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The Japanese era name (?? neng?, "year name"), also known as geng? (??), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element, a number, counts the years since the era began; as in many other systems, there is no year zero. For example, the first year of the Heisei period was , or "Heisei 1," so the year 2017 CE in this scheme is "Heisei 29".
As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of neng? was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike some of these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.
The four era names used since the end of the Edo period in 1868 can be abbreviated by taking the first letter of their romanized names. For example, S55 means Sh?wa 55 (i.e. 1980), and H22 stands for Heisei 22 (2010). At 64 years, Sh?wa is the longest era to date.
|A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of Japanese era names
The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in AD 645, during the reign of Emperor K?toku.
The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (??), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (?????) of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697-707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.
Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new era name was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new era name was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmy?d?. These three years are respectively known as kakurei, kakuun, and kakumei, and collectively known as sankaku. Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.
In historical practice, the first day of a neng? (?? gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the neng?'s second year.
Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the neng? Wad? (??), during the Nara period, was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most neng? are composed of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpy? Kanp? (????), Tenpy? Sh?h? (????), Tenpy? H?ji (????) and Tenpy? Jingo (????) are some famous neng? names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daid? (??), K?nin (??) and Tench? (??). Although there currently exist a total of 247 Japanese era names, only 72 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 72 kanji, 30 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.
Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Kei? (??) era. On 23 October 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (??), and a "one reign, one era name" (???? issei-ichigen) system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming Dynasty. The Japanese neng? system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.
In modern practice, the first year of a neng? (?? gannen) starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on 31 December. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar.
For example, the Meiji era lasted until 30 July 1912, when the Emperor died and the Taish? (??) era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taish? 1" (???? Taish? gannen), although Meiji technically ended on 30 July with Mutsuhito's death.
This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (??? geng?-h?). Thus, since 1868, there have only been four era names assigned: Meiji, Taish?, Sh?wa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (???? Meiji Tenn?).
It should be noted that it is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor be referred to as Tenn? Heika (???? "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor") or Kinj? Tenn? (???? "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Heisei", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is--and will be--his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Akihito") is rare, considered as vulgar behaviour, in Japanese.
The era name system that was introduced by Emperor K?toku was abandoned after his death; no era names were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Tenmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death about two months later. In 701, Emperor Monmu once again reinstated the era name system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.
Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates became increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to era names. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of era names was resolved by identifying the years of an imperial reign as a period.
Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572--the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne - is properly written as "??????" (Bidatsu-Tenn? Gannen, lit. "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "????" (Bidatsu Gannen, lit. "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such. By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the neng? system to cover all dates from 660 BC through today.
In addition to the official era name system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes--primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples--unofficial era names called shineng? (???), also known as gineng? (???) or ineng? (???). Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shineng?, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shineng? used prior to the reestablishment of the era name system in 701 are usually called itsuneng? (???). A list of shineng? and more information can be seen in the Japanese language entry on ???.
Because official records of shineng? are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsuneng? Hakuh? (??) is normally said to refer to AD 650-654; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nich?reki, Hakuh? refers to AD 661-83, and in some middle-age temple documents, Hakuh? refers to AD 672-685. Thus, shineng? may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.
Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shikenobu proposed that Ky?sh? neng? (????), said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shineng?. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Ky?sh? neng? can be seen in the Japanese language entries ???? and ?????.