Juice
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Juice
A glass of orange juice

Juice is a beverage made from the extraction or pressing out of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with these or other biological food sources such as meat and seafood (e.g., clam juice). Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, such as smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods allowed for its preservation without using fermentation (the approach used with wine production).[1] The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated the total world production of citrus fruit juices to be 12,840,318 tonnes in 2012.[2] The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand (nearly a cup, or 8 ounces, each day) and Colombia (more than three quarters of a cup each day). Fruit juice consumption on average increased with country income level.[3] To the American food industry, fruit juice is more profitable than only fruit.[4]

Etymology

Fruit juice being used in the preparation of a smoothie.

The word "juice" comes from Old French in about 1300; it developed from the Old French words "jus, juis, jouis", which mean "liquid obtained by boiling herbs".[5] The "Old French jus "juice, sap, liquid" (13c.)...[came] from Latin ius [which means] "broth, sauce, juice, soup," from PIE root *yeue- "to blend, mix food" (cognates: Sanskrit yus- "broth," Greek zyme "a leaven," Old Church Slavonic jucha "broth, soup," Russian: "ukha", Lithuanian: juse "fish soup")."[5] The use of the word "juice" to mean"the watery part of fruits or vegetables" was first recorded in the early 14th century.[5] Since the 19th century, the term "juice" has also been used in a figurative sense (e.g., to mean alcohol or electricity). Today, "au jus" refers to meat served along with its own juice, commonly as a gravy.

Preparation

Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating (sometimes referred to as cold pressed[6]) fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, and tomato juice is the liquid that results from pressing the fruit of the tomato plant. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruit and vegetables using a variety of hand or electric juicers. Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. Additives are put in some juices, such as sugar and artificial flavours (in some fruit juice-based beverages); savoury seasonings (e.g., in Clamato or Caesar tomato juice drinks). Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include canning, pasteurization, concentrating,[7]freezing, evaporation and spray drying.

Although processing methods vary between juices, the general processing method of juices includes:[8]

  • Washing and sorting
  • Juice extraction
  • Straining, filtration and clarification
  • Blending pasteurisation
  • Filling, sealing and sterilization
  • Cooling, labeling and packing.

After the fruits are picked and washed, the juice is extracted by one of two automated methods. In the first method, two metal cups with sharp metal tubes on the bottom cup come together, removing the peel and forcing the flesh of the fruit through the metal tube. The juice of the fruit then escapes through small holes in the tube. The peels can then be used further, and are washed to remove oils, which are reclaimed later for usage. The second method requires the fruits to be cut in half before being subjected to reamers, which extract the juice.[9]

After the juice is filtered, it may be concentrated in evaporators, which reduce the size of juice by a factor of 5, making it easier to transport and increasing its expiration date. Juices are concentrated by heating under a vacuum to remove water, and then cooling to around 13 degrees Celsius. About two thirds of the water in a juice is removed.[8] The juice is then later reconstituted, in which the concentrate is mixed with water and other factors to return any lost flavor from the concentrating process. Juices can also be sold in a concentrated state, in which the consumer adds water to the concentrated juice as preparation.[9]

Juices are then pasteurized and filled into containers, often while still hot. If the juice is poured into a container while hot, it is cooled as quickly as possible. Packages that cannot stand heat require sterile conditions for filling. Chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide can be used to sterilize containers.[9] Plants can make anywhere from 1 to 20 tonnes a day.[8]

Processing

A variety of packaged juices in a supermarket.

High intensity pulsed electric fields are being used as an alternative to heat pasteurization in fruit juices. Heat treatments sometimes fail to make a quality, microbiological stable products.[10] However, it was found that processing with high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) can be applied to fruit juices to provide a shelf stable and safe product.[10] In addition, it was found that pulsed electric fields provide a fresh-like and high nutrition value product.[10] Pulsed electric field processing is a type of nonthermal method for food preservation.[11]

Pulsed electric fields use short pulses of electricity to inactivate microbes. In addition, the use of PEF results in minimal detrimental effects on the quality of the food.[12] Pulse electric fields kill microorganisms and provide better maintenance of the original colour, flavour, and nutritional value of the food as compared to heat treatments.[12] This method of preservation works by placing two electrodes between liquid juices then applying high voltage pulses for microseconds to milliseconds.[12] The high voltage pulses are of intensity in the range of 10 to 80 kV/cm.[12]

Processing time of the juice is calculated by multiplying the number of pulses with the effective pulse duration.[12] The high voltage of the pulses produce an electric field that results in microbial inactivation that may be present in the juice.[12] The PEF temperatures are below that of the temperatures used in thermal processing.[12] After the high voltage treatment, the juice is aseptically packaged and refrigerated.[12] Juice is also able to transfer electricity due to the presence of several ions from the processing.[12] When the electric field is applied to the juice, electric currents are then able to flow into the liquid juice and transferred around due to the charged molecules in the juice.[12] Therefore, pulsed electric fields are able to inactivate microorganisms, extend shelf life, and reduce enzymatic activity of the juice while maintaining similar quality as the original, fresh pressed juice.[12]

Terminology

Sweet lime juice and pomegranate juice.

In the United Kingdom the name or names of the fruit followed by juice can only legally be used to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice, as required by the Fruit Juices and Fruit Nectars (England) Regulations[13] and the Fruit Juices & Fruit Nectars (Scotland) Regulations 2003.[14] However, a juice made by reconstituting concentrate can be called juice. A product described as fruit "nectar" must contain at least 25% to 50% juice, depending on the fruit. A juice or nectar including concentrate must state that it does. The term "juice drink" is not defined in the Regulations and can be used to describe any drink which includes juice, however little.[15] Comparable rules apply in all EU member states in their respective languages.

In the US fruit juice can only legally be used to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice. A blend of fruit juice(s) with other ingredients, such as high-fructose corn syrup, is called a juice cocktail or juice drink.[16] According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the term "nectar" is generally accepted in the US and in international trade for a diluted juice to denote a beverage that contains fruit juice or puree, water, and which may contain artificial sweeteners.[17] "No added sugar" is commonly printed on labels of juice containers, but the products may contain large amounts of naturally occurring sugars;[18][19] however, sugar content is listed with other carbohydrates on labels in many countries.

Depending on trends and regulations, beverages listed as 100% juice may actually contain unlisted additives. For example, most orange juice contains added ethyl butyrate (for flavor, rarely mentioned), ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, usually mentioned), and water (if from concentrate, though technically a re-addition).

When a fruit's juice is too sour, acidic, or rich to consume, it's often diluted with water and sugar to create an ade (such as lemonade, limeade, cherryade, and orangeade). The ade suffix may also refer to any sweetened, fruit-flavored drink, whether or not it actually contains any juice.

Health effects

Fresh fruit juices alongside the fruits used to prepare them.
Advertisers often urge parents to buy juice for their children.

Juices are often consumed for their perceived health benefits. For example, orange juice contains vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and phytochemicals.[20] However many fruit juices have a higher sugar (fructose) for example with grape juice having 50% more sugar than Coca-Cola.[21]

Evidence for fruit juice affecting the rate of cancer is unclear.[22]

Some fruit juices have filtered out the dietary fiber present in the fruit. In other cases, other ingredients are added.[23]High-fructose corn syrup, an ingredient in many juice cocktails, has been linked to the increased incidence of type II diabetes. High consumption of juice is also linked to weight gain in some studies,[24][25] but not in others.[26] Fruit juice can help meet the daily recommendations for fruit consumption.[27]

Cranberry juice

Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections.[28] A Cochrane review concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small.[29] Long-term tolerance is also an issue[29] with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%.[30] Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication.[29]

Negative effects

The American Academy of Pediatrics as of 2017 says that fruit juice should not be given children under a year of age due to the lack of nutritional benefit.[31] For children ages 1 to 6, intake of fruit juice should be limited to less than 4 to 6 ounces per day (about a half to three-quarters of a cup).[31] Giving children excessive juice can lead to poor nutrition, diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, bloating, and tooth decay.[32][33]

Frequent consumption of fruits and fruit juice causes dental decay, and may be a greater factor in the development of dental caries (cavities) than eating candy.[34] Fruit juice causes dental decay because it naturally contains acids, which chemically dissolve the enamel of the surface of the tooth, and sugars that the bacteria in the mouth ferment to create even more tooth-destroying acids.[34]

Longitudinal prospective cohort studies conducted at Harvard showed a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes when juices were consumed compared to whole fruits, which significantly reduced the risk.[35] Fruit juice has also been linked to childhood obesity. The American Journal of Public Health proposed that the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 in the United States eliminate 100% fruit juices since it has been linked to childhood obesity, and substitute instead with whole fruits.[36]

Since juices do not contain fiber from the fruits, many further benefits are therefore negated found in whole fruits instead. Furthermore, most polyphenols are bound to the plant fibers and constitute the major portion of dietary phytonutrients.[37][38] There is therefore a reduction in nutritional benefit from consuming fruit juice compared to the consumption of whole fruits.

Amount consumed

The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand (nearly a cup, or 8 ounces, each day) and Colombia (more than three quarters of a cup each day). Fruit juice consumption on average increased with country income level.[3]

Fruit juice consumption overall in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the US has increased in recent years.[39]

Juice bars

A juice bar is an establishment that primarily serves prepared juice beverages such as freshly squeezed or extracted fruit juices, juice blends, fruit smoothies (a thick fruit drink, often iced), or other juices such as fresh wheatgrass juice. Sometimes other solid ingredients or nutritional supplements may be added as boosters, such as fresh bananas, eggs, nuts or nut butter, bodybuilding supplements, soy protein powder or others such as whey or hemp protein powders, wheat germ, or Spirulina (dietary supplement) or Chlorella. Also if less juice is used with these same ingredients drinks called health shakes may be produced.

Juice bars share some of the characteristics of a coffeehouse, a soda fountain, a café, and a snack bar, such as providing blended drinks and light food. Juice bars may be standalone businesses in cities, or located at gyms, along commuter areas, near lunch time areas, at beaches, and at tourist attractions. In Mexico, juice bars have become more popular in the 2000s. Mexican juice bars will often sell healthy beverages and snacks.

Chains

History

Groups of grape pits dated to 8000 BCE show early evidence of juice production; although it is thought that the grapes may have been alternatively used to produce wine.[40] One of the first regularly produced juices was lemonade, appearing in 16th century Italy, as an import, after its conception in the Middle East. Orange juice originated in the 17th century. In the 18th Century, James Lind linked citrus fruits to the prevention of scurvy, which, a century later, lead to the implementation of the Merchant Shipping Act of 1867, requiring all Ocean-bound British ships to carry citrus-based juice on board.[40]

In 1869, a dentist by the name Thomas B. Welch developed a pasteurization method that allowed for the storage of juice, without the juice fermenting into alcohol. His method involved filtering squeezed grape juice into bottles, sealing them with cork and wax, and then placing them in boiling water. This method kills the yeast responsible for fermentation. He then sold his new product as "Dr Welch's Unfermented Wine".[41] In late 18th century United States, circulation of foreign fruit juices were heavily regulated by tariffs. The McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 increased import takes from 38 to 49.5 percent, and set taxes on fruit juices based on the alcohol content of the drink. Juices with 18% or less alcohol were taxed 60 cents per gallon, while anything above 18% was taxed $2.50 per proof gallon.[1]

Figurative uses

The use of the word "juice" to mean "liquor" (alcohol) is from 1828.[5] The use of the term "juice" to mean "electricity" dates from 1896.[5] As a verb, the word "juice" was first recorded as meaning "to enliven" in 1964.[5] The adjective "juiced" is recorded as meaning "drunk" in 1946 and in 2003 "enhanced or as if enhanced by steroids".[5] The adjective "juicy" has meant "succulent" since the 15th century (e.g., a juicy roast beef).[5] The figurative meaning "wealthy, full of some desired quality" dates from the 1620s[5] (e.g., a pirate calling a heavily laden ship he aims to plunder a "juicy catch"). The meaning "lively, suggestive, racy, sensational" (e.g., a juicy scandal) is from 1883.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ryan A. Ward (2011-05-01). "A Brief History of Fruit and Vegetable Juice Regulation in the United States" (PDF). Works.bepress.com. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ "Faostat". Faostat.fao.org. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ a b Singh, Gitanjali M., et al. "Global, regional, and national consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, and milk: a systematic assessment of beverage intake in 187 countries." PLoS ONE 10.8 (2015): e0124845.
  4. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/22/opinion/fruit-juice-pediatrician-guidelines.html?_r=0
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2017. 
  6. ^ "Juicer Types: The Difference Between Cold Press Juicers vs. Centrifugal Juice Extractors". Huffingtonpost.com. 2013-02-08. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ "Understanding Concentrated Juice". 
  8. ^ a b c "Fruit Juice Processing, Fruit Juice Powder Plant, Fruit Juice Processing Plant, Juice Powder Plant". sspindia.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c "How orange juice is made - production process, making, used, processing, product, industry, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of orange juice, Byproducts/Waste, Quality Control". madehow.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c Toepfl, S.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D. (1 June 2007). "High intensity pulsed electric fields applied for food preservation". Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 46 (6): 537-546. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2006.07.011 - via ScienceDirect. 
  11. ^ "Advances in Food Process Engineering Research and Applications". Food Engineering Series. Springer. 2013. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7906-2. ISBN 978-1-4614-7905-5. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mohamed, M.E.A., & Eissa, A.H.A. (2012). Pulsed Electric Fields for Food Processing Technology. In A.A. Eissa (Ed.), Structure and Function of Food Engineering (pp. 275-280). Retrieved from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/38363.pdf
  13. ^ "Fruit Juices and Fruit Nectars (England) Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved . 
  14. ^ "Fruit Juices & Fruit Nectars (Scotland) Regulations 2003" (PDF). Retrieved . 
  15. ^ "Parents beware: Juice in juice drinks costs up to £34 $10 per litre!". Health78.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-09. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ "The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Sec. 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "FDA Juice HACCP Regulation: Questions & Answers". Web.archive.org. 2003-09-04. Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ "Canadian Food Inspection Agency: Criteria for the Nutrient Content Claim No Added Sugars". Inspection.gc.ca. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Juice and sweet drinks - children". State Government of Victoria. Retrieved 2014. 
  20. ^ Franke, AA; Cooney, RV; Henning, SM; Custer, LJ (2005). "Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of orange juice components in humans". J Agric Food Chem. 53 (13): 5170-8. doi:10.1021/jf050054y. PMC 2533031 Freely accessible. PMID 15969493. 
  21. ^ "Just What Is The Sugar Content Of Fruit Juice". Hookedonjuice.com. 2006-10-02. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ Hyson, DA (January 2015). "A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health". Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.). 6 (1): 37-51. PMID 25593142. 
  23. ^ Norris, Jeffrey (2009-06-25). "Sugar Is a Poison, Says UCSF Obesity Expert". Ucsf.edu. Retrieved . 
  24. ^ Myles S. Faith; Barbara A. Dennison; Lynn S. Edmunds; Howard H. Stratton (2006-07-27). "Fruit Juice Intake Predicts Increased Adiposity Gain in Children From Low-Income Families: Weight Status-by-Environment Interaction". American Academy of Pediatrics. 
  25. ^ Andrea M Sanigorski; A Colin Bell; Boyd A Swinburn (2006-07-04). "Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren". Public Health Nutrition. 10 (2): 152-157. doi:10.1017/s1368980007246634. 
  26. ^ O'Neil, CE; Nicklas, TA; Kleinman, R (Mar 2010). "Relationship between 100% juice consumption and nutrient intake and weight of adolescents". Am J Health Promot. 24 (4): 231-7. doi:10.4278/ajhp.080603-quan-76. PMID 20232604. 
  27. ^ "All About the Fruit Group". Choose MyPlate. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  28. ^ Wang CH, Fang CC, Chen NC, Liu SS, Yu PH, Wu TY, Chen WT, Lee CC, Chen SC (July 9, 2012). "Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Archives of Internal Medicine. 172 (13): 988-96. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3004. PMID 22777630. 
  29. ^ a b c Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC (October 17, 2012). "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD001321. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5. PMID 23076891. 
  30. ^ Rossi R, Porta S, Canovi B (September 2010). "Overview on cranberry and urinary tract infections in females". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 44 Suppl 1: S61-2. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181d2dc8e. PMID 20495471. 
  31. ^ a b Heyman, Melvin B.; Abrams, Steven A. (22 May 2017). "Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations". Pediatrics: e20170967. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-0967. 
  32. ^ "Feeding Your Baby and Toddler (Birth to Age Two): Your Child: University of Michigan Health System". Med.umich.edu. Retrieved . 
  33. ^ American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition (May 2001). "The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics". Pediatrics. 107 (5): 1210-3. doi:10.1542/peds.107.5.1210. PMID 11331711. 
  34. ^ a b "Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention" (PDF). Public Health England. June 2014. 
  35. ^ Muraki, Isao; Imamura, Fumiaki; Manson, Joann E.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; van Dam, Rob M.; Sun, Qi (2013-01-01). "Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 347: f5001. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5001. ISSN 1756-1833. PMC 3978819 Freely accessible. PMID 23990623. 
  36. ^ Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B. (2012-09-01). "Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice". American Journal of Public Health. 102 (9): 1630-1633. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300719. ISSN 1541-0048. PMC 3482038 Freely accessible. PMID 22813423. 
  37. ^ Arranz, Sara; Silván, Jose Manuel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2010-11-01). "Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: a study on the Spanish diet". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 54 (11): 1646-1658. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200900580. ISSN 1613-4133. PMID 20540148. 
  38. ^ Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2012-11-14). "Concept and health-related properties of nonextractable polyphenols: the missing dietary polyphenols". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60 (45): 11195-11200. doi:10.1021/jf303758j. ISSN 1520-5118. PMID 23095074. 
  39. ^ [Report] West Europe Fruit Juice Market Research, Trends, Analysis TOC Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ a b "EBSCO Publishing Service Selection Page". ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  41. ^ Justin R. Morris. "Factors Influencing Grape Juice Quality" (PDF). Horttech.ashspublications.org. Retrieved . 

External links

  • Media related to Juices at Wikimedia Commons

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