LGBT Rights in the European Union
Get LGBT Rights in the European Union essential facts below. View Videos or join the LGBT Rights in the European Union discussion. Add LGBT Rights in the European Union to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
LGBT Rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in European Union
EU Globe No Borders.svg
European Union
Same-sex sexual activity legal status Never criminalised in EU law.
Last state criminalisation repealed in 1998.
Military service Allowed to serve openly in every state except Cyprus.
Discrimination protections Outlawed in employment with further protections in some member states' law
Family rights
Recognition of
relationships
Same-sex marriage in 14/28 states
Recognition of same-sex unions in 22/28 states
No recognition of same-sex couples in 6/28 states
Restrictions:
Same-sex marriage constitutional ban in 7/28 states.
Adoption Joint adoption in 14/28 states
Step-child adoption in 18/28 states

LGBT rights in the European Union are protected under the European Union's (EU) treaties and law. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in all EU states and discrimination in employment has been banned since 2000. However EU states have different laws when it comes to any greater protection, same-sex civil union, same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples.

Treaty protections

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union makes in Articles 10 and 19 provisions for combating discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. These provisions were enacted by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999.[1][2]

Furthermore, Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights asserts that "any discrimination based on any ground such as [...] sexual orientation shall be prohibited." The Charter was agreed in 2000 and became legally binding in 2009.[1][2][3]

Legislative protection

LGBT rights in the European Union

Following the inclusion of the Treaty of Amsterdam's abovementioned provisions, the directive establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation was enacted in 2000. This framework directive compelled all EU states to adopt, within three years, anti-discrimination legislation in employment. That legislation had to include provisions to protect people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.[2]

In practice, this protects EU citizens from being refused a job, or from being fired, because of their sexual orientation. It also protects them from being harassed by a colleague due to their sexual orientation. It does not cover being refused medical services or treatment, refusal of being given a double room in a hotel, protection from bullying in a school and refusal of social security schemes (e.g. survivors' pensions and financial assistance to carers). Protection under EU law in these circumstances is however granted on the grounds of race or gender.[4]

Proposed directive

A proposed European anti-discrimination law would outlaw discrimination in the areas of social protection, social advantages, education and access to supply of goods, on the basis of religious belief, disability, age, and sexual orientation.[5] However the directive has been stalled in the Council, despite strong support from the European Parliament.[6]

Transgender rights

EU law currently takes a different approach to transgender issues. Despite the European Parliament adopting a resolution on transsexuals' rights as early as 1989, transgender identity is not incorporated into any EU funding and was not mentioned in the law establishing the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) as sexual orientation was. However, the case law of the European Court of Justice provides some protection by interpreting discrimination on the basis of 'sex' to also refer to people who have had 'gender reassignment'. Thus all EU sex discrimination law applies to transgender people.[2] In 2002, the 1976 equal treatment directive was revised to include discrimination based on gender identity.[7]

Other actions

Between 2001 and 2006, a Community Action Programme to Combat Discrimination involved the expenditure of EUR100 million to fight discrimination in a number of areas, including sexual orientation.[7]

In 2009 the European Commission has acted to tone down a law in Lithuania that included homophobic language and also aimed to support the gay pride parade in the country and others under threat of banning.[2]

Foreign relations

In June 2010, the Council of the European Union adopted a non-binding toolkit to promote LGBT people's human rights.[8][9]

In June 2013, the Council upgraded it to binding LGBTI Guidelines instructing EU diplomats around the world to defend the human rights of LGBTI people.[10][11]

Same-sex unions

Same-sex marriage has been legalised in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Great Britain. In Austria, marriages will be legal from 1 January 2019.[12] Same-sex civil unions have been legalised in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. In Denmark and Sweden civil unions were legal from 1989 and 1995 to 2012 and 2009, respectively. In Germany, registered life partnerships were legal between 2001 and 2017. However existing civil unions/registered life partnerships are still recognised in all of these countries.

Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia have constitutionally defined marriage as being between a man and a woman.

European Union law requires those member states that legalised same-sex partnerships to recognise each other's partnerships for the purpose of freedom of movement.[13] The European Parliament has however approved a report calling for mutual recognition.[14][15]

According to European Court of Justice case law based on the Employment Equality Framework Directive, employees in a civil partnership with a same-sex partner must be granted the same benefits as those granted to their colleagues upon their marriage, where marriage is not possible for same-sex couples. The Court established this principle in 2008 in the case of Tadao Maruko v. Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Bühnen with regards to a German registered life partnership. In December 2013, the Court confirmed this in the case of Frédéric Hay v. Crédit agricole mutuel (C-267/12) with regards to a French civil solidarity pact, which is significantly inferior to marriage than a German registered life partnership.[16][17]

As of 2017, the European Court of Justice is deliberating in the case of Coman and Others whether "spouse" (or partner or any other family member) in the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) includes a (foreign) same-sex spouse, and whether it requires member states to confer the right of residence on the (foreign) same-sex spouse of a citizen of the European Union.[18]

Member State laws on sexual orientation

For detail, see: LGBT rights in Europe#Legislation by country or territory

Openly gay people are allowed to serve in the military of every country except Cyprus[], however this is contrary to European law and is rarely enforced.

Since December 2016, Malta became the first and only country in the EU - as well as in Europe - to ban conversion therapy.[19][20][21]

Overall

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union European Union Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[2] Yes/No Legal in 22/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 14/28 member states.
Yes/No Joint adoption legal in 14/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 18/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 27/28 member states.
Yes/No Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment only. Yes Legal in 26/28 member states.[4]

Member States

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971[22]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[23] No/Yes Legal from 1 January 2019[24] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption since 2016.[25][26]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[27]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Gender change is legal.[29]
Belgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1975
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Legal cohabitation since 2000[30] Yes Legal since 2003[31][32][33] Yes Legal since 2006[34]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[35]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Since 2017, name changes does not require sex changes and (legal and physical) sex changes does not require sterilisation[36].
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991[37] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[38] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[39][40]
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[41] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[42] Yes/No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28][43] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health.[44]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil cohabitation since 2015[45] No No No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced)[46] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[47]

No Gender change is not legal.

Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[48] No No (Step-child adoption pending)[49] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Legal recognition is granted and birth certificate is amended[not in citation given] after reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation).[50]
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[51] Yes Legal since 2012[52][53] Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.[54]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[55]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[56]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Cohabitation agreement since 2016[57] Yes/No Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2016[58] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2016. Couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Gender reassignment legal.[50]
Finland Finland
Åland Islands(includes Åland Islands)
Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership from 2002 to 2017 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[59] Yes Legal since 2017[60] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption since 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation.[61]
France France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[62] Yes Legal since 2013[63] Yes Legal since 2013[64] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Since 2017, sex changes no longer requires sterilisation.[65]
Germany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[22][66]
Yes Registered life partnership from 2001 to 2017 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[67] Yes Legal since 2017[68] Yes Step-child adoption since 2005.
Successive adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption since 2017.[68]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[69][70] Yes Gender change is legal.[71]
Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 + UN decl. sign.[22] Yes Civil union since 2015[72] No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Legal since 2017.[73][74]
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[75] No [76][77]
Constitutionally banned since 2012.[78][79]
No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending)[77] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] No No legal recognition.[50]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil partnership from 2011 to 2015. (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[80] Yes Legal since 2015 after a constitutional referendum.[81] Yes Joint adoption since 2016. Stepchild adoption is not legal for any couples, but a birth parent and their partner may be eligible to be joint adopters of the child.[82][83][84][85]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[86]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[87][88][89] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2015 [90]
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil union since 2016[91][92] Yes/No(Pending) [93][94][95][96][97] Yes/No Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation[98][99].

The Florence Court for Minors has recognised a foreign joint adoption by a gay couple[100]

Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[101] The Court of Cassation decided in 2015 that sterilisation is not required.[102]
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[103] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[104] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[105]
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No (Cohabitation agreement pending)[106] No Constitutionally banned since 1992[107] No Only married couples can adopt.[108] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[109]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[110] Yes Legal since 2015[111][112] Yes Legal since 2015[113] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[114] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[50])
Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil union since 2014[115] Yes Legal since 2017 Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Since 2015.[116]
Netherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998[117] Yes Legal since 2001[118] Yes Legal since 2001[119]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[120]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[121] Yes[122]
Poland Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No[123] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[124] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden.[125] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes
Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes De facto union since 2001[126][127] Yes Legal since 2010[128] Yes Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[129][130][131] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[28] Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[132]
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[133] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended[not in citation given] after reassignment surgery (sterilisation mandatory)[50]
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014[134] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[135] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[136][137] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[50])
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[138];
Unregistered cohabitation since 2017[139]
No Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2011[140] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Gender change is legal.[141]
Spain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes De facto union in Catalonia (1998),[142]Aragon (1999),[142]Navarre (2000),[142]Castile-La Mancha (2000),[142]Valencia (2001),[143] the Balearic Islands (2001),[144]Madrid (2001),[142]Asturias (2002),[145]Castile and León (2002),[146]Andalusia (2002),[142] the Canary Islands (2003),[142]Extremadura (2003),[142]Basque Country (2003),[142]Cantabria (2005),[147]Galicia (2008)[148] and La Rioja (2010)[149] Yes Legal since 2005[150] Yes Legal since 2005[151]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[152]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[153]
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[154] Yes Legal since 2009[155] Yes Legal since 2003[156]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[157]
Yes [158] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[28] Yes[159]
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Gibraltar(includes Gibraltar)
Yes Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, in Northern Ireland since 1982, and in Gibraltar since 1993.
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[22]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005, in Gibraltar since 2012[160] Yes Legal in England, Wales and Scotland since 2014, in Gibraltar since 2016.[161][162]
No Not performed in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009, in Northern Ireland since 2013, and in Gibraltar since 2014[163][164]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[165]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[166][22]
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination in Gibraltar
Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004
No Not legal in Gibraltar


Due to the Cyprus dispute placing Northern Cyprus outside the Republic of Cyprus' control, EU law is suspended in the area governed by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[167][168][22] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[167][168] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[167][168]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Public opinion

Below is the share of respondents per country who agreed with the following statements in the 2015 Special Eurobarometer on discrimination.[169] The last column is the change from the 2006 Eurobarometer where respondents were presented the slightly different statement "Homosexual marriages should be allowed throughout Europe".[170]

Member state "Gay and lesbian people
should have the same rights
as heterosexual people"
"There is nothing wrong
in a sexual relationship between
two persons of the same sex"
"Same sex marriages should be
allowed throughout Europe"
Change from 2006
on last statement
 European Union 71% 67% 61% +17
 Austria 70% 67% 62% +13
 Belgium 81% 82% 77% +15
 Bulgaria 51% 27% 17% +2
 Croatia 48% 39% 37% n/a[171]
 Cyprus 62% 40% 37% +23
 Czech Republic 62% 60% 57% +5
 Denmark 90% 88% 87% +18
 Estonia 44% 40% 31% +10
 Finland 74% 71% 66% +21
 France 81% 83% 71% +23
 Germany 70% 74% 66% +14
 Greece 62% 42% 33% +18
 Hungary 49% 44% 39% +21
 Ireland 87% 82% 80% +39
 Italy 72% 61% 55% +24
 Latvia 42% 23% 19% +7
 Lithuania 44% 30% 24% +7
 Luxembourg 75% 80% 75% +17
 Malta 77% 71% 65% +47
 Netherlands 96% 91% 91% +9
 Poland 37% 37% 28% +11
 Portugal 71% 59% 61% +32
 Romania 36% 24% 21% +10
 Slovakia 36% 33% 24% +5
 Slovenia 54% 55% 54% +23
 Spain 90% 87% 84% +28
 Sweden 95% 93% 90% +19
 United Kingdom 84% 75% 71% +25

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, European Union 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e f Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights?, Café Babel 17/05/10 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Babel" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, European Union 2000
  4. ^ a b "ILGA-Europe". Retrieved 2015.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "current" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ Why ILGA-Europe supports the proposed Anti-Discrimination Directive Archived 5 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine., ILGA-Europe
  6. ^ European Parliament renews call for anti-discrimination laws for LGBT people, LGBTQ Nation
  7. ^ a b "ILGA-Europe". Retrieved 2015. 
  8. ^ "MEPs welcome new toolkit to defend LGBT people's human rights". The European Parliament's Intergroup on LGBT Rights. 30 June 2010. 
  9. ^ "Toolkit to Promote and Protect the Enjoyment of all Human Rights by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 17 June 2010. 
  10. ^ "EU foreign affairs ministers adopt ground-breaking global LGBTI policy". The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights. 24 June 2013. 
  11. ^ "Guidelines to promote and protect the enjoyment of all human rights by lesbian, gay, bisexual and intersex (LGBTI) persons" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 24 June 2013. 
  12. ^ https://www.vfgh.gv.at/medien/Ehe_fuer_gleichgeschlechtliche_Paare.de.php
  13. ^ DIRECTIVE 2004/38/EC on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely
  14. ^ Report on civil law, commercial law, family law and private international law aspects of the Action Plan Implementing the Stockholm Programme, European Parliament
  15. ^ EU-Wide Recognition of Member States' Gay Marriage, Civil Partnership a Step Closer, WGLB
  16. ^ "Same-sex civil partners cannot be denied employment benefits reserved to marriage". ILGA-Europe. 13 December 2013. 
  17. ^ "PRESS RELEASE No 159/13" (PDF). Court of Justice of the European Union. 12 December 2013. 
  18. ^ "Romania Gay Marriage Case Could Have Outsize Impact in Europe". New York Times. 21 November 2017. 
  19. ^ Benjamin, Butterworth. "Malta just became the first country in Europe to ban 'gay cure' therapy". Pink News. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. 
  20. ^ Stack, Liam (7 December 2016). "Malta Outlaws 'Conversion Therapy,' a First in Europe". New York Times. Retrieved 2016. 
  21. ^ Henley, Jon (7 December 2016). "Malta becomes first European country to ban 'gay cure' therapy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  23. ^ (in German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  24. ^ (in German) https://www.vfgh.gv.at/medien/Ehe_fuer_gleichgeschlechtliche_Paare.de.php
  25. ^ "Bundesgesetz, mit dem das Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft geändert wird" (PDF). parlament.gv.at (in German). 
  26. ^ "Entschließungsantrag betreffend der Aufhebung des Adoptionsverbots für Homosexuelle" (PDF). parlament.gv.at. 
  27. ^ "§ 144(2) ABGB (General Civil Code)". www.ris.bka.gv.at (in German). 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Cite error: The named reference Rainbow Europe Country Index was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ "Map shows how Europe forces trans people to be sterilized". Gay Star News. 
  30. ^ (in German) Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  31. ^ "Belgium to follow Holland on gay marriage". RTÉ News. 29 November 2002. 
  32. ^ "Belgium legalizes gay marriage". UPI. 31 January 2003. 
  33. ^ "Belgium approves same-sex marriage". PlanetOut. 30 January 2003. 
  34. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/belgium.html
  35. ^ (in French)(in Dutch) Belgian Official Gazette Loi du 5 mai 2014 portant établissement de la filiation de la coparente, as amended by loi du 18 décembre 2014 modifiant le Code civil, le code de droit international privé, le Code consulaire, la loi du 5 mai 2014 portant établissement de la filiation de la coparente et la loi du 8 mai 2014 modifiant le Code civil en vue d'instaurer l'égalité de l'homme et de la femme dans le mode de transmission du nom à l'enfant et à l'adopté
  36. ^ (in French) (in Dutch) Loi du 25 juin 2017 réformant des régimes relatifs aux personnes transgenres en ce qui concerne la mention d'une modification de du sexe dans les actes de l'état civil et ses effets/Wet van 25 juni 2017 tot hervorming van regelingen inzake transgenders wat de vermelding van een aanpassing van de registratie van het geslacht in de akten van de burgerlijke stand en de gevolgen hiervan betreft
  37. ^ "Article 46(1), Bulgaria - Constitution". Retrieved . 
  38. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/bulgaria.html
  39. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament approves with 93-23 vote (and 23 abstentions) amendments to the Protection from Discrimination Act to include protection against discrimination of trans people". The Sofia Globe. 25 March 2015. 
  40. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament Votes on Anti-Discrimination Law Amendments". Novinite.com. 25 March 2015. 
  41. ^ (in Croatian) Zakon o ?ivotnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  42. ^ (in Croatian) "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 2015. 
  43. ^ (in Croatian) "Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 2014. 
  44. ^ (in Croatian)"Pravilnik o na?inu prikupljanja medicinske dokumentacije te utvr?ivanja uvjeta i pretpostavki za promjenu spola i drugom rodnom identitetu". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ http://ihrp.law.utoronto.ca/utfl_file/count/media/IHRP%20Cyprus%20Report%20FINAL%202014.pdf
  47. ^ "Cyprus: Penal code amended to protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity". PinkNews. Retrieved 2013. 
  48. ^ (in Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o zm?n? n?kterých souvisejících zákon?
  49. ^ "Dienstbier chce p?edlo?it novelu, která by umo?nila osvojení d?tí registrovanými partnery" (in Czech). EuroZprávy.cz; mu; ?TK. Retrieved . 
  50. ^ a b c d e f Trans Rights Europe Map, 2016.
  51. ^ https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=142282
  52. ^ http://cphpost.dk/news/national/gay-marriage-legalised The Copenhagen Post, 7 June 2012: Gay marriage legalised] Retrieved 2012-09-19
  53. ^ Homoseksuelle fik ja til ægteskab - Jyllands-Posten.
  54. ^ (in Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag
  55. ^ (in Danish) Retsinformation.dk Børneloven
  56. ^ "MSN New Zealand - Latest News, Weather, Entertainment, Business, Sport, Technology". msn.co.nz. 
  57. ^ (in Estonian) "Kooseluseadus". Riigikogu. 9 October 2014. 
  58. ^ [2]
  59. ^ (in Swedish) Lag om registrerat partnerskap
  60. ^ "Finland president signs gay marriage law - couples will have to wait to get married until 2017". Gay Star News. 
  61. ^ (in Finnish) Ihmisoikeudet kuuluvat myös transsukupuolisille
  62. ^ (in French) Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  63. ^ Erlanger, Steven (18 May 2013). "Hollande Signs French Gay Marriage Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015. 
  64. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/france.html
  65. ^ [3]
  66. ^ "glbtq >> social sciences >> Berlin" (PDF). glbtq.com. 
  67. ^ (in German) Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft
  68. ^ a b Connolly, Kate (30 June 2017) German Parliament votes to legalise same-sex marriage in The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2017
  69. ^ "Antidiskriminierungsstelle - Publikationen - AGG in englischer Sprache". antidiskriminierungsstelle.de. 
  70. ^ http://www.gaylesbiantimes.com/?id=14425
  71. ^ (in German) Gesetz über die Änderung der Vornamen und die Feststellung der Geschlechtszugehörigkeit in besonderen Fällen
  72. ^ "? 4356/2015". 
  73. ^ "Greece improves gender recognition law but misses chance to introduce self-determination". ILGA EUROPE. Retrieved 2017. 
  74. ^ "Greece passes gender-change law opposed by Orthodox church". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017. 
  75. ^ (in Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefügg?, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  76. ^ (in Hungarian) T/5423 Magyarország Alaptörvényének 6. módosítása
  77. ^ a b "Melegházasságról szóló törvényjavaslat landolt a magyar parlamentben" (in Hungarian). Index.hu. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  78. ^ "Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). TASZ. Retrieved 2012. 
  79. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (April 18, 2011). "Hungary passes new conservative constitution". Reading Eagle. Retrieved 2012. 
  80. ^ "Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010". irishstatutebook.ie. 
  81. ^ Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015
  82. ^ "Gay adoption law due before same-sex marriage referendum". The Irish Times. 21 January 2015. 
  83. ^ "FAQs". The Adoption Authority of Ireland. 
  84. ^ http://rainbow-europe.org/#8639/0/0
  85. ^ http://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/change-sought-to-anomaly-in-adoption-law-1.1848049
  86. ^ Oireachtas Children and Family Relationships Act 2015
  87. ^ "Employment Equality Act, 1998". Irishstatutebook.ie. 18 June 1998. Retrieved 2010. 
  88. ^ "Equal Status Act, 2000". Irishstatutebook.ie. 26 April 2000. Retrieved 2010. 
  89. ^ "Prohibition of Incitement To Hatred Act, 1989". irishstatutebook.ie. 
  90. ^ http://www.thejournal.ie/ireland-transgender-recognition-bill-2218956-Jul2015/
  91. ^ http://www.quirinale.it/qrnw/statico/attivita/attifirmati/sett_atti.asp?Atti=sett/2016_m05d16.htm
  92. ^ http://www.gaypost.it/presidente-mattarella-firmato-la-legge-sulle-unioni-civili/
  93. ^ In a particular case, the Court of Cassation has refused to rescind a lower judgment recognising a same-sex marriage performed abroad, but this was on procedural grounds only and did not determine the merits of the case [4]
  94. ^ Cassazione: matrimonio valido per due donne di Avellino napoli.repubblica.it. 01 febbraio 2017.
  95. ^ (in Italian) Atto Senato n. 15
  96. ^ (in Italian) Atto Senato n. 204
  97. ^ (in Italian) Atto Senato n. 393
  98. ^ (in Italian) "Adozioni gay, la Corte d'Appello di Roma conferma: sì a due mamme". Corriere della Sera. 
  99. ^ (in Italian)"Cassazione, via libera alla stepchild adoption in casi particolari". Repubblica. 
  100. ^ https://www.thelocal.it/20170309/italy-recognizes-first-adoption-by-two-gay-men
  101. ^ (in Italian) "Legge 14 Aprile 1982, n. 164 (GU n. 106 del 19/04/1982) Norme in Materia di Rettificazione di Attribuzione di Sesso". Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. 
  102. ^ Court of Cassation judgment of 21 May 2015
  103. ^ "President Signs Anti-Gay Constitutional Amendment". UK Gay News. December 21, 2005. Retrieved . 
  104. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/latvia.html
  105. ^ (in Latvian) Cik viegli p?rv?rsties no Ievas par ?damu?
  106. ^ http://www.lgl.lt/en/?p=17403
  107. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA". 
  108. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/lithuania.html
  109. ^ (in Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos Civilinis kodeksas (Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania
  110. ^ (in French) Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  111. ^ Same-sex marriages from January 1
  112. ^ Same-Sex Marriage in Luxembourg from 1 January 2015
  113. ^ http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2014/0125/a125.pdf
  114. ^ (in French) Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006
  115. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  116. ^ Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Bill
  117. ^ Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). INED. Retrieved 2013. 
  118. ^ "Gay Marriage Goes Dutch". CBS News. Associated Press. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 2010. 
  119. ^ ttp://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/netherlands.html
  120. ^ (in Dutch) Staatsblad Wet van 25 november 2013 tot wijziging van Boek 1 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek in verband met het juridisch ouderschap van de vrouwelijke partner van de moeder anders dan door adoptie
  121. ^ https://www.government.nl/topics/discrimination/contents/prohibition-of-discrimination
  122. ^ http://www.buzzfeed.com/lesterfeder/the-netherlands-passes-landmark-gender-identity-law
  123. ^ "Zwi?zki partnerskie - nie w tej kadencji" (in Polish). polityka.pl. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  124. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm RP. Retrieved 2015. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland. 
  125. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/poland.html
  126. ^ (in Portuguese) Law no. 7/2001, from 11 May (specifically Article 1, no. 1).
  127. ^ (in Portuguese) AR altera lei das uniões de facto
  128. ^ Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
  129. ^ (in Portuguese) Lei 17/2016 de 20 de junho
  130. ^ (in Portuguese) Lei que alarga a procriação medicamente assistida publicada em Diário da República
  131. ^ (in Portuguese) Todas as mulheres com acesso à PMA a 1 de Agosto
  132. ^ http://www.lgbt-ep.eu/press-releases/meps-welcome-new-gender-change-law-in-portugal-concerned-about-lithuania/
  133. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/romania.html
  134. ^ "Disputed revision to constitution sails through parliament". The Slovak Spectator. Retrieved 2014. 
  135. ^ https://adoption.com/forums/thread/316200/adopting-in-slovakia/
  136. ^ "Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation" (PDF). fra.europa.eu. 
  137. ^ Petit Press a.s. "Law change criminalises homophobia". spectator.sme.sk. 
  138. ^ "Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti". uradni-list.si (in Slovenian). 
  139. ^ "Zakon o partnerski zvezi". uradni-list.si (in Slovenian). 
  140. ^ First Adoption by Gay Partner of Child's Parent
  141. ^ Weber, Nana (April 25, 2013). "Sprememba spola v Sloveniji". Pravna praksa (in Slovenian). GV Zalo?ba (16-17). ISSN 0352-0730. 
  142. ^ a b c d e f g h i Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo. "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved 2012. 
  143. ^ "Ley 1/2001, de 6 de abril, por la que se regulan las uniones de hecho". Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 2015. 
  144. ^ "Llei 18/2001 de 19 de desembre, de parelles estables" (in Catalan). Govern de les Illes Balears. Retrieved 2015. 
  145. ^ "LEY 4/2002, de 23 de mayo, de Parejas Estables" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. Retrieved 2015. 
  146. ^ "DECRETO 117/2002, de 24 de octubre, por el que se crea el Registro de Uniones de Hecho en Castilla y León y se regula su funcionamiento" (PDF) (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved 2015. 
  147. ^ "Ley de Cantabria 1/2005, de 16 de mayo, de Parejas de Hecho de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 2015. 
  148. ^ "Decreto 248/2007, de 20 de diciembre, por el que se crea y se regula el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de Galicia" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 2015. 
  149. ^ "Decreto 30/2010, de 14 de mayo, por el que se crea el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de La Rioja" (in Spanish). El Gobierno de La Rioja. Retrieved 2015. 
  150. ^ "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. 2005-07-01. Retrieved . 
  151. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/spain.html
  152. ^ (in Spanish) Boletín Oficial del Estado Ley 14/2006, de 26 de mayo, sobre técnicas de reproducción humana asistida (see Article 7)
  153. ^ (in Spanish) Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas
  154. ^ http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/sfs/20090253.pdf
  155. ^ "Gays Win Marriage Rights". Sveriges Radio English. 1 April 2009. 
  156. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/sweden.html
  157. ^ (in Swedish) Sveriges Riksdag Föräldrabalk
  158. ^ Fia Sundevall & Alma Persson (2016) "LGBT in the Military: Policy Development in Sweden 1944-2014", Sexuality Research and Social Policy, June 2016, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 119-129, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13178-015-0217-6/fulltext.html
  159. ^ http://www.gaystarnews.com/article/sweden-ends-forced-sterilization-trans110113
  160. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2004". legislation.gov.uk. 
  161. ^ "Same-sex marriage now legal as first couples wed". BBC News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  162. ^ "Same-sex marriage now legal as first couples wed". BBC News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  163. ^ Thomas, Ellen (20 September 2009). "New legislation sees gay Scottish couples win right to adopt children". The Herald. Retrieved 2009. 
  164. ^ http://travel.state.gov/content/adoptionsabroad/en/country-information/learn-about-a-country/united-kingdom.html
  165. ^ legislation.gov.uk Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: Cases in which woman to be other parent
  166. ^ Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)
  167. ^ a b c "Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech". kaosgl.com. 
  168. ^ a b c (in Turkish) Kuzey K?br?s'?n "E?cinsellik Suçu" Yasas? Tarihe Kart?!
  169. ^ "Special Eurobarometer 437: Discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). European Commission. October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2016. 
  170. ^ "Eurobarometer 66: Public opinion in the European Union" (PDF). European Commission. December 2006. 
  171. ^ Croatia, which became a EU member state in 2013, was not included in the 2006 Eurobarometer

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


LGBT_rights_in_the_European_Union
 



 

Top US Cities