Javelin Throw
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Javelin Throw
German javelin thrower Thomas Röhler in 2011.
German javelin thrower Stephan Steding during the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Osaka, Japan.

The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon.

History

A scene depicting javelin throwers and other pentathletes. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 525 B.C. British Museum.

The javelin was part of the pentathlon of the Ancient Olympic Games beginning in 708 BC in two disciplines, distance and target throw. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong, called ankyle wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes would hold the javelin by the thong and when the javelin was released this thong unwound giving the javelin a spiraled flight.

Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, and throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s. The rules continued to evolve over the next decades; originally, javelins were thrown with no run-up, and holding them by the grip at the center of gravity was not always mandatory. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, and soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up.[1]:435-436

Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best (49.32 meters) in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.[1]:436,441[2]:478 When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by almost nine metres and broke his own world record; Sweden swept the first four places, as Finland's best throwers were absent and the event had yet to become popular in any other country.[1]:437 Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912; his eventual best mark (62.32 m, thrown after the 1912 Olympics) was the first javelin world record to be officially ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[1]:436-441[3]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed; the implement was thrown with the right hand and separately with the left hand, and the best marks for each hand were added together. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown.[2] At the Olympics a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912; Finland swept the medals, ahead of Lemming.[1]:441 After that, this version of the javelin rapidly faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus; Sweden's Yngve Häckner, with his total of 114.28 m from 1917, was the last official both-hands world record holder.[4]

Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory; such a freestyle competition was held at the 1908 Olympics, but was dropped from the program after that.[2]:478 Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip.[1]:440[5]:214

The first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909.[6] Originally, women threw the same implement as men; a lighter, shorter javelin for women was introduced in the 1920s. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932; Mildred "Babe" Didrikson of the United States became the first champion.[2]:479

For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood, typically birch, with a steel tip. The hollow, highly aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; the first Held javelins were also wooden with steel tips, but later models were made entirely of metal.[2]:478-479[6][7] These new javelins flew further, but were also less likely to land neatly point first; as a response to the increasingly frequent flat or ambiguously flat landings, experiments with modified javelins started in the early 1980s. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, and the world records (then 104.80 m by Uwe Hohn, and 80.00 m by Petra Felke) were reset.[8] The current (as of 2017) men's world record is held by Jan ?elezný at 98.48 m (1996); Barbora ?potáková holds the women's world record at 72.28 m (2008).

Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a currently recognized official Olympics, and has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin; in 1920 Finland swept the first four places, which is no longer possible as only three entrants per country are allowed. Finland has, however, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin.[2]:479

The javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s; the all-around, an earlier ten-event contest of American origin, did not include the javelin throw. The javelin was also part of some (though not all) of the many early forms of women's pentathlon, and has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981.[9]

Rules and competitions

The size, shape, minimum weight, and center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in and 8 ft 10 in) in length and 800 g (28 oz) in weight, and women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m (7 ft 3 in and 7 ft 7 in) in length and 600 g (21 oz) in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm (5.9 in) wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity (0.9 to 1.06 m (2 ft 11 in to 3 ft 6 in) from the javelin tip for the men's javelin and 0.8 to 0.92 m (2 ft 7 in to 3 ft 0 in) from the javelin tip for the women's javelin).

Matti Järvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Olympics

Unlike the other throwing events (shotput, discus, and hammer), the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are not permitted. The javelin must be held at its grip and thrown overhand, over the athlete's shoulder or upper arm. Further, the athlete is prohibited from turning completely around such that his back faces the direction of throw. In practice, this prevents athletes from attempting to spin and hurl the javelin sidearm in the style of a discus throw. This rule was put in place when a group of athletes began experimenting with a spin technique referred to as "free style". On October 24, 1956, Pentti Saarikoski threw 99.25 m (325 ft 7 in)[10] using the technique holding the end of the javelin. Officials were so afraid of the out of control nature of the technique that the practice was banned through these rule specifications.

Instead of being confined to a circle, javelin throwers have a runway 4 m (13 ft) wide and at least 30 m (98 ft) in length, ending in a curved arc from which their throw will be measured; athletes typically use this distance to gain momentum in a "run-up" to their throw. Like the other throwing events, the competitor may not leave the throwing area (the runway) until after the implement lands. The need to come to a stop behind the throwing arc limits both how close the athlete can come to the line before the release as well as the maximum speed achieved at the time of release.

The javelin is thrown towards a "sector" covering an angle of 28.96 degrees extending outwards from the arc at the end of the runway. A throw is legal only if the tip of the javelin lands within this sector, and the tip strikes the ground before any other part of the javelin. The distance of the throw is measured from the throwing arc to the point where the tip of the javelin landed, rounded down to the nearest centimeter.

Competition rules are similar to other throwing events: a round consists of one attempt by each competitor in turn, and competitions typically consist of three to six rounds. The competitor with the longest single legal throw (over all rounds) is the winner; in the case of a tie the competitors' second-longest throws are also considered. Competitions involving large numbers of athletes sometimes use a "cut": all competitors compete in the first three rounds, but only athletes who are currently among the top eight or have achieved some minimum distances are permitted to attempt to improve on their distance in additional rounds (typically three).

Javelin redesigns

Uwe Hohn (pictured in 1984) holds the "eternal world record" with a throw of 104.80 m as a new type of javelin was implemented in 1986.

On 1 April 1986, the men's javelin (800 grams (1.76 lb)) was redesigned by the governing body (the IAAF Technical Committee). They decided to change the rules for javelin design because of the increasingly frequent flat landings and the resulting discussions and protests when these attempts were declared valid or invalid by competition judges. The world record had also crept up to a potentially dangerous level, 104.80 m (343.8 ft) by Uwe Hohn. With throws exceeding 100 meters, it was becoming difficult to safely stage the competition within the confines of a stadium infield. The javelin was redesigned so that the centre of gravity was moved 4 cm (1.6 in) forward. In addition, the surface area in front of centre of gravity was reduced, while the surface area behind the centre of gravity was increased. This had an effect similar to that produced by the feathers on an arrow. The javelin turns into the relative wind. This relative wind appears to originate from the ground as the javelin descends, thus the javelin turns to face the ground. As the javelin turns into the wind less lift is generated, reducing the flight distance by around 10% but also causing the javelin to stick in the ground more consistently. In 1999, the women's javelin (600 grams (1.32 lb)) was similarly redesigned.[11]

Modifications that manufacturers made to recover some of the lost distance, by increasing tail drag (using holes, rough paint or dimples), were forbidden at the end of 1991 and marks made using implements with such modifications removed from the record books. Seppo Räty had achieved a world record of 96.96 m (318.1 ft) in 1991 with such a design, but this record was nullified.

Technique and training

Unlike other throwing events, javelin allows the competitor to build speed over a considerable distance. In addition to the core and upper body strength necessary to deliver the implement, javelin throwers benefit from the agility and athleticism typically associated with running and jumping events. Thus, the athletes share more physical characteristics with sprinters than with others, although they still need the skill of heavier throwing athletes.

Traditional free-weight training is often used by javelin throwers. Metal-rod exercises and resistance band exercises can be used to train a similar action to the javelin throw to increase power and intensity. Without proper strength and flexibility, throwers can become extremely injury prone, especially in the shoulder and elbow. Core stability can help in the transference of physical power and force from the ground through the body to the javelin. Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the speed of the javelin. At release, a javelin can reach speeds approaching 113 km/h (70 mph).

US high school and below

Due to the fear of liability, the javelin throw is not an event in NFHS high school competition in 36 states, though USATF youth competitions for the same aged athletes do hold javelin competitions.[12] At various points in time, high schools have attempted to create substitute events, including the softball throw, football throw[13] and the grenade throw,[14] throwing different objects under rules similar to javelin throw rules. In those states that do allow high school javelin competition, a few specify that the tip must be of rubber. Further, in age group track meets in the U.S., and in particular with elementary-school children in the Northeast, the Turbojav--a smaller plastic implement with a rubber tip but with similar flying characteristics as a real javelin--is a popular alternative.

Culture

A women's and a men's javelin

Javelin throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the EUR5 Finnish 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005 to commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. On the obverse of the coin, a javelin thrower is depicted. On the reverse, legs of hurdle runners with the Helsinki Olympic Stadium tower in the background can be seen.

All-time top 25 (current models)

Men

  • Correct as of August 2017.[15]
Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 98.48  Jan ?elezný (CZE) 25 May 1996 Jena
2 94.44  Johannes Vetter (GER) 11 July 2017 Lucerne [16]
3 93.90  Thomas Röhler (GER) 5 May 2017 Doha [17]
4 93.09  Aki Parviainen (FIN) 26 June 1999 Kuortane
5 92.72  Julius Yego (KEN) 26 August 2015 Beijing [18]
6 92.61  Sergey Makarov (RUS) 30 June 2002 Sheffield
7 92.60  Raymond Hecht (GER) 21 July 1995 Oslo
8 91.69  Konstadinós Gatsioúdis (GRE) 24 June 2000 Kuortane
9 91.59  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR) 2 June 2006 Oslo
10 91.53  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN) 26 June 2005 Kuortane
11 91.46  Steve Backley (GBR) 25 January 1992 Auckland [19]
12 91.36  Cheng Chao-tsun (TPE) 26 August 2017 Taipei [20]
13 91.29  Breaux Greer (USA) 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
14 91.07  Andreas Hofmann (GER) 26 August 2017 Taipei [20]
15 90.73  Vadims Vasilevskis (LAT) 22 July 2007 Tallinn
16 90.60  Seppo Räty (FIN) 20 July 1992 Nurmijärvi
17 90.44  Boris Henry (GER) 9 July 1997 Linz
18 90.16  Keshorn Walcott (TTO) 9 July 2015 Lausanne
19 89.73  Jakub Vadlejch (CZE) 12 August 2017 London [21]
20 89.21  Ihab Abdelrahman (EGY) 18 May 2014 Shanghai
21 89.16 A  Tom Petranoff (RSA) 1 March 1991 Potchefstroom [22]
22 89.15  Zhao Qinggang (CHN) 2 August 2014 Incheon
23 89.10  Patrik Boden (SWE) 24 March 1990 Austin
24 89.02  Jarrod Bannister (AUS) 29 February 2008 Brisbane
25 88.98  Antti Ruuskanen (FIN) 2 August 2015 Pori

Notes

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 91.04 m:

  • Jan ?elezný also threw 95.66 m (1993), 95.54 m (1993), 94.64 m (1996), 94.02 m (1997), 92.80 m (2001), 92.42 m (1997), 92.28 m (1995), 92.12 m (1995), 91.82 m (1994), 91.68 m (1994), 91.50 m (1994, 1996), 91.40 m (1993), 91.34 m (1997), 91.30 m (1995), 91.28 m (1994), 91.23 m (2001) and 91.04 m (1996).
  • Johannes Vetter also threw 93.88 m (2017), 93.06 m (2017), 91.67 m (2017), 91.20 m (2017) and 91.06 m (2017).
  • Aki Parviainen also threw 92.41 m (2001), 91.31 m (2001).
  • Raymond Hecht also threw 91.50 m (1996).
  • Julius Yego also threw 91.39 m (2015).
  • Tero Pitkämäki also threw 91.33 m (2005), 91.23 m (2007) and 91.11 m (2006).
  • Andreas Thorkildsen also threw 91.28 m (2009).
  • Thomas Röhler also threw 91.28 m (2016).
  • Konstadinos Gatsioudis also threw 91.27 m (2001) and 91.23 (2002).

Women

  • Correct as of August 2017.[23]
Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 72.28 m (237 ft 1 in)  Barbora ?potáková (CZE) 13 September 2008 Stuttgart
2 71.99 m (236 ft 2 in)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS) 2 September 2011 Daegu
3 71.70 m (235 ft 2 in)  Osleidys Menéndez (CUB) 14 August 2005 Helsinki
4 70.20 m (230 ft 3 in)  Christina Obergföll (GER) 23 June 2007 Munich
5 69.48 m (227 ft 11 in)  Trine Hattestad (NOR) 28 July 2000 Oslo
6 69.35 m (227 ft 6 in)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA) 9 June 2012 New York City
7 68.43 m (224 ft 6 in)  Sara Kolak (CRO) 6 July 2017 Lausanne [24]
8 68.34 m (224 ft 2 in)  Steffi Nerius (GER) 31 August 2008 Elstal
9 67.69 m (222 ft 0 in)  Katharina Molitor (GER) 30 August 2015 Beijing [25]
10 67.67 m (222 ft 0 in)  Sonia Bisset (CUB) 6 July 2005 Salamanca
11 67.59 m (221 ft 9 in)  Lü Huihui (CHN) 6 August 2017 London [26]
12 67.51 m (221 ft 5 in)  Miréla Manjani (GRE) 30 September 2000 Sydney
13 67.32 m (220 ft 10 in)  Linda Stahl (GER) 14 June 2014 New York City
14 67.30 m (220 ft 9 in)  Vera Rebrik (RUS) 19 February 2016 Adler [27]
15 67.29 m (220 ft 9 in)  Hanna Hatsko-Fedusova (UKR) 26 July 2014 Kirovohrad
16 67.21 m (220 ft 6 in)  Eda Tu?suz (TUR) 18 May 2017 Baku [28]
17 67.20 m (220 ft 5 in)  Tatyana Shikolenko (RUS) 18 August 2000 Monaco
18 67.16 m (220 ft 4 in)  Martina Ratej (SLO) 14 May 2010 Doha
19 67.11 m (220 ft 2 in)  Maria Andrejczyk (POL) 16 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [29]
20 66.91 m (219 ft 6 in)  Tanja Damaske (GER) 4 July 1999 Erfurt
21 66.83 m (219 ft 3 in)  Kimberley Mickle (AUS) 22 March 2014 Melbourne
22 66.80 m (219 ft 1 in)  Louise Currey (AUS) 5 August 2000 Gold Coast
23 66.67 m (218 ft 8 in)  Kara Winger (USA) 25 June 2010 Des Moines
24 66.47 m (218 ft 0 in)  Liu Shiying (CHN) 21 May 2017 Kawasaki [30]
25 66.41 m (217 ft 10 in)  Christin Hussong (GER) 19 June 2016 Kassel [31]

Notes

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 69.53 m:

All-time top 15 (old model)

Men

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 104.80  Uwe Hohn (GDR) 21 July 1984 Berlin
2 99.72  Tom Petranoff (USA) 15 May 1983 Westwood
3= 96.72  Ferenc Paragi (HUN) 23 April 1980 Tata
3= 96.72  Detlef Michel (GER) 9 June 1983 Berlin
5 95.80  Bob Roggy (USA) 29 August 1982 Stuttgart
6 95.10  Brian Crouser (USA) 5 August 1985 Eugene
7 94.58  Miklós Németh (HUN) 26 July 1976 Montreal
8 94.22  Michael Wessing (FRG) 3 August 1978 Oslo
9 94.20  Heino Puuste (EST) 5 June 1983 Birmingham
10 94.08  Klaus Wolfermann (FRG) 5 May 1973 Leverkusen
11 94.06  Duncan Atwood (USA) 26 July 1985 Eugene
12 93.90  Hannu Siitonen (FIN) 6 June 1983 Helsinki
13 93.84  Pentti Sinersaari (FIN) 27 January 1979 Auckland
14 93.80  J?nis L?sis (LAT) 6 July 1972 Stockholm
15 93.70  Viktor Yevsyukov (KAZ) 17 July 1985 Kiev

All-time top (Nemeth model 1990-1991)

Mark Athlete Date Location
89.66  Jan ?elezný (TCH) 14 July 1990 Oslo, Norway[3]
90.98  Steve Backley (GBR) 20 July 1990 London, England[3]
91.98  Seppo Räty (FIN) 6 May 1991 Shizuoka, Japan[3]
96.96  Seppo Räty (FIN) 2 June 1991 Punkalaidun, Finland[3]

Women

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 80.00  Petra Felke (GDR) 8 September 1988 Potsdam
2 77.44  Fatima Whitbread (GBR) 6 September 1986 Stuttgart
3 74.76  Tiina Lillak (FIN) 13 June 1983 Tampere
4 74.20  Sofia Sakorafa (GRE) 26 September 1982 Hania
5 73.58  Tessa Sanderson (GBR) 26 June 1983 Edinburgh
6 72.70  Anna Verouli (GRE) 20 May 1984 Hania
7 72.16  Antje Kempe (GDR) 5 May 1984 Celje
8 72.12  Trine Hattestad (NOR) 10 July 1993 Oslo
9 71.88  Antoaneta Todorova (BUL) 15 August 1981 Birmingham
10 71.82  Ivonne Leal (CUB) 30 August 1985 Leverkusen
11 71.40  Natalya Shikolenko (BLR) 5 June 1994 Sevilla
12 71.00  Silke Renk (GDR) 25 June 1988 Rostock
13 70.76  Beate Koch (GDR) 22 June 1989 Rostock
14 70.42  Zhang Li (CHN) 6 August 1990 Tianjin
15 70.20  Karen Forkel (GER) 9 May 1991 Halle

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1908 London
details
 Eric Lemming (SWE)  Arne Halse (NOR)  Otto Nilsson (SWE)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Eric Lemming (SWE)  Julius Saaristo (FIN)  Mór Kóczán (HUN)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Jonni Myyrä (FIN)  Urho Peltonen (FIN)  Pekka Johansson (FIN)
1924 Paris
details
 Jonni Myyrä (FIN)  Gunnar Lindström (SWE)  Eugene Oberst (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Erik Lundqvist (SWE)  Béla Szepes (HUN)  Olav Sunde (NOR)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Matti Järvinen (FIN)  Matti Sippala (FIN)  Eino Penttilä (FIN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Gerhard Stöck (GER)  Yrjö Nikkanen (FIN)  Kalervo Toivonen (FIN)
1948 London
details
 Tapio Rautavaara (FIN)  Steve Seymour (USA)  József Várszegi (HUN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Cy Young (USA)  Bill Miller (USA)  Toivo Hyytiäinen (FIN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Egil Danielsen (NOR)  Janusz Sid?o (POL)  Viktor Tsybulenko (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Viktor Tsybulenko (URS)  Walter Krüger (EUA)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Pauli Nevala (FIN)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)  J?nis L?sis (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 J?nis L?sis (URS)  Jorma Kinnunen (FIN)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Klaus Wolfermann (FRG)  J?nis L?sis (URS)  Bill Schmidt (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Miklós Németh (HUN)  Hannu Siitonen (FIN)  Gheorghe Megelea (ROU)
1980 Moscow
details
 Dainis K?la (URS)  Aleksandr Makarov (URS)  Wolfgang Hanisch (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Arto Härkönen (FIN)  David Ottley (GBR)  Kenth Eldebrink (SWE)
1988 Seoul
details
 Tapio Korjus (FIN)  Jan ?elezný (TCH)  Seppo Räty (FIN)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Jan ?elezný (TCH)  Seppo Räty (FIN)  Steve Backley (GBR)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Jan ?elezný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Seppo Räty (FIN)
2000 Sydney
details
 Jan ?elezný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2004 Athens
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Vadims Vasi?evskis (LAT)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Ain?rs Kovals (LAT)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)
2012 London
details
 Keshorn Walcott (TRI)  Antti Ruuskanen (FIN)  Vít?zslav Veselý (CZE)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Thomas Röhler (GER)  Julius Yego (KEN)  Keshorn Walcott (TTO)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Babe Didrikson (USA)  Ellen Braumüller (GER)  Tilly Fleischer (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Tilly Fleischer (GER)  Luise Krüger (GER)  Maria Kwa?niewska (POL)
1948 London
details
 Herma Bauma (AUT)  Kaisa Parviainen (FIN)  Lily Carlstedt (DEN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Dana Zátopková (TCH)  Aleksandra Chudina (URS)  Yelena Gorchakova (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Inese Jaunzeme (URS)  Marlene Ahrens (CHI)  Nadezhda Konyayeva (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Elv?ra Ozoli?a (URS)  Dana Zátopková (TCH)  Birut? Kal?dien? (URS)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Mihaela Pene? (ROU)  Márta Rudas (HUN)  Yelena Gorchakova (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Angéla Németh (HUN)  Mihaela Pene? (ROU)  Eva Janko (AUT)
1972 Munich
details
 Ruth Fuchs (GDR)  Jacqueline Todten (GDR)  Kate Schmidt (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Ruth Fuchs (GDR)  Marion Becker (FRG)  Kate Schmidt (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 María Caridad Colón (CUB)  Saida Gunba (URS)  Ute Hommola (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Tessa Sanderson (GBR)  Tiina Lillak (FIN)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Petra Felke (GDR)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Beate Koch (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Silke Renk (GER)  Natalya Shikolenko (EUN)  Karen Forkel (GER)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Heli Rantanen (FIN)  Louise McPaul (AUS)  Trine Hattestad (NOR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Trine Hattestad (NOR)  Mirela Maniani-Tzelili (GRE)  Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)
2004 Athens
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Steffi Nerius (GER)  Mirela Maniani (GRE)
2008 Beijing
details
 Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS)  Christina Obergföll (GER)
2012 London
details
 Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Linda Stahl (GER)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Sara Kolak (CRO)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA)  Barbora ?potáková (CZE)

World Championships medalists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Detlef Michel (GDR)  Tom Petranoff (USA)  Dainis K?la (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Seppo Räty (FIN)  Viktor Yevsyukov (URS)  Jan ?elezný (TCH)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN)  Seppo Räty (FIN)  Vladimir Sasimovich (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jan ?elezný (CZE)  Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN)  Mick Hill (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Jan ?elezný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Boris Henry (GER)
1997 Athens
details
 Marius Corbett (RSA)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)
1999 Seville
details
 Aki Parviainen (FIN)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)  Jan ?elezný (CZE)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Jan ?elezný (CZE)  Aki Parviainen (FIN)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Sergey Makarov (RUS)  Andrus Värnik (EST)  Boris Henry (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Andrus Värnik (EST)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2007 Osaka
details
 Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Breaux Greer (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Guillermo Martínez (CUB)  Yukifumi Murakami (JPN)
2011 Daegu
details
 Matthias de Zordo (GER)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Guillermo Martínez (CUB)
2013 Moscow
details
 Vít?zslav Veselý (CZE)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)  Dmitriy Tarabin (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Julius Yego (KEN)  Ihab Abdelrahman (EGY)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)
2017 London
details
 Johannes Vetter (GER)  Jakub Vadlejch (CZE)  Petr Frydrych (CZE)

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Tiina Lillak (FIN)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Anna Verouli (GRE)
1987 Rome
details
 Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Petra Felke-Meier (GDR)  Beate Peters (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Xu Demei (CHN)  Petra Felke-Meier (GER)  Silke Renk (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)  Karen Forkel (GER)  Natalya Shikolenko (BLR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Natalya Shikolenko (BLR)  Felicia ?ilea-Moldovan (ROU)  Mikaela Ingberg (FIN)
1997 Athens
details
 Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)  Joanna Stone (AUS)  Tanja Damaske (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Mirela Manjani-Tzelili (GRE)  Tatyana Shikolenko (RUS)  Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Mirela Manjani-Tzelili (GRE)  Sonia Bisset (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Mirela Maniani (GRE)  Tatyana Shikolenko (RUS)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2009 Berlin
details
 Steffi Nerius (GER)  Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Mariya Abakumova (RUS)  Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christina Obergföll (GER)  Kim Mickle (AUS)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Katharina Molitor (GER)  Lü Huihui (CHN)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA)
2017 London
details
 Barbora ?potáková (CZE)  Li Lingwei (CHN)  Lü Huihui (CHN)

Season's bests

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Jukola, Martti (1935). Huippu-urheilun historia (in Finnish). Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Kanerva, Juha; Tikander, Vesa. Urheilulajien synty (in Finnish). Teos. ISBN 9789518513455. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009" (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2009. pp. Pages 546, 559. Archived from the original (pdf) on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2009. 
  4. ^ Vélez Blasco, Miguel. "Part III: Llançaments - Tema 12 Javelina" (PDF) (in Catalan). Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya / Federació Catalana d'Atletisme. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Hymans, Richard; Matrahazi, Imre. "IAAF World Records Progression" (pdf) (2015 ed.). International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Javelin Throw - Introduction". IAAF. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. 
  7. ^ "Track: A Salute To The Javelin And Its Practitioners--One Of Whom, Bud Held, Is Showing Those Finns A Thing Or Two". Sports Illustrated. 6 June 1955. Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ Bremicher, Erick. "Why did the senior javelin specification have to be changed?". Retrieved 2015. 
  9. ^ IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, pp. 7-10.
  10. ^ Pentti Saarikosk
  11. ^ "Physics: Javelin Designs, what's the significance? - World of Javelin". worldofjavelin.com. 
  12. ^ http://www.usatf.org/groups/officials/files/resources/field-events/officiating-the-throws-usatf-monograph.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.cifss.org/admin/images/history_corner/32footballthrowintrack.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.cifss.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/46grenadethrow.pdf
  15. ^ "All-time men's best Javelin throw". alltime-athletics.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  16. ^ "Javelin Throw Results". spitzenleichtathletik.ch. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  17. ^ "Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  18. ^ "Javelin Throw Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  19. ^ British Athletics. "British Athletics Official WebsiteSteve Backley". britishathletics.org.uk. 
  20. ^ a b "UNIVERSIADE: Taiwan's Cheng wins record-breaking gold in javelin". focustaiwan.tw. 26 August 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  21. ^ "Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). IAAF. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  22. ^ "IAAF: Javelin Throw - men - senior - outdoor - iaaf.org". iaaf.org. 
  23. ^ "All-time women's best Javelin throw". alltime-athletics.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  24. ^ "Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  25. ^ "Women's Javelin Throw Results". IAAF. 30 August 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  26. ^ "Javelin Throw Qualification Results" (PDF). IAAF. 6 August 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  27. ^ "All-time women's best javelin throw". alltime-athletics.com. 19 February 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  28. ^ "Women's Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). baku2017results.azureedge.net. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  29. ^ "Women's Javelin Throw - Qualification Round Group B Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  30. ^ "Javelin Throw Results". IAAF. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  31. ^ "Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 2016. 

External links


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