Jiaqing Emperor
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Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
?  .jpg
7th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Reign 9 February 1796 - 2 September 1820
Coronation 9 February 1796
Predecessor Qianlong Emperor
Successor Daoguang Emperor
Regent Qianlong Emperor (1796-1799)
Born (1760-11-13)13 November 1760
Old Summer Palace, Beijing, Qing dynasty, China
Died 2 September 1820(1820-09-02) (aged 59)
Chengde Summer Palace, Zhili, Qing dynasty, China
Burial Changling, Western Qing Tombs, Yi County, Baoding, Hebei Province, China
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Yongyan (?·), later Yongyan ()
Manchu: Yong Yan ( )
Era name and dates
Chinese? (Ji?qìng)
Manchu: saicungga feng?en

Mongolian:
: 1796-1821
Posthumous name
Emperor Shòuti?n Xìngyùn F?huà Su?yóu Chóngwén J?ngw? Gu?ngyù Xiàog?ng Qínji?n Du?nm?n Y?ngzhé Ruì
?
Manchu: sunggiyen h?wangdi (
?
)
Temple name
Chinese: Rénz?ng ()
Manchuindzung ()
House Aisin Gioro
Father Qianlong Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaoyichun

The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 - 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

Jiaqing Emperor
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Mongolian name
Mongolian
?
Manchu name
Manchu script

?
Romanization

Early years

Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (), was later changed to "Yongyan" () when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common ? to the less common ?. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.

The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (; or simply "Prince Jia").

Accession to the throne

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 60 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" (Chinese?; Manchu: saicungga feng?en) in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication.

After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates.

At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796-1804) and Miao (1795-1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined.

Court intrigues and incidents

Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice - in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.[1][2][3]

Renaming Vietnam

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Vi?t. He changed the name instead to Vi?t Nam.[4] Gia Long's i Nam th?c l?c contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[5]

Opposition to Christianity

The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys.[6]

Chinese nobility

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi (?; W?j?ng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.[7][8][9][10]

Death and burial

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (?), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor.

Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Changling (; lit. "splendid tomb") mausoleum complex.

Family

Spouses

Empresses

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress Xiaoshu Rui
Lady Hitara
?
2 Oct 1760 5 Mar 1797 Horchingo, third class Duke of Cheng'en
Lady Wanggiya
1780: 2. daughter
1782: 2. Xuanzong
1784: 4. Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank
Married Renzong as primary consort () in 1774
Empress from 1796
Empress Xiaohe Rui
Lady Niohuru
?
1776 1850 Gong'ala, secretary of the Ministry of Rites
?
unknown 1793: 7. daughter
1795: 3. Prince Ke of Dun of the First Rank
1805: 4. Prince Huai of Rui of the First Rank
Secondary consort ()
Noble Consort () from 1796
Imperial Noble Consort () from 1797
Empress from 1801
Empress Dowager Gongci () from 1820

Imperial Noble Consorts

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes
Imperial Noble Consort Heyu
Lady Liugiya
9 Jan 1761 27 Apr 1834 Liu Fuming, baitang'a
1779: 1. Prince Mu of the Second Rank
1781: 3. Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank
Secondary consort ()
Consort Xian () from 1796
Noble Consort Xian () from 1808
Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi () from 1820
Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun
Lady Niohuru
?
1787 23 Apr 1860 Shanqing, managerial official
?
1805: 8. daughter
1811: 9. Princess Huimin of the First Rank
1814: 5. Prince Duan of Hui of the First Rank
Noble Lady Ru () from 1801
Imperial Concubine Ru () from 1805
Consort Ru () from 1810
Noble Consort Ru () from 1820
Imperial Noble Consort Ru (?) from 1846

Consorts

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes
Consort Shu
Lady Wanyan
unknown unknown Hafeng'a, qingche duwei
?
none Secondary consort ()
Posthumously honoured in 1797
Consort Hua
Lady Hougiya
c.1771 1804 Taozhu
1789: 6. daughter Ordinary consort ()
Imperial Concubine Ying () from 1796
Consort Hua from 1801
Consort Zhuang
Lady Wanggiya
unknown 1811 Yilibu
none Ordinary consort ()
First Class Female Attendant Chun () from 1796
Noble Lady Chun () from 1798
Imperial Concubine Ji () from 1801
Consort Zhuang from 1808
Consort Xin
Lady Liugiya
unknown 1822 Benzhi, general
?
none Noble Lady Xin ()
Imperial Concubine Xin () from 1808
Consort Xin from 1820

Imperial Concubines

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes
Imperial Concubine Jian
Lady Guan
c.1762 1780 Decheng, baitang'a
1780: 1. daughter Ordinary consort ()
Posthumously honoured in 1797
Imperial Concubine Xun
Lady Shen
c.1768 unknown Yonghe, zhixian
1786: 5. Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank Ordinary consort ()
Posthumously honoured in 1797
Imperial Concubine Chun
Lady Donggiya
unknown 1819 Shitai, executive bureau store officer
none Noble Lady Chun ()
Imperial Concubine Chun from 1801
Imperial Concubine Rong
Lady Liang
unknown 1826 Guangbao, yuanwailang
none Ordinary consort ()
First Class Female Attendant Rong () from 1796
Noble Lady Rong ()
Imperial Concubine Rong from 1820
Imperial Concubine En
Lady Uya
unknown 1846 Wanming, yushi
?
none Noble Lady En ()
Imperial Concubine En from 1820
Imperial Concubine An
Lady Suwan-G?walgiya
?
1785 1837 unknown none First Class Female Attendant An ()
Imperial Concubine An from 1820

Issue

Sons

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Prince Mu of the Second Rank
4 Feb 1779 10 Apr 1780 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu Died in infancy
Posthumously honoured in 1820
2 Xuanzong
Mianning, Minning
,
16 Sep 1782 26 Feb 1850 Empress Xiaoshu Rui Granted the title Prince Zhi of the First Rank () in 1813
Became Emperor () in 1820
3 Prince Ke of Dun of the First Rank
?
Miankai
6 Aug 1795 18 Jan 1838 Empress Xiaohe Rui Granted the title Prince Dun of the Second Rank () in 1819
Promoted to Prince Dun of the First Rank in 1821
Demoted to Prince Dun of the Second Rank in 1827 and restored in 1828
Demoted and restored in 1838
4 Prince Huai of Rui of the First Rank
?
Mianxin
3 Feb 1805 1828 Granted the title Prince Rui of the First Rank in 1819
5 Prince Duan of Hui of the First Rank
?
Mianyu
8 Mar 1814 9 Jan 1865 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun Granted the title Prince Hui of the Second Rank () in 1820
Promoted to Prince Hui of the First Rank in 1839

Daughters

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 unknown 1780 1783 Imperial Concubine Jian none none Died young
2 unknown 1780 1783 Empress Xiaoshu Rui none none Died young
3 Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank
unknown 1781 1811 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu 1801: Suotenamuduobujiof Khorchin
((?)
4 Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank
unknown 1784 1811 Empress Xiaoshu Rui 1802: Borjigit Manibadala
(o)
Granted the title Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank in 1802
5 Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank
unknown 1786 1795 Imperial Concubine Xun none none Died young
Posthumously honoured in 1818
6 unknown 1789 1790 Consort Hua none none Died in infancy
7 unknown 1793 1795 Empress Xiaohe Rui none none Died young
8 unknown 1805 1805 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun none none Died in infancy
9 Princess Huimin of the First Rank
unknown 1811 1815 none none Died young
Posthumously honoured in 1820

Ancestry

See also

References

  •  This article incorporates text from China in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 27, a publication from 1896 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China, by Robert Samuel Maclay, a publication from 1861 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 27. American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1896. p. 242. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ Woodside 1971, p. 120.
  5. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67-. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8. 
  6. ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao). 1818. p. 1084. 
  8. ^ [Wang Shizhen] (3 September 2014). ? [Chi Bei Ou Tan]. [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT. 
  9. ^ [Xu, Xilin]; [Qian, Yong] (10 September 2014). ? [Xi Chao Xin Yu]. [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF. 
  10. ^ Brunnert, H. S.; Hagelstrom, V. V. (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493-94. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9. 
Jiaqing Emperor
Born: 13 November 1760 Died: 2 September 1820
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Qianlong Emperor
Emperor of China
1796-1820
Succeeded by
The Daoguang Emperor

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Jiaqing_Emperor
 



 

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