Jiaqing Emperor
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Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
?  .jpg
Prince Jia of the First Rank
()
Reign1789-1796
6th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Reign9 February 1796 - 2 September 1820
PredecessorQianlong Emperor
SuccessorDaoguang Emperor
RegentQianlong Emperor (1796-1799)
BornAisin Gioro Yongyan
(? )
(1760-11-13)13 November 1760
( )
Old Summer Palace
Died2 September 1820(1820-09-02) (aged 59)
( ?)
Chengde Mountain Resort
BurialChang Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Consorts
Empress Xiaoshurui
(m. 1774; died 1797)

Empress Xiaoherui (m. 1790-1820)
IssuePrincess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank
Daoguang Emperor
Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank
Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank
Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank
Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank
Full name
Aisin Gioro Yongyan
(? )
Manchu: Yong yan ( )
Era dates
Jiaqing
(; 9 February 1796 - 2 February 1821)
Manchu: Saicungga feng?en ( )
Mongolian? ( )
Posthumous name
Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui
(?)
Manchu: Sunggiyen h?wangdi (
?
)
Temple name
Renzong
()
Manchuindzung ()
HouseAisin Gioro
FatherQianlong Emperor
MotherEmpress Xiaoyichun

The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 - 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

Early years

Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (), was later changed to "Yongyan" () when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common ? to the less common ?. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.

The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (; or simply "Prince Jia").

Accession to the throne

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 61 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication.

After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates.

At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796-1804) and Miao (1795-1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined.

Court intrigues and incidents

Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice - in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.[1][2][3]

Renaming Vietnam

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Vi?t. He changed the name instead to Vi?t Nam.[4] Gia Long's i Nam th?c l?c contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[5]

Opposition to Christianity

The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys.[6]

Chinese nobility

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi (?; W?j?ng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.[7][8][9][10]

Death and burial

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (?), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor.

Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Chang (?; lit. "splendid") mausoleum complex.

Family

  • Parents:
    • Hongli, Gaozong ( ; 25 September 1711 - 7 February 1799)
    • Empress Xiaoyichun, of the Weigiya clan ( ; 23 October 1727 - 28 February 1775)
      ->->->->
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Empress Xiaoshurui, of the Hitara clan ( ?; 2 October 1760 - 5 March 1797)
    ->
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 June 1780 - 6 September 1783), second daughter
    2. Minning, Xuanzong ( ; 16 September 1782 - 26 February 1850), second son
    3. Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank (; 20 October 1784 - 27 June 1811), fourth daughter
    4. Miscarriage at three months (18 August 1785)
  2. Empress Xiaoherui, of the Niohuru clan ( ?; 20 November 1776 - 23 January 1850)
    ->->->..
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 August 1793 - July/August 1795), seventh daughter
    2. Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank (? ; 6 August 1795 - 18 January 1838), third son
    3. Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank (? ; 9 March 1805 - 27 September 1828), fourth son
  3. Imperial Noble Consort Heyu, of the Liugiya clan ( ; 9 January 1761 - 27 April 1834)
    ->->..
    1. Prince Mu of the Second Rank (; 4 February 1779 - 10 April 1780), first son
    2. Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank (; 14 January 1782 - 4 April 1811), third daughter
  4. Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun, of the Niohuru clan ( ?; 28 May 1787 - 23 April 1860)
    ->->..->?
    1. Unnamed daughter (8 March 1805 - December 1805 or January 1806), eighth daughter
    2. Princess Huimin of the First Rank (; 18 February 1811 - June/July 1815), ninth daughter
    3. Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank (? ; 8 March 1814 - 9 January 1865), fifth son
  5. Consort Shu, of the Wanyan clan ( )
  6. Consort Hua, of the Hougiya clan ( ; d. 3 August 1804)
    ->->
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 August 1789 - 1790), sixth daughter
  7. Consort Zhuang, of the Wanggiya clan ( ; d. 9 March 1811)
    ->->->->
  8. Consort Xin, of the Liugiya clan ( ; d. 26 November 1822)
    ->..
  9. Concubine Jian, of the Guan clan ( ; d. 14 May 1780)
    1. Unnamed daughter (14 May 1780 - 24 November 1783), first daughter
  10. Concubine Xun, of the Shen clan ( )
    1. Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank (; 31 December 1786 - June/July 1795), fifth daughter
  11. Concubine Chun, of the Donggiya clan ( ; d. 30 November 1819)
    ->
  12. Concubine Rong, of the Liang clan ( ; d. 15 June 1826)
    ->..
  13. Concubine En, of the Uya clan ( ; 21 October 1791 - 7 March 1846)
    ..
  14. Concubine An, of the G?walgiya clan ( ?; 1 March 1785 - 29 July 1837)
    ..

In fiction and popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved .
  2. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 27. American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1896. p. 242. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Woodside 1971, p. 120.
  5. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67-. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8.
  6. ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao). 1818. p. 1084.
  8. ^ [Wang Shizhen] (3 September 2014). ? [Chi Bei Ou Tan]. [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT.
  9. ^ [Xu, Xilin]; [Qian, Yong] (10 September 2014). ? [Xi Chao Xin Yu]. [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF.
  10. ^ Brunnert, H. S.; Hagelstrom, V. V. (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493-94. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.
  •  This article incorporates text from China in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 27, a publication from 1896 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China, by Robert Samuel Maclay, a publication from 1861 now in the public domain in the United States.
Jiaqing Emperor
Born: 13 November 1760 Died: 2 September 1820
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Qianlong Emperor
Emperor of China
1796-1820
Succeeded by
The Daoguang Emperor


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Jiaqing_Emperor
 



 

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