A hybrid word or hybridism is a word that etymologically derives from at least two languages.
The most common form of hybrid word in English combines Latin and Greek parts. Since many prefixes and suffixes in English are of Latin or Greek etymology, it is straightforward to add a prefix or suffix from one language to an English word that comes from a different language, thus creating a hybrid word.
- Aquaphobia - from Latin aqua "water" and Greek (phobia) "fear"; this term is distinguished from the non-hybrid word hydrophobia, which can refer to symptoms of rabies.
- Automobile - a wheeled passenger vehicle, from Greek (autos) "self" and Latin mobilis "moveable"
- Beatnik - a 1950s counterculture movement centered on jazz music, coffeehouses, marijuana, and a literary movement, from English "beat" and Russian -nik "one who does"
- Biathlon - from the Latin bis meaning "twice" and the Greek (athlon) meaning "contest"; the non-hybrid word is diathlon
- Bigamy - from Latin bis meaning "twice" and Greek (gamos) meaning "wedlock"
- Bigram - from Latin bis meaning "twice" and Greek (gramma); the non-hybrid word is digram
- Bioluminescence - from the Greek ? (bios) "life" and the Latin lumen "light"
- Chocoholic - a portmanteau of "chocolate" (from the Nahuatl xocol?tl) and "alcoholic", which itself was formed from the Arabic ? (al-kul) "alcohol" and the French adjectival suffix -ic
- Claustrophobia - from the Latin claustrum meaning "confined space" and Greek (phobos) meaning "fear"
- Democide - from the Greek (d?mos) "people" and the Latin -cida "-killer"
- Divalent - from Greek (duo) meaning "two" and Latin valens meaning "strong"; the non-hybrid word is bivalent
- Dysfunction - from the Greek - (dys-) meaning "bad" and the Latin functio
- Eigenvalue, eigenvector etc. - from German eigen, meaning 'own' and English "value", "vector" etc.
- Electrocution - a portmanteau of electricity, from the Greek (?lektron), "amber", and execution, from the Latin exsequere, "follow out"
- Eusociality - from the Greek (eu) "good" and the Latin socialitas
- Genocide - From the Greek (genos) meaning "race, people" and the Latin c?dere meaning "to kill"
- Geostationary - From the Greek (g?) meaning "Earth" and the Latin stationarius, from statio, from stare meaning "to stand"
- Heterosexual - from Greek (heteros) meaning "different" or "other" and the Latin sexus meaning "sex"
- Hexadecimal - from Greek (hex), meaning "six", and Latin decimus meaning "tenth"; the non-hybrid word is sedecimal, from Latin sedecimalis
- Hexavalent - from Greek (hex), meaning "six", and Latin valens, meaning "strong"
- Homosexual - from the Greek ? (homos) meaning "same" and the Latin sexus meaning "sex" (This example is remarked on in Tom Stoppard's The Invention of Love, with A. E. Housman's character saying "Homosexuals? Who is responsible for this barbarity?...It's half Greek and half Latin!".)
- Hyperactive - from Greek ? (hyper) meaning "over" and Latin activus
- Hypercomplex - from Greek ? (hyper) meaning "over" and Latin complexus meaning "an embrace"
- Hypercorrection - from Greek ? (hyper) meaning "over" and Latin correctio
- Hyperextension - from Greek ? (hyper) meaning "over" and Latin extensio meaning "stretching out"; the non-hybrid word is superextension
- Hypervisor - from the Greek ? (hyper) meaning "over" and the Latin visor meaning "seer". This word is distinguished from the non-hybrid word supervisor, which is software that manages multiple user programs; a hypervisor is software that manages multiple virtual machines
- Liposuction - from the Greek (lipos) meaning "fat" and the Latin suctio meaning "sucking"
- Macroinstruction - from the Greek (makros) meaning "long" and the Latin instructio
- Mattergy - from the Latin materia "material" and the Greek (energeia) "energy": a "word for interchangeable matter and energy"
- Mega-annum - from the Greek (megas), meaning "large", and the Latin annum, "year"
- Meritocracy - From the Latin meritus meaning "deserved" and the Greek - (-kratia), meaning "government"
- Metadata - from the Greek ? (meta) and the Latin data meaning "given" from dare
- Microinstruction - from the Greek (mikros) meaning "small" and the Latin instructio
- Microvitum - from the Greek (mikros) meaning "small" and the pseudo-Latin vitum
- Minneapolis - from the Dakota minne "water" and the Greek (pólis) "city"
- Monoculture - from the Greek (monos) meaning "one, single" and the Latin cultura
- Monolingual - from the Greek (monos) meaning "only" and the Latin lingua meaning "tongue"; the non-hybrid word is unilingual
- Multigraph - from the Latin multus "many" and the Greek (graph?); the non-hybrid word would be polygraph, but that is generally used with a different meaning
- Neonate - from the Greek ? (neos), "new", and the Latin natus, "birth"
- Neuroscience - from the Greek (neuron), meaning "sinew", and the Latin scientia, from sciens, meaning "having knowledge"
- Neurotransmitter - from the Greek (neuron), meaning "sinew", and the Latin trans, meaning "across" and mittere meaning "to send"
- Nonagon - from the Latin nonus meaning "ninth" and the Greek (g?nia) meaning "angle"; the non-hybrid word is enneagon
- Oleomargarine - from the Latin oleum meaning "beef fat" and the Greek margarites meaning "pearl-like"
- Pandeism - from the Greek (pan) meaning "all" and Latin deus meaning "god"; the non-hybrid word is pantheism
- Periglacial - from the Greek ? (perí) and the Latin glaci?lis
- Polyamory - from the Greek (polýs) meaning "many" and the Latin amor meaning "love"
- Polydeism - from the Greek (polýs) meaning "many" and the Latin deus meaning "god"; compare with the non-hybrid word polytheism
- Quadraphonic - from the Latin quattuor meaning four and the Greek ? (ph?nikós), from ? (ph?n?) meaning sound; the non-hybrid word is tetraphonic
- Quadriplegia - from the Latin quattuor meaning "four" and the Greek (pl?g?) "stroke", from (pl?ssein) meaning "to strike"; the non-hybrid word is tetraplegia
- Sociology - from the Latin socius, "comrade", and the Greek (lógos) meaning "word", "reason", "discourse"
- Sociopath - from the Latin socius from sociare meaning "to associate with", and the Greek (-pathes) meaning "sufferer" from páthos meaning "incident", "suffering", or "experience"
- Television - from the Greek ? (t?le) meaning "far" and the Latin visio meaning "seeing", from videre meaning "to see"
- Tonsillectomy - from the Latin tonsillae "tonsils" and the Greek (ektémnein), "to cut out"
- Vexillology - from the Latin word vexillum, meaning "flag", and the Greek suffix - (-logia), meaning "study"
Modern Hebrew abounds with non-Semitic derivational affixes, which are applied to words of both Semitic and non-Semitic descent. The following hybrid words consist of a Hebrew-descent word and a non-Semitic descent suffix:
- bitkhon-íst () 'one who evaluates everything from the perspective of national security', from bitakhón 'security' + the productive internationalism -ist
- khamúda-le () 'cutie (feminine singular)', from khamuda 'cute (feminine singular) + -le, endearment diminutive of Yiddish descent
- kiso-lógya (?) 'the art of finding a political seat (especially in the Israeli Parliament)', from kisé 'seat' + the productive internationalism -lógya '-logy'
- maarav-izátsya () 'westernization', from maaráv 'west' + the productive internationalism -izátsya '-ization' (itself via Russian from a hybrid of Greek -- -iz- and Latin -atio)
- miluím-nik (?) 'reservist, reserve soldier', from miluím 'reserve' (literally 'fill-ins') + -nik, a most productive agent suffix of Yiddish and Russian descent
Examples of Modern Hebrew hybrid words with an international prefix include:
- anti-hitnatkút () 'anti-disengagement'
- post-milkhamtí () 'postwar'
- pro-araví () 'pro-Arab'
Some hybrid words consist of both a non-Hebrew word and a non-Hebrew suffix of different origins:
- shababnik () 'rebel youth of Haredi Judaism', from Arabic shabab (youth) and -nik of Yiddish and Russian descent
Modern Hebrew also has a productive derogatory prefixal shm-, which results in an 'echoic expressive'. For example, um shmum (?), literally 'United Nations shm-United Nations', was a pejorative description by Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, of the United Nations, called in Modern Hebrew umot meukhadot ( ?) and abbreviated um (?). Thus, when an Israeli would like to express his impatience with or disdain for philosophy, s/he can say filosófya-shmilosófya (). Modern Hebrew shm- is traceable back to Yiddish, and is found in English as well as shm-reduplication. This is comparable to the Turkic initial m-segment conveying a sense of 'and so on' as in Turkish dergi mergi okumuyor, literally 'magazine "shmagazine" read:NEGATIVE:PRESENT:3rd.person.singular', i.e. '(He) doesn't read magazine, journals or anything like that'.
In Japanese, hybrid words are common in kango - words formed from kanji characters - where some of the characters may be pronounced using Chinese pronunciations (on'yomi, from Chinese morphemes), and others in the same word are pronounced using Japanese pronunciations (kun'yomi, from Japanese morphemes). These are known as j?bako () or yut? () words, which are themselves examples of this kind of compound (they are autological words): the first character of j?bako is read using on'yomi, the second kun'yomi, while it is the other way around with yut?. Other examples include basho "place" (kun-on), kin'iro "golden" (on-kun) and aikid? "the martial art Aikido" (kun-on-on). Some hybrid words are neither j?bako nor yut? ( tatech?yoko (kun-on-kun)). Foreign words may also be hybridized with Chinese or Japanese readings in slang words such as ? k?s?biru "high-rise building" (on-on-katakana) and meshitero "food terrorism" (kun-katakana).
- ^ "Books: What can the Mattergy?" (review of John F. Wharton, The Explorations of George Burton), Time Magazine, March 19, 1951.)
- ^ "occupation of mattergy", Naked Science Forum, last entry: 23 December 2006
- ^ Jamesmessig, "Speculations on Harnessing Ambient Real Mattergy within Intragalactic and Intergalactic Space for Ultra-High Relativistic Gamma Factor Manned Space Craft", Jamesmessig's Weblog, November 21, 2008.
- ^ "Mattergy and Spime", Jack D Capehart's blog: REASONable Ramblings, 08/07/2009.
- ^ a b Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009), Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns. In Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2: 40-67, p. 49.