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In Evolution and Literary Theory, the first book in the field of evolutionary literary studies, Carroll used evolutionary biology to construct a theory of literature that would serve as an alternative to poststructuralist theories. He rejected two key poststructuralist ideas: textualism (the world made of words) and indeterminancy (the self-subverting character of "discourse"). In the essays collected in Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature and Literature, Carroll explored the emerging field of literary Darwinism; worked toward building a comprehensive model of human nature; critiqued poststructuralism, traditional humanism, ecocriticism, cognitive rhetoric, and narrow-school evolutionary psychology; and offered examples of practical Darwinist criticism. In a second volume of essays, Reading Human Nature, Carroll examined the adaptive function of literature and the other arts; offered Darwinist interpretations of The Picture of Dorian Gray, Wuthering Heights, and Hamlet; gave examples of quantitative literary analysis; and reflected on the course of intellectual history from Darwin to the present. In Graphing Jane Austen, Carroll and colleagues applied empirical methods--an Internet survey of reader responses--to an evolutionary analysis of British nineteenth century fiction. Carroll produced an edition of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, co-edited volumes 1 and 2 of The Evolutionary Review, and co-edited Evolution, Literature, and Film: A Reader.