The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was first defined by Museum of Modern Art curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932. It is defined by the Getty Research Institute as "the style of architecture that emerged in Holland, France, and Germany after World War I and spread throughout the world, becoming the dominant architectural style until the 1970s. The style is characterized by an emphasis on volume over mass, the use of lightweight, mass-produced, industrial materials, rejection of all ornament and color, repetitive modular forms, and the use of flat surfaces, typically alternating with areas of glass."
Around 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new social demands and technological possibilities. The work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde in Brussels, Antoni Gaudí in Barcelona, Otto Wagner in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new. Hitchcock and Johnson do not see these architects, however, as part of the International Style because they are seen as retaining traces of an "individualistic manner"; that is, not so much the creators of a new style as the last representatives of Romanticism.
Prior to use of the term 'International Style', the same striving towards simplification, honesty and clarity are identifiable in US architects, notably in the work of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago, as well as the west-coast residences of Irving Gill. Frank Lloyd Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio had been exhibited in Europe and influenced the work of European modernists, and his travels there probably influenced his own work, although he refused to be categorized with them. Wright's work was considered a formative influence on the International Style, and his work was included in the exhibition as well as the catalog. But he was considered not to have kept up with more recent developments. This provoked Wright to quip in response to Hitchcock and Johnson "...having a good start, not only do I fully intend to be the greatest architect who has yet lived, but fully intend to be the greatest architect who will ever live." His buildings of the 1920s and 1930s clearly showed a change in the style of the architect, but in a different direction than the International Style.
In Europe the modern movement in architecture had been called Functionalism or Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), L'Esprit Nouveau, or simply Modernism and was very much concerned with the coming together of a new architectural form and social reform, creating a more open and transparent society.
The English term International Style originated from an exhibition in 1932 titled Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, curated by American architectural historian and critic Henry-Russell Hitchcock and recently graduated Harvard University philosophy student (and later self-taught architect) Philip Johnson. Commissioned in 1931 by the founding director of the Museum of Modern Art, Alfred H. Barr Jr, this was the first ever architectural exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, USA. The original exhibition catalogue was then followed up immediately by the book titled The International Style, which was reissued in 1966 with a new foreword by Hitchcock.
The aesthetics-based definition of The International Style identified, categorized and expanded upon characteristics said to be common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects. Hitchcock and Johnson identified three principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, the emphasis on balance rather than preconceived symmetry, and the expulsion of applied ornament. The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to define a style that would encapsulate this modern architecture, doing this by the inclusion of specific architects. All the works in the 1932 Museum of Modern Art exhibition were carefully selected, only displaying those that strictly followed these rules. For example, the works of the most prominent "modern" architect in the USA, Frank Lloyd Wright, was included in the exhibition only to provide a contrast to the International Style examples, and his works were not featured at all in the book that followed.
Many Modernists disliked the term, believing that they had arrived at an approach to architecture that transcended "style", along with any national or regional or continental identity. The British architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner commented: "To me what had been achieved in 1914 was the style of the century. It never occurred to me to look beyond. Here was the one and only style which fitted all those aspects which mattered, aspects of economics and sociology, of materials and function. It seems folly to think that anybody would wish to abandon it."
The exhibition Modern Architecture: International Exhibition ran from February 9-March 23, 1932, at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. Beyond a foyer and office, the exhibition was divided into six rooms: the "Modern Architects" section began in the entrance room, featuring a model of William Lescaze's Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing Development in New York. From there visitors moved to the centrally placed Room A, featuring a model of a mid-rise housing development for Evanston, Illinois, by Chicago architect brothers Monroe Bengt Bowman and Irving Bowman, as well as a model and photos of Walter Gropius's Bauhaus building in Dessau. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J.J.P. Oud and Frank Lloyd Wright (including a project for a house on the Mesa in Denver, 1932). Room B was a section titled "Housing", presenting "the need for a new domestic environment" as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Raymond Hood (including "Apartment Tower in the Country" and the McGraw-Hill building) and Richard Neutra. In Room E was a section titled "The extent of modern architecture", added at the last minute, which included the works of thirty seven modern architects from fifteen countries who were said to be influenced by the works of Europeans of the 1920s. Among these works was shown Alvar Aalto's Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland.
MoMA's then director Alfred H. Barr hired art historians Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock to curate the museum's first architectural exhibition. In 1929, Johnson attended the graduation ceremony of his sister in Wellesley College, where he met Barr, who was teaching a course on modern art. In one month, Barr would be interviewed by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller for the position of the director of the MOMA, set to open its first gallery later that year. Barr added Johnson to MOMA's Junior Advisory Committee.
Hitchcock graduated in 1924 after having completed his undergraduate studies in three years and spending his senior year in architecture. At Harvard, he continued his graduate studies and got his master's degree in 1927. While at Harvard he met and built the relationship with Johnson. After graduation, Johnson traveled to Europe, where he met Hitchcock, and the two began an extended tour of the continent.
During this tour, Hitchcock and Johnson met Barr in Hamburg. Barr was traveling with J.B.Neumann, a dealer in modern art with a gallery on East 57th street, and Cary Ross, a young poet and a member of the museum circle. Johnson related that "Alfred is most enthusiastic " about Hitchcock's book about modern art. As the project was in a state of formulation, Barr's reaction was critical. Johnson writes, "the text is getting bigger and bigger in our mind but also more important. We are discussing subjects which lie much nearer to my heart than most of the old ones, such as materials, construction, functionalism, and the fundamental aesthetic, especially of the style." Late August saw another important reference to the book: in explaining the difficulty in obtaining a German publisher Johnson comments that no one wants another book on modern architecture here in Germany...In vain do we explain that there has been no book covering the whole style and nothing but the style. Later there be any question of what exactly "the style" is, Otto Haesler, in responding to Johnson's request for photos, refers to "das Buch-the New International style 1922-1932". This transformation of the "old" book into a "more important" effort indicates that the broad outline of the familiar arguments of "the International Style" were then under discussion. The focused aesthetic arguments of that book are foretold in Johnson's description of the book as being "about the style and nothing but the style." By December 1930, the first written proposal for an exhibition of the "new architecture" was set down, yet the first draft of the book was not complete until some months later.
Previous to the 1932 exhibition and book, Hitchcock had concerned himself with the themes of modern architecture in his 1929 book Modern Architecture: Romanticism and Reintegration. Both books are seen as "operative texts" (as defined by Italian critic Manfredo Tafuri) in that they were not merely a history but moreover a kind of manifesto proclaiming the birth of a new architecture.
After a six-week run in New York City, the exhibition then toured the USA - the first such "traveling-exhibition" of architecture in the US - for six years. As it is stated by Riley, in his 1992 book The International Style: Exhibition 15 and The Museum of Modern Art: "(I)ronically the (exhibition) catalogue, and to some extent, the book The International Style, published at the same time of the exhibition, have supplanted the actual historical event." Through 1932 MOMA exhibition and its careful selection of international architects, curators Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock would guide the direction of Modern architecture, introducing the elements of their International style to architectural dialogue among architects and the general public. The exhibit Modern architecture would become synonymous with the use of steel and steel and reinforced concrete, uninterrupted interior spaces and simple geometric forms.
Hitchcock and Johnson's exhibition catalog identified three principles of the style: volume of space (as opposed to mass and solidity), regularity, and flexibility.
The following architects and buildings were selected by Hitchcock and Johnson for display at the exhibition Modern Architecture: International Exhibition:
|Jacobus Oud||Workers Houses (house blocks Kiefhoek)||Rotterdam, The Netherlands||1924-1927|
|Otto Eisler||Double House||Brno, Czechoslovakia||1926-1927|
|Walter Gropius||Bauhaus School||Dessau, Germany||1926|
|City Employment Office||Dessau, Germany||1928|
|Ludwig Mies van der Rohe||Apartment House, Weissenhof Estate||Stuttgart, Germany||1927|
|German pavilion at the Barcelona Expo||Barcelona, Spain||1929|
|Tugendhat House||Brno, Czechoslovakia||1930|
|Le Corbusier||Villa Stein||Garches, France||1927|
|Villa Savoye||Poissy, France||1930|
|Carlos de Beistegui Champs-Élysées Penthouse||Paris, France||1931|
|Erich Mendelsohn||Schocken Department Store||Chemnitz, Germany||1928-1930|
|Frederick John Kiesler||Film Guild Cinema||New York City, USA||1929|
|Raymond Hood||McGraw-Hill building||New York City, USA||1931|
|George Howe & William Lescaze||PSFS Building||Philadelphia, USA||1932|
|Monroe Bengt Bowman & Irving Bowman||Lux apartment block||Evanston, USA||1931|
|Richard Neutra||Lovell House||Los Angeles, USA||1929|
|Otto Haesler||Rothenberg Siedlung||Kassel, Germany||1930|
|Karl Schneider||Kunstverein||Hamburg, Germany||1930|
|Alvar Aalto||Turun Sanomat building||Turku, Finland||1930|
Villa Savoye, Paris, Le Corbusier
Lovell House, Los Angeles, Richard Neutra
Turun Sanomat, Turku, Alvar Aalto
The exhibition excluded other contemporary styles that were exploring the boundaries of architecture at the time, including: Art Deco, German Expressionism, for instance the works of Hermann Finsterlin, and the Organicist movement, popularized in the work of Antonio Gaudi. As a result of the 1932 exhibition, the principles of the International Style were endorsed, while other styles were seen as less significant.
In 1922, the competition for the Tribune Tower and its famous second-place entry by Eliel Saarinen gave some indication of what was to come, though these works would not have been accepted by Hitchcock and Johnson as representing the "International Style". Similarly, Johnson, writing about Joseph Urban's recently completed New School for Social Research in New York, stated: "In the New School we have an anomaly of a building supposed to be in a style of architecture based on the development of the plan from function and facade from plan but which is a formally and pretentiously conceived as a Renaissance palace. Urban's admiration for the New Style is more complete than his understanding."
California architect Rudolph Schindler's work was not a part of the exhibit, though Schindler had pleaded with Hitchcock and Johnson to be included. Then, "[f]or more than 20 years, Schindler had intermittently launched a series of spirited, cantankerous exchanges with the museum."
The "International Style", as defined by Hitchcock and Johnson, blossomed in 1920s Western Europe. Significant contemporary common ground is found among the activities of the Dutch De Stijl movement, works of the French/Swiss architect Le Corbusier, and various German efforts to industrialize craft traditions, which resulted in the formation of the Deutscher Werkbund, large civic worker-housing projects in Frankfurt and Stuttgart, and, most famously, the Bauhaus. The Bauhaus was one of a number of European schools and associations concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology for the purpose of bringing about change in society.
Le Corbusier had hoped that politically minded industrialists in France would lead the way with their efficient Taylorist and Fordist strategies adopted from American industrial models in order to reorganize society. In this new industrial spirit, Le Corbusier contributed to a new journal called L'Esprit Nouveau that advocated the use of modern industrial techniques and strategies to transform society into a more efficient environment with a higher standard of living on all socio-economic levels. He forcefully argued that this transformation was necessary to avoid the spectre of revolution that would otherwise shake society. His dictum "Architecture or Revolution", developed in his articles in this journal, became his rallying cry for the book Vers une architecture (Toward an Architecture), which comprised selected articles he contributed to L'Esprit Nouveau between 1920 and 1923. Despite all the debate about increasing living standards, in favouring architecture over revolution, he laid the principle for the autonomy of architecture; that is, that architecture could be discussed in purely formal or aesthetic terms. Modern architecture, a truly international style, would serve any political position.
Thus, in terms of form, common characteristics of the International Style include: a radical simplification of form, a rejection of ornament, and adoption of glass, steel and concrete as preferred materials. Further, the transparency of buildings, construction (called the honest expression of structure), and acceptance of industrialized mass-production techniques contributed to the international style's design philosophy. Finally, the machine aesthetic, and logical design decisions leading to support building function were used by the International architect to create buildings reaching beyond historicism. The ideals of the style are commonly summed up in three slogans: ornament is a crime, truth to materials, form follows function; and Le Corbusier's description of houses as "machines for living".
In 1927, one of the first and most defining manifestations of the International Style was the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, built as a component of the exhibition "Die Wohnung", organized by the Deutscher Werkbund, and overseen by Mies van der Rohe. The fifteen contributing architects included Mies, and other names most associated with the movement: Peter Behrens, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, J.J.P. Oud, Mart Stam, Bruno Taut and the less known young architect, Franz Krause. The exhibition was enormously popular, with thousands of daily visitors. However, there was also some critique: the Stuttgart "League for Heimat Protection" [Bund für Heimatschutz] referred to it as the "Arab village" (Araberdorf) - and a picture was made showing it looking like one - and called for it be torn down.
The gradual rise of the Nazi regime in Weimar Germany in the 1930s, and the Nazis' rejection of modern architecture, meant that an entire generation of avant-gardist architects, many of them Jews, were forced out of continental Europe. Some, such as Mendelsohn, found shelter in England, while a considerable number of the Jewish architects made their way to Palestine, and others to the USA. However, American anti-Communist politics after the war and Philip Johnson's influential rejection of functionalism have tended to mask the fact that many of the important architects, including contributors to the original Weissenhof project, fled to the Soviet Union. This group also tended to be far more concerned with functionalism and its social agenda. Bruno Taut, Mart Stam, the second Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer, Ernst May and other important figures of the International Style went to the Soviet Union in 1930 to undertake huge, ambitious, idealistic urban planning projects, building entire cities from scratch. In 1936, when Stalin ordered them out of the country, many of these architects became stateless and sought refuge elsewhere; for example, Ernst May moved to Kenya.
The same year that Hitchcock and Johnson coined the term International Style saw the completion of the world's first International Style skyscraper, Philadelphia's PSFS Building, and the building was indeed featured in the MoMA exhibition. Designed by the truly "international" team of architects, George Howe and William Lescaze, the PSFS Building has become an integral element of the Philadelphia skyline.
With the rise of Nazism, a number of key European modern architects fled to the USA. When Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer fled Germany they both arrived at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, in an excellent position to extend their influence and promote the Bauhaus as the primary source of architectural modernism. When Mies fled in 1938, he first fled to England, but on emigrating to the USA he went to Chicago, founded the Second School of Chicago at IIT and solidified his reputation as a prototypical modern architect.
After World War II, the International Style matured, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum (later renamed HOK) and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) perfected the corporate practice, and it became the dominant approach for decades in the US and Canada. Beginning with the initial technical and formal inventions of 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments in Chicago its most famous examples include the United Nations headquarters, the Lever House, the Seagram Building in New York City, and the campus of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, as well as the Toronto-Dominion Centre in Toronto. Further examples can be found in mid-century institutional buildings throughout North America and the "corporate architecture" spread from there, especially to Europe.
In Canada, this period coincided with a major building boom and few restrictions on massive building projects. International Style skyscrapers came to dominate many of Canada's major cities, especially Ottawa, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Hamilton, and Toronto. While these glass boxes were at first unique and interesting, the idea was soon repeated to the point of ubiquity. A typical example is the development of so-called Place de Ville, a conglomeration of three glass skyscrapers in downtown Ottawa, where the plans of the property developer Robert Campeau in the mid 1960s and early 1970s--in the words of historian Robert W. Collier, "forceful and abrasive, he was not well-loved at City Hall"--had no regard for existing city plans, "built with contempt for the existing city and for city responsibilities in the key areas of transportation and land use". Architects attempted to put new twists into such towers, such as the Toronto City Hall by Finnish architect Viljo Revell. By the late 1970s a backlash was under way against modernism--prominent anti-modernists such as Jane Jacobs and George Baird were partly based in Toronto.
The typical International Style or "corporate architecture" high-rise usually consists of the following:
In July 1994, UNESCO proclaimed the White City of Tel Aviv a World Heritage Site, describing the city as "a synthesis of outstanding significance of the various trends of the Modern Movement in architecture and town planning in the early part of the 20th century". Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 by European Jewish settlers, who erected the first buildings on sand dunes outside the inhabited ancient Arab town of Jaffa. A large proportion of the buildings built in the International Style can be found in the area planned by Patrick Geddes, north of Tel Aviv's main historical commercial center. Geddes laid out the streets and decided on block size and utilization. His plan was to create a garden city, but in a more compact form than in England. He did not prescribe an architectural style for the buildings in the new city, though he himself favoured architectural eclecticism. The impetus for large-scale construction in the new style came from the rapid influx of European Jewish immigrants (who grew in numbers from about 2,000 in 1914 to about 150,000 in 1937). In the 1930s, new architects and architectural ideas were to converge on Tel Aviv to satisfy a burgeoning, relatively prosperous population with European tastes.
By 1933 many Jewish architects who had studied at the German Bauhaus school, which was closed down on the orders of the Nazi Party, fled to the British Mandate of Palestine. But there were also other architects arriving from the Soviet Union, Ukraine and Poland, but had studied in avant-gardist schools in Moscow, France and Italy. The residential and public buildings were designed by these architects, who took advantage of the absence of established architectural conventions to put the principles of modern architecture into practice. The Bauhaus principles, with their emphasis on functionality and inexpensive building materials, were perceived as ideal in Tel Aviv. The architects fleeing Europe combined their Bauhaus or Functionalist ideas with the architectural ideals of Le Corbusier. Among notable architects were Erich Mendelsohn, who belonged to the Expressionist school and who was active in Jerusalem in the 1930s, Carl Rubin, who had worked in Mendelsohn's office,Oskar Kaufmann, Jehuda Magidovitch, Dov Karmi, Zeev Rechter, Richard Kaufmann and Arieh Sharon.
In 1984, in celebration of Tel Aviv's 75th year, an exhibition was held at the Tel Aviv Museum of Art entitled White City, International Style Architecture in Israel, Portrait of an Era, which continued to travel the world afterwards. In 1994, a conference took place at the UNESCO headquarters, entitled World Conference on the International Style in Architecture. In 1996, Tel Aviv's White City was listed as a World Monuments Fund endangered site. In 2003, UNESCO named Tel Aviv a World Heritage Site for its treasure of modern architecture.
One of the strengths of the International Style has been said to be that the design solutions were indifferent to location, site, and climate; the solutions were supposed to be universally applicable; the style made no reference to local history or national vernacular. This was soon identified as one of the style's primary weaknesses. Indeed, already at the same time as key "International Style" works were being built, some architects were already adapting it to local conditions. A key example is that of Finnish architect Alvar Aalto, the influential critic Sigfried Giedion saying that "Finland is with Aalto wherever he goes".
In the preface to the 2007 fourth edition of his book Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Kenneth Frampton argues that there has been a "disturbing Eurocentric bias" in received histories of modern architecture. This "Eurocentrism" includes the USA. So while, on the one hand, a number of key European avant-gardist architects would with the rise of Nazism, fleeing to England, Sweden, Palestine, Soviet Union and USA, there would also be "indigenous" modernist groups in Mexico, the Middle East, India, Central America, South America and Africa.
In Elizabeth Gordon's well-known 1953 essay, "The Threat to the Next America," she criticized the style and associated it with totalitarianism and communism. Best-selling American author Tom Wolfe wrote a book-length critique, From Bauhaus to Our House, portraying the style as elitist. More recently, the International Style has been disparaged as ugly, inhuman, and sterile. Academics such as Hugo Kükelhaus and practitioners such as Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown offered critiques which contributed to the rise of such counter-movements as postmodernism.
In 2006, Hugh Pearman, the British architectural critic of The Times, observed that those using the style today are simply "another species of revivalist", noting the irony. The negative reaction to internationalist modernism has been linked to public antipathy to overall development.
|Eileen Gray||E-1027||Cap Martin, France||1929|
|Alvar Aalto||Paimio Sanatorium||Turku, Finland||1930|
|Leendert van der Vlugt||Van Nelle Factory||Rotterdam||1926-1930|
|Joseph Emberton||Royal Corinthian Yacht Club||Essex||1931|
|Ove Arup||Labworth Café||Essex||1932-1933|
|Leendert van der Vlugt||Sonneveld House||Rotterdam||1932-1933|
|Oscar Stonorov and Alfred Kastner||Carl Mackley Houses||Philadelphia||1933-1934|
|Edvin Engström||Södra Ängby||Stockholm, Sweden||1933-1939|
|Neil & Hurd||Ravelston Garden||Edinburgh, Scotland||1936|
|Ludwig Mies van der Rohe||Farnsworth House||Illinois||1945-1951|
|Illinois Institute of Technology campus (including S. R. Crown Hall)||Chicago||1945-1960|
|860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments||Chicago||1949|
|Oscar Niemeyer, Le Corbusier, Harrison & Abramovitz||United Nations Building||New York City||1950s|
|Michael Scott||Busaras||Dublin, Ireland||1945-1953|
|Kemp, Bunch & Jackson||Aetna Building||Jacksonville||1955|
|Ron Phillips and Alan Fitch||City Hall, Hong Kong||Victoria City, Hong Kong||1956|
|John Bland||Old City Hall||Ottawa||1958|
|Emery Roth & Sons||10 Lafayette Square||Buffalo, New York,||1958-1959|
|Kelly & Gruzen||High School of Graphic Communication Arts||Manhattan, New York City||1959|
|Stanley Roscoe||Hamilton City Hall||Hamilton||1960|
|John Lautner||Chemosphere||Los Angeles||1960|
|I. M. Pei||Place Ville-Marie||Montreal||1962|
|Charles Luckman||Prudential Tower||Boston||1964|
|George Dahl||Elm Place||Dallas||1965|
|Ludwig Mies van der Rohe||Toronto-Dominion Centre||Toronto||1967|
|Skidmore, Owings & Merrill||Equitable Building||Atlanta||1968|
|Hermann Henselmann et al.||Berlin TV Tower||Berlin||1969|
|Michael Manser||Capel Manor House||Horsmonden||1971|
|Campeau Corporation||Place de Ville||Ottawa||1967-1972|
|Crang & Boake||Hudson's Bay Centre||Toronto||1974|
|Pedro Moctezuma Díaz Infante||Torre Ejecutiva Pemex||Mexico City||1982|