The roots of today's IBM Research began with the 1945 opening of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University. This was the first IBM laboratory devoted to pure science and later expanded into additional IBM Research locations in Westchester County, New York starting in the 1950s, including the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1961.
IBM employees have garnered six Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, 20 inductees into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame, 19 National Medals of Technology, five National Medals of Science and three Kavli Prizes.
Notable company inventions include the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, copper wiring in semiconductors, the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) semiconductor manufacturing process, Watson artificial intelligence and the Quantum Experience.
Advances in nanotechnology include IBM in atoms, where a scanning tunneling microscope was used to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company acronym. It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface.
Major undertakings at IBM Research have included the invention of innovative materials and structures, high-performance microprocessors and computers, analytical methods and tools, algorithms, software architectures, methods for managing, searching and deriving meaning from data and in turning IBM's advanced services methodologies into reusable assets.
IBM Research's numerous contributions to physical and computer sciences include the Scanning Tunneling Microscope and high temperature superconductivity, both of which were awarded the Nobel Prize. IBM Research was behind the inventions of the SABRE travel reservation system, the technology of laser eye surgery, magnetic storage, the relational database, UPC barcodes and Watson, the question-answering computing system that won a match against human champions on the Jeopardy! television quiz show. The Watson technology is now being commercialized as part of a project with healthcare company Anthem Inc..
There are a number of computer scientists "who made IBM Research famous." These include Frances E. Allen,Marc Auslander, John Backus,Charles H. Bennett (computer scientist), Erich Bloch,Grady Booch, Fred Brooks (known for his book The Mythical Man-Month), Peter Brown, Larry Carter,Gregory Chaitin, John Cocke, Alan Cobham,Edgar F. Codd, Don Coppersmith, Ronald Fagin, Horst Feistel, Jeanne Ferrante, Zvi Galil, Ralph E. Gomory, Jim Gray, Joseph Halpern, Kenneth E. Iverson, Frederick Jelinek, Reynold B. Johnson, Benoit Mandelbrot, Robert Mercer (businessman), C. Mohan, Michael O. Rabin, Arthur Samuel, Alfred Spector, Moshe Vardi, John Vlissides, Mark N. Wegman and Shmuel Winograd.
|IBM Research - Africa||Nairobi, Kenya||2013|
|Johannesburg, South Africa||2015|
|IBM Research - Almaden||Almaden Valley, San Jose, California||1986|
|IBM Research - Austin||Austin, Texas||1995|
|IBM Research - Australia||Melbourne, Australia||2011|
|IBM Research - Brazil||São Paulo, Brazil||2010|
|Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||2010|
|IBM Research - China||Beijing, China||1995|
|IBM Research - Haifa||Haifa, Israel||1972|
|IBM Research - India||Delhi, India||1998|
|IBM Research - Ireland||Damastown, Ireland||2011|
|IBM Research - Thomas J. Watson Research Center||Yorktown Heights, New York||1945|
|Albany, New York||2001|
|IBM Research - Tokyo||Tokyo, Japan||1982|
|IBM Research - Zurich||Rüschlikon, Switzerland||1956|