American forces after capturing the Deokjin Fort during the Battle of Ganghwa in 1871
|Commanders and leaders|
| John Rodgers
|Eo Jae-yeon +|
650 sailors and
40 artillery pieces
4 shore batteries
|Casualties and losses|
1 gunboat damaged
40 artillery pieces captured
5 forts destroyed
1 fort damaged
Dozens of small cannons captured
4 shore batteries destroyed
|United States expedition to Korea|
It took place predominantly on and around the Korean island of Ganghwa. The reason for the presence of the American land and naval force in Korea was to support an American diplomatic delegation sent to establish trade and political relations with the peninsular nation, to ascertain the fate of the merchant ship General Sherman, and to establish a treaty assuring aid for shipwrecked sailors. When Korean shore batteries attacked two American warships on 1 June, a punitive expedition was launched 10 days later after the commanding American admiral failed to receive an official apology from the Koreans. The isolationist nature of the Joseon Dynasty government and the assertiveness of the Americans led to a misunderstanding between the two parties that changed a diplomatic expedition into an armed conflict. On 10 June, about 650 Americans landed and captured several forts, killing over 200 Korean troops with a loss of only three American dead. Korea continued to refuse to negotiate with the United States until 1882.
The expedition consisted of about 650 men, over 500 sailors and 100 Marines, as well as five warships:Colorado, Alaska, Palos, Monocacy, and Benicia. Embarked aboard Colorado was Rear Admiral John Rodgers, also Frederick F. Low, the United States Ambassador to China. The Korean forces, known as "Tiger Hunters", were led by General Eo Jae-yeon (Hangul; Hanja; ).
The Americans safely made contact with the Korean inhabitants, described as "people wearing white clothes". When they inquired about the General Sherman incident, the Koreans were initially reluctant to discuss the topic, ostensibly to avoid having to pay any recompense. The Americans consequently let the Koreans know that their fleet would be exploring the area, and that they meant no harm. This gesture was misinterpreted; Korean policy at the time prohibited foreign ships from sailing on the Han River, as it led directly to the capital city of Hanyang, modern day Seoul. On 1 June the Korean fortress fired at the U.S. fleet as they sailed up the Ganghwa Straits, which leads to the river. The U.S. forces were not badly damaged, due "to the bad gunnery of the Koreans, whose fire, although very hot for the fifteen minutes in which they maintained it, was ill-directed, and consequently without effect." Along with the cannons being arranged in rows, one tier above another on the hill-side, and fired by a train of powder." The U.S. demanded an apology within 10 days; there was no response so Rodgers decided on a punitive assault on the forts.
On 10 June, the Americans attacked the lightly defended Choji Garrison on Ganghwa, along the Salee River. The Koreans were armed with severely outdated weapons, such as matchlock muskets. After they were quickly overrun, the Americans moved onto their next objective, the Deokjin Garrison. The poorly armed Korean forces were kept from effective range by American 12-pound howitzers. The American troops continued on towards the next objective, Deokjin Fort, which they found abandoned. The sailors and Marines quickly dismantled this fortress and continued to Gwangseong Garrison, a citadel. By this time, Korean forces had regrouped there. Along the way, some Korean units tried to flank the US forces, but were beaten off again due to the strategic placement of artillery on two hills.
Artillery fire from ground forces and Monocacy offshore pounded the citadel in preparation for an assault by US forces. A force of 546 sailors and 105 Marines grouped on the hills west of the fortress (infantry troops were on the hill directly west of the fortress, while artillery troops on another hill both shelled the fortress and also covered the Americans' flanks and rear) keeping cover and returning fire. Once the bombardments stopped, the Americans charged the citadel, led by Lt. Hugh McKee. The slow reload time of the Korean matchlocks aided the Americans, who were armed with superior Remington rolling block carbines, in making it over the walls; the Koreans even ended up throwing rocks at the attackers.
McKee was the first to make it into the citadel, and was fatally wounded by a shot to the groin. After him came Commander Winfield Scott Schley, who shot the Korean soldier who had killed McKee. The flag of the Korean commander, General Eo Jae-y?n, called the "Sujagi" by Koreans, was captured by Corporal Charles Brown of Colorados guard and Private Hugh Purvis of Alaskas guard. General Eo was killed by Private James Dougherty. While serving as the color bearer for Colorados crew and Marines, Colorado Carpenter Cyrus Hayden planted the US flag on the ramparts under heavy enemy fire. Corporal Brown, Privates Dougherty and Purvis, and Carpenter Hayden received the Medal of Honor.
The fighting lasted fifteen minutes. In the end, 243 Koreans were counted dead in the forts and three Americans were also killed in the fighting. The American casualties were McKee, Seaman Seth Allen, and U.S. Marine Corps Private Denis Hanrahan, 10 Americans were wounded; 20 Koreans were captured, several of whom were wounded. Five Korean forts were taken in total, with dozens of various small cannons. The Korean deputy commander was among the wounded who were captured. The US hoped to use the captives as a bargaining chip to meet with local officials, but the Koreans refused, calling the captives cowards and "Low was told that he was welcome to keep the wounded prisoners".
The United States was not able to achieve its objectives diplomatically, as the Koreans refused to negotiate. In fact, these events led the regent Daewon-gun to strengthen his policy of isolation and issue a national proclamation against appeasing foreigners. However, there were no further attacks on foreign ships. In 1876, Korea established a trade treaty with Japan after Japanese ships approached Ganghwado and threatened to fire on Seoul. Treaties with European countries and the U.S. soon followed.
Nine sailors (Chief Quartermaster Grace, Quartermasters Troy, Franklin and Rogers, Boatswain's Mate McKenzie, Ordinary Seaman Andrews, Carpenter Hayden, and Landsmen Lukes and Merton) and six Marines (Corporal Brown and Privates Coleman, Dougherty, McNamara, Owens, and Purvis) were awarded the Medal of Honor, the first for actions in a foreign conflict.
From April-May 1882, the United States, represented by Commodore Robert W. Shufeldt of the United States Navy, and Korea negotiated and approved a 14-article treaty. The treaty established mutual friendship and mutual assistance in case of attack; and also addressed such specific matters as extraterritorial rights for American citizens in Korea and most favored nation trade status.
The treaty remained in effect until the annexation of Korea in 1910.