, their second language. These supplementary schools exist to provide their Japanese-language education.
Rachel Endo of Hamline University, the author of "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community," wrote that these schools "have rigorous academic expectations and structured content".
As of 2012 the most common education option for Japanese families resident in the United States, especially those living in major metropolitan areas, is to send children to American schools during the week and use weekend Japanese schools to supplement their education. As of 2007 there were 85 Japanese supplementary schools in the United States, with 12,500 Japanese national children living in the United States attending Japanese weekend schools and American day schools at the same time, making up over 60% of the total number of Japanese national children resident in the United States.
In the years prior to 2012 there was an increase in students who were permanent residents of the United States and did not plan to go back to Japan. Instead they attended the schools to maintain their ethnic identity. By that year the majority of the students in the Japanese weekend schools in the United States were permanent residents of the United States. Kano argued that the MEXT curriculum for many of these permanent residents is unnecessary and out of touch. In the 1990s weekend schools began creating keishogo or heritage education classes for permanent residents of the U.S. The administrators and teachers of each weekend school which offers heritage classes develop their own curriculum.
The oldest U.S. Japanese weekend school with Japanese government sponsorship is the Washington Japanese Language School (? Washinton [sic] Nihongo Gakk?), founded in 1958 and serving the Washington, DC metropolitan area.
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In 2003 51.7% of Japanese pupils in North America attended hoshuk? and local North American schools at the same time.
As of 2013, in Asia 3.4% of Japanese children with Japanese as a first language attend Japanese weekend schools in addition to their local Asian schools. In North America 45% of Japanese children with Japanese as a first language attend Japanese weekend schools in addition to their local North American schools.
List of schools
See: List of hosh? jugy? k?
- Doerr, Musha Neriko (Brookdale Community College) and Kiri Lee (Lehigh University). "Contesting heritage: language, legitimacy, and schooling at a weekend Japanese-language school in the United States" (Archive). Language and Education. Vol. 23, No. 5, September 2009, 425-441.
- Note: p. 428 states that the "[Jackson Japanese Language School] is located in the suburb of a major metropolitan area in the northeastern United States": No school with that name exists in the Northeast U.S., so in fact it is a false name used in place of a real school name.
- Kano, Naomi. "Japanese Community Schools: New Pedagogy for a Changing Population" (Chapter 6). In: García, Ofelia, Zeena Zakharia, and Bahar Otcu (editors). Bilingual Community Education and Multilingualism: Beyond Heritage Languages in a Global City (Volume 89 of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism). Multilingual Matters, 2012. ISBN 184769800X, 9781847698001. START: p. 99.
- Mori, Yoshiko (? Mori Yoshiko; Georgetown University) and Toshiko M. Calder ( Karud? Toshiko; Princeton Community Japanese Language School). "Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age Among Japanese Heritage Language Students at Hoshuukoo." Foreign Language Annals. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Volume 46, Issue 2, pages 290-310, June 2013. First published online on 22 May 2013. DOI 10.1111/flan.12027.
- ^ Ishikawa, Kiyoko. Japanese families in the American wonderland: transformation of self-identity and culture. University of Michigan, 1998. p. 221. "It means the JSM, Hoshu-jugyo-ko (its abbreviation is Hoshuko), in Japanese."
- ^ Mizukami, Tetsuo ( Mizukami Tetsuo). The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 136.
- ^ a b Goodman, Roger. "The changing perception and status of kikokushijo." In: Goodman, Roger, Ceri Peach, Ayumi Takenaka, and Paul White (editors). Global Japan: The Experience of Japan's New Immigrant and Overseas Communities. Routledge, June 27, 2005. p. 179. "Official policy (see Monbusho, 1985) was that Nihonjingakko should be set up in developing countries, hoshuko in the developed world."
- ^ a b "Section 4. Well-Being of Japanese Nationals Overseas" (Archive). Diplomatic Bluebook 1987 Japan's Diplomatic Activities. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on March 8, 2015.
- ^ "English" (Archive). Penang Japanese (Supplementary) Saturday School. Retrieved on June 22, 2014.
- ^ a b c d Mori and Calder, p. 292 (PDF p. 3/21).
- ^ a b Kano, p. 104.
- ^ a b c Doerr and Lee, p. 426.
- ^ Maguire, Mary H. (McGill University). "Identity and Agency in Primary Trilingual Children's Multiple Cultural Worlds: Third Space and Heritage Languages" (Archive). In: Cohen, James, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan (editors). ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. p. 1423-1445. CITED: p. 1432 (PDF p. 10/24). "The other two schools, the Chinese Shonguo and Japanese Hoshuko are privately funded, rent space for their Saturday schools from mainstream educational institutions, and thus have no visible identifiable logo or physical presence as a particular "heritage language school"."
- ^ " - " (Archive). Ochanomizu University. Retrieved on March 31, 2015.
- ^ Kano, p. 106.
- ^ a b c Kano, p. 103.
- ^ Hirvela, Alan. "Diverse Literacy Practices among Asian Populations: Implications for Theory and Pedagogy" (Chapter 5). In: Farr, Marcia, Lisya Seloni, and Juyoung Song (editors). Ethnolinguistic Diversity and Education: Language, Literacy and Culture. Routledge, January 25, 2011. Start page 99. ISBN 1135183708, 9781135183707. - Cited: p. 103. "These, too, exist as a result of efforts made by local ethnic communities. Chinese (buxiban) and Korean (hagwon) schools are the most dominant of these learning environments, while Japanese heritage schools (hoshuko) also exist in certain communities." and "Japanese schools, like the Chinese schools, are usually community-based."
- ^ Endo, R. (Hamline University). "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community." Bilingual Research Journal, 2013, Vol.36(3), p.278-294. CITED: p. 281.
- ^ a b Mori and Calder, p. 291 (PDF 2/21).
- ^ "Endo Presents and Leads at Conference" (Archive). Hamline University. April 20, 2012. Retrieved on March 4, 2015.
- ^ Endo, R. (Hamline University). "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community." Bilingual Research Journal, 2013, Vol.36(3), p.278-294. CITED: p. 282.
- ^ Mizukami, Tetsuo. The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 139.
- ^ Doerr and Lee, p. 427.
- ^ "Andrew M. Saidel" (Archive). Japan-America Society of Greater Philadelphia (JASGP; ). Retrieved on April 16, 2015.
- ^ "English Archived 2014-05-02 at the Wayback Machine.." Washington Japanese Language School. Retrieved on April 30, 2014. "Washington Japanese Language School c/o Holy Cross Church, Quinn Hall, 4900 Strathmore Avenue, Garrett Park, MD 20896"
- ^ Mizukami, Tetsuo. The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 138.
(in Japanese) Articles available online
- Chinen, Kiyomi ( ; University of California, Irvine) and Richard G. Tucker (G; Carnegie Mellon University). "The Acquisition of Heritage Japanese Language in the United States : Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Hoshuu-jugyoko(Japanese Language Schools for Supplementary Studies)" (? : ; Archive). (MHB) (2), 82-104, 2006-03-31. (MHB). See profile at CiNii. See profile at Osaka University Knowledge Archive. Alternate link (Archive).
- Okumura, Minako ( ; University of Bonn and Japanische Schule Bonn e.V. (?)). "Situations, Approaches and a Review for the Kindergarten/Preschool at the Japanese School (Nihongohoshûkô) in Germany" (?; Archive). (MHB) (6), 80-95, 2010-03-31. Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education (MHB) Research Association ((MHB)). See profile #1 and profile #2 at CiNii. See profile at Osaka University Knowledge Archive (OUKA; ). Alternate link (Archive).
- Ozawa, Michimasa. ( ; Department of Educational Support ()). "Situation of Support for Japanese Students with Disabilities in Full-day and Supplementary Schools for the Japanese in the Eastern United States" (? (<>; Archive). Special Needs Education of the World () 23, 43-55, 2009-03. National Institute of Special Needs Education (?). See profile at CiNii. English abstract available.
- Suzuki, Kazuyo ( ; Faculty of Humanities (?), Saitama Gakuen University). "Japanese Language and Culture Acquisition of Intercultural Children with Japanese Ancestry : From the Perspective of Teachers at Part-time Japanese Schools" ( : ; Archive). Bulletin of Saitama Gakuen University (). Faculty of Humanities 7, 103-113, 2007-12. Saitama Gakuen University. See profile at CiNii. English abstract available.
- . " : (?31) -- (?)" (Archive). ? (31), 82-85, 2006-06. . See profile at CiNii. See profile at Ochanomizu University Teapot (Institutional Repository).
- ? (). "20" (Archive). ? 30, 33-45, 2009-06. National Institute of Special Needs Education (?). See profile at CiNii.
- (University of Tokyo). "236 (4,)" (Archive). Annual Convention of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology () (22), 228-229, 1980-10-05. The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology (). See profile at CiNii.
Articles not available online