Lake County, Indiana
Lake County, IN Events Directory
 
About Lake County, IN
Lake County, Indiana
County
Former Lake County Courthousein Crown Point, Indiana
Former Lake County Courthouse
in Crown Point, Indiana
Official seal of Lake County, Indiana
Seal
Location in the state of Indiana
Location in the state of Indiana
Indiana's location in the U.S.
Indiana's location in the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°48?N 87°38?W / 41.800°N 87.633°W / 41.800; -87.633Coordinates: 41°48?N 87°38?W / 41.800°N 87.633°W / 41.800; -87.633
Country United States United States
State Indiana Indiana
Region Northwest Indiana
Metro area Chicago Metropolitan
Settled October 1834[1]
Established February 16, 1837[2]
Named for Lake Michigan
County seat Crown Point
Largest city Hammond (population)
 Gary (total area)
Incorporated
municipalities
Government[3]
 o Type County
 o Body Board of Commissioners
 o Commissioner Kyle W. Allen, Sr. (D, 1st)
 o Commissioner Jerry J. Tippy (R, 2nd)
 o Commissioner Michael C. Repay (D, 3rd)
 o County Council
Area
 o County 626.5 sq mi (1,623 km2)
 o Land 498.9 sq mi (1,292 km2)
 o Water 127.6 sq mi (330 km2)
 o Metro 10,874 sq mi (28,160 km2)
Area rank 12th largest county in Indiana
 o Region 2,726 sq mi (7,060 km2)
Dimensions[4]
 o Length 36 mi (58 km)
 o Width 16 mi (26 km)
Elevation[5](mean) 663 ft (202 m)
Highest elevation[6]- NE Winfield Twp 801 ft (244 m)
Lowest elevation[7]- at Lake Michigan 585 ft (178 m)
Population (2010)
 o County 496,005
 o Estimate (2016) 485,846
 o Rank 2nd largest county in Indiana 131st largest county in U.S.[8]
 o Density 994/sq mi (384/km2)
 o Metro 9,522,434
 o Region 819,537
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 o Summer (DST) Central (UTC-5)
ZIP Codes 46303, 46307-08, 46311-12, 46319-25, 46327, 46341-42, 46355-56, 46373, 46375-77, 46394, 46401-11
Area code 219
Congressional district 1st
Indiana Senate districts 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th
Indiana House of Representatives districts 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th and 19th
FIPS code 18-089
GNIS feature ID 0450495
Interstates

I-65.svg I-80.svg Indiana Toll Road logo 1968.svg I-90.svg I-94.svg


U.S. Routes

US 6.svg US 12.svg US 20.svg US 30.svg US 41.svg US 231.svg


State Routes

Indiana 2.svg Indiana 51.svg Indiana 53.svg Indiana 55.svg
Indiana 130.svg Indiana 152.svg Indiana 312.svg Indiana 912.svg


Airports

Gary/Chicago International
Griffith-Merrillville


Waterways

Grand Calumet River

Kankakee River
Lake Michigan


Amtrak stations

Dyer - Hammond-Whiting


South Shore Line stations

Hammond - East Chicago
Adam Benjamin Metro Center
Gary/Chicago Airport - Miller


Public transit East Chicago Transit
Gary Public Transportation
Website www.lakecountyin.org
  • Indiana county number 45
  • Second most-populous county in Indiana
Demographics (2010)[9]
White Black Asian
64.4% 25.9% 1.2%
Islander Native Other Hispanic
(any race)
0.0% 0.3% 8.2% 16.7%

Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana. In 2010, its population was 496,005,[10] making it Indiana's second-most populous county. The county seat is Crown Point.[11]

This county is part of Northwest Indiana and the Chicago metropolitan area, and contains a mix of urban, suburban and rural areas.

It is the home to a portion of the Indiana Dunes[12][13] and to Marktown, Clayton Mark's planned worker community in East Chicago.[14]

History

Lake County was established on February 16, 1837.[2] From 1832 to 1836 the area that was to become Lake County was part of La Porte County.[15] From 1836 to 1837 it was part of Porter County.[15] It was named for its location on Lake Michigan.[16] The original county seat was Liverpool until Lake Court House, which later became Crown Point, was chosen in 1840.[17]

Geography

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 626.56 square miles (1,622.8 km2), of which 498.96 square miles (1,292.3 km2) (or 79.63%) is land and 127.60 square miles (330.5 km2) (or 20.37%) is water.[18]

The northern and southern portions of the county (north of U.S. 30 and south of Lowell) are mainly low and flat, except for a few sand ridges and dunes and were both once very marshy and had to be drained. The lowest point, at 585 feet (178 m),[7] is along the Lake Michigan shoreline.

The central part of the county is higher and hillier. As you travel south from the low and relatively flat lake plain in the northern part of the county, the land gradually rises in elevation until the peak of the Valparaiso Moraine. The highest point, at 801 feet (244 m),[6] is in northeastern Winfield Township near 109th Street and North Lakeshore Drive in Lakes of the Four Seasons. From here the land descends south into the Kankakee Outwash Plain until the Kankakee River is reached.

The geographic center of Lake County is approximately 200 feet (61 m) northwest of Burr Street and West 113th Avenue in Center Township 41°24?53.8?N 87°24?14.3?W / 41.414944°N 87.403972°W / 41.414944; -87.403972.

National protected area

Airports

Major highways

Interstate 65 in Lake County is called the Casimir Pulaski Memorial Highway. Interstate 80/94/US 6 is the Frank Borman Expressway from the Illinois state line east to the Indiana Toll Road interchange in the eastern portion of the county. Interstate 94 has been referred to as the Chicago-Detroit Industrial Freeway. US 6 is part of the Grand Army of the Republic Highway. Broadway (Indiana 53) is also the Carolyn Mosby Memorial Highway. Indiana 51 is known for its entire length as the Adam Benjamin Memorial Highway. US 30 is part of the historic Lincoln Highway. US 12 from Gary eastward is part of Dunes Highway. Cline Avenue (Indiana 912) from US 12 north and westward is known as the Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway.

Railroads

Adjacent counties

Municipalities

Lakes of the Four Seasons, IndianaSchneider, IndianaSt. John, IndianaCrown Point, IndianaHobart, IndianaLowell, IndianaLake Dalecarlia, IndianaCedar Lake, IndianaDyer, IndianaWinfield, IndianaGary, IndianaMerrillville, IndianaLake Station, IndianaNew Chicago, IndianaGriffith, IndianaSchererville, IndianaMunster, IndianaEast Chicago, IndianaHammond, IndianaWhiting, IndianaHighland, Lake County, IndianaLake County, Indiana map.svg
About this image

The municipalities in Lake County, and their populations as of the 2010 Census, are:

Cities

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Townships

The 11 townships of Lake County, with their populations as of the 2010 Census, are:

Education

Public school districts

The administration of public schools in Lake County is divided among 16 corporations and governing bodies, more than any other Indiana county.[19]

Private schools

Elementary and secondary schools operated by the Diocese of Gary:

  • Andrean High School, Merrillville (9-12)
  • Aquinas School at St. Andrew's, Merrillville (PK-8)
  • Bishop Noll Institute, Hammond (9-12)
  • Our Lady of Grace, Highland (PK-8)
  • St. Casimir, Hammond (PK-8)
  • St. John Bosco, Hammond (PK-8)
  • St. John the Baptist, Whiting (PK-8)
  • St. John the Evangelist, St. John (PK-8)
  • St. Mary, Crown Point (PK-8)
  • St. Mary, Griffith (PK-8)
  • St. Michael, Schererville (PK-8)
  • St. Stanislaus, East Chicago (PK-8)
  • St. Thomas More, Munster (PK-8)

Other parochial and private schools:

  • St. Paul's Lutheran School, Munster (PK-8)
  • Trinity Lutheran School, Crown Point (PK-8)
  • Trinity Lutheran School, Hobart (PK-8)

Colleges and Universities

Public libraries

The county is served by seven different public library systems:

  • Crown Point Community Library has its main location with a branch in Winfield.[21]
  • East Chicago Public Library has its main location and the Robart A. Pastrick branch.[22]
  • Gary Public Library has its main location, the Du Bois Library, as well as the Brunswick, Kennedy and Woodson branches.[23]
  • Hammond Public Library[24]
  • Lake County Public Library has its main location in Merrillville as well as Cedar Lake, Dyer-Schererville, Griffith-Calumet Township, Highland, Hobart, Lake Station-New Chicago, Munster and St. John branches.[25]
  • Lowell Public Library has its main location with branches in Schneider and Shelby.[26]
  • Whiting Public Library[27]

Hospitals

Largest employers

Businesses with 1,000 or more employees in the county are:[33]

Media

The Times, based in Munster, is the largest daily newspaper in Lake County and Northwest Indiana and the second largest in the state. Lake County is also served by the Post-Tribune, a daily newspaper based in Merrillville.

Lakeshore Public Television operates WYIN-TV Gary on channel 56 and is the local PBS station in the Chicago television market.

These eight broadcast radio stations serve Lake County and are part of the Chicago market:

  • WJOB (1230 AM) - Hammond
  • WWCA (1270 AM) - Gary
  • WLTH (1370 AM) - Gary
  • WLPR (89.1 FM) - Lowell
  • WRTW (90.5 FM) - Crown Point
  • WPWX (92.3 FM) - Hammond
  • WXRD (103.9 FM) - Crown Point
  • WZVN (107.1 FM) - Lowell

Climate and weather

Climate data for Lowell, Indiana (1981-2010 normals, extremes 1963-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 66
(19)
73
(23)
85
(29)
91
(33)
95
(35)
104
(40)
101
(38)
104
(40)
98
(37)
92
(33)
77
(25)
70
(21)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C) 31.2
(-0.4)
35.8
(2.1)
47.5
(8.6)
60.8
(16)
71.3
(21.8)
80.7
(27.1)
83.8
(28.8)
82.0
(27.8)
76.4
(24.7)
63.6
(17.6)
49.4
(9.7)
35.1
(1.7)
59.8
(15.46)
Daily mean °F (°C) 22.8
(-5.1)
26.7
(-2.9)
37.4
(3)
49.3
(9.6)
59.8
(15.4)
69.7
(20.9)
73.1
(22.8)
71.1
(21.7)
64.2
(17.9)
51.9
(11.1)
40.2
(4.6)
27.1
(-2.7)
49.44
(9.69)
Average low °F (°C) 14.4
(-9.8)
17.7
(-7.9)
27.4
(-2.6)
37.9
(3.3)
48.2
(9)
58.7
(14.8)
62.4
(16.9)
60.3
(15.7)
52.0
(11.1)
40.2
(4.6)
31.0
(-0.6)
19.1
(-7.2)
39.11
(3.94)
Record low °F (°C) -28
(-33)
-23
(-31)
-9
(-23)
7
(-14)
26
(-3)
33
(1)
41
(5)
38
(3)
28
(-2)
18
(-8)
2
(-17)
-29
(-34)
-29
(-34)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.96
(49.8)
1.75
(44.4)
2.57
(65.3)
3.78
(96)
4.38
(111.3)
4.69
(119.1)
4
(100)
3.98
(101.1)
3.14
(79.8)
3.44
(87.4)
3.43
(87.1)
2.34
(59.4)
39.46
(1,000.7)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.8
(22.4)
8.2
(20.8)
3.4
(8.6)
0.3
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.5)
0.7
(1.8)
7.7
(19.6)
29.3
(74.5)
Source: NOAA (normals, 1981-2010)[34]
Satellite imagery of Lake County, IN

In recent years, average temperatures in Lowell have ranged from a low of 14.4 °F (-9.8 °C) in January to a high of 83.8 °F (28.8 °C) in July, although a record low of -29 °F (-34 °C) was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.75 inches (44 mm) in February to 4.69 inches (119 mm) in June. Temperatures at or below 0 °F (-18 °C) occur on average 11 days annually and exceed 90 °F (32 °C) degrees on 14 days.[34] In winter, lake-effect snow increases snowfall totals compared to the areas to the west.[35] In spring and early summer, the immediate shoreline areas sometimes experience lake-breeze that can drop temperatures by several degrees compared to areas further inland.[36] In summer, thunderstorms are common, occurring an average 40-50 days every year,[37] and on about 13 days, these thunderstorms produce severe winds.[38]

Government

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[39][40]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.[39][40]

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[40]

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[40]

County elected officials

Politics

Presidential Elections Results[42]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 37.3% 75,625 57.7% 116,935 5.1% 10,241
2012 33.9% 68,431 64.8% 130,897 1.4% 2,819
2008 32.4% 67,742 66.6% 139,301 1.0% 1,996
2004 38.2% 71,903 61.0% 114,743 0.7% 1,376
2000 36.0% 63,389 62.0% 109,078 2.0% 3,527
1996 29.2% 47,873 61.2% 100,198 9.6% 15,789
1992 28.9% 53,867 55.2% 102,778 15.9% 29,653
1988 43.0% 79,929 56.6% 105,026 0.4% 780
1984 44.3% 94,870 55.1% 117,984 0.6% 1,289
1980 46.0% 95,408 48.8% 101,145 5.2% 10,786
1976 42.4% 90,119 56.7% 120,700 0.9% 1,922
1972 56.2% 115,480 43.1% 88,510 0.7% 1,352
1968 36.5% 77,911 46.8% 99,897 16.7% 35,766
1964 35.2% 73,722 64.4% 134,978 0.4% 823
1960 37.0% 78,278 62.7% 132,554 0.3% 526
1956 52.0% 92,803 47.6% 85,000 0.4% 657
1952 44.7% 74,073 54.7% 90,721 0.6% 1,051
1948 38.8% 51,413 58.1% 77,025 3.1% 4,157
1944 38.8% 48,147 60.6% 75,066 0.6% 737
1940 38.8% 45,898 60.8% 71,985 0.4% 447
1936 32.5% 33,689 66.1% 68,551 1.5% 1,510
1932 46.6% 42,596 50.3% 46,060 3.1% 2,836
1928 59.7% 48,768 39.6% 32,321 0.8% 630
1924 64.6% 30,990 22.8% 10,918 12.6% 6,060
1920 69.2% 26,296 18.8% 7,136 12.1% 4,596
1916 55.0% 13,262 41.3% 9,946 3.8% 903
1912 29.6% 5,176 29.4% 5,136 41.0% 7,171
1908 61.0% 9,499 35.3% 5,502 3.7% 578
1904 64.1% 6,429 29.3% 2,933 6.6% 666
1900 58.0% 5,337 40.6% 3,733 1.4% 131
1896 58.1% 4,883 40.7% 3,418 1.2% 102
1892 48.0% 2,958 48.9% 3,010 3.1% 192
1888 54.2% 2,543 44.1% 2,068 1.7% 80

Lake County has long been a Democratic stronghold, giving pluralities to Democrats in every Presidential election since 1960 except 1972.

Lake is part of Indiana's 1st congressional district, which is held by Democrat Pete Visclosky.[43] In the State Senate, Lake is part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th districts, which are held by three Democrats and one Republican. In the Indiana House of Representatives, Lake is part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th and 19th districts, which are held by four Democrats and four Republicans.

2008 Presidential Primary

In the 2008 Democratic presidential primary on May 6, 2008, Lake County was one of the last counties to report results.[44] Lake County had reported no results at 11 p.m. ET,[45] and at midnight ET, only 28% of Lake County's vote had been reported.[46] A large number of absentee ballots and a record turnout delayed the tallies, and polls closed an hour later than much of the state because Lake County is in the Central Time Zone.[45] Early returns showed Senator Barack Obama leading by a potentially lead-changing margin, leaving the race between Senator Hillary Clinton and Obama "too close to call" until final tallies were reported.

Culture and contemporary life

Entertainment and the arts

Major attractions

Professional sports teams

Recreation

List of parks and recreational facilities - Lake County Parks and Recreation
  • Bellaboo's Play and Discovery Center - Lake Station
  • Buckley Homestead - Lowell
  • Cedar Creek Family Golf Center - Cedar Lake
  • Deep River County Park - Hobart
  • Deep River Waterpark - Crown Point
  • Gibson Woods Nature Preserve - Hammond
  • Grand Kankakee Marsh - Hebron
  • Lake Etta - Gary
  • Lemon Lake - Crown Point
  • Oak Ridge Prairie & Oak Savannah Trail - Griffith
  • Stoney Run County Park - Hebron
  • Three Rivers County Park - Lake Station
  • Turkey Creek Golf Course - Merrillville
  • Whihala Beach - Whiting
List of recreational facilities - Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

Demographics

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 496,005 people, 188,157 households, and 127,647 families residing in the county.[52] The population density was 994.1 inhabitants per square mile (383.8/km2). There were 208,750 housing units at an average density of 418.4 per square mile (161.5/km2).[18] The racial makeup of the county was 64.4% white, 25.9% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 5.8% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16.7% of the population.[52] In terms of ancestry, 16.1% were German, 11.1% were Irish, 9.6% were Polish, 5.4% were English, and 3.7% were American.[53]

Of the 188,157 households, 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, and 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.19. The median age was 37.4 years.[52]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $58,931. Males had a median income of $50,137 versus $33,264 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,142. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.[54]

See also

Bibliography

  • Forstall, Richard L. (editor) (1995). U. S. Population of States and Counties - 1790 Through 1990. National Technical Information Services (NTIS). ISBN 0-934213-48-8. 
  • Schoon, Kenneth J. (2003). Calumet Beginnings: Ancient Shorelines and Settlements at the South End of Lake Michigan. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34218-X. 

Notes

  1. ^ Other = Combined percentages for American Indian or Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; other races; and two or more races
  2. ^ a b Population is 3,936 within Lake County; 3,097 reside in Porter County

References

  1. ^ "Lake County History". Lake County Historical Museum. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ a b William Frederick Howat (1915). A Standard History of Lake County, Indiana, and the Calumet Region, Volume 1. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company. p. 100. 
  3. ^ a b c d "2016 Public Officials Directory". Lake County Board of Elections and Voter's Registration. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ Timothy Horton Ball (1873). Lake County, Indiana, from 1834 to 1872. Chicago: J.W. Goodspeed. p. 5
  5. ^ "Lake County". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 
  6. ^ a b Palmer Quadrangle - Indiana - Lake Co. (Map). 1:24,000. 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). United States Geological Survey. 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Whiting Quadrangle - Indiana - Lake Co. (Map). 1:24,000. 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). United States Geological Survey. 2013. 
  8. ^ "USA Counties in Profile". STATS Indiana. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics 2010, Table DP-1, 2010 Demographic Profile Data. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  10. ^ a b "Lake County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved . 
  13. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009). The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation. The South Shore Journal, 3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2011). Marktown: Clayton Mark's Planned Worker Community in Northwest Indiana. South Shore Journal, 4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved . 
  15. ^ a b Kenneth J. Schoon (2003). Calumet Beginnings: Ancient Shorelines and Settlements at the South End of Lake Michigan. Indiana: Indiana University Press. pps. 20-23.
  16. ^ De Witt Clinton Goodrich & Charles Richard Tuttle (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indiana: R. S. Peale & Co. p. 565. 
  17. ^ William Frederick Howat (1915). A Standard History of Lake County, Indiana, and the Calumet Region, Volume 1. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company. p. 44. 
  18. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Page Not Found: STATS Indiana". www.stats.indiana.edu. Retrieved 2017. 
  20. ^ Joseph S. Pete (March 5, 2016). "Purdue University Northwest now officially exists". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved . 
  21. ^ "Crown Point Community Library". Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "East Chicago Public Library". Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "Gary Public Library". Retrieved . 
  24. ^ "Hammond Public Library". Retrieved . 
  25. ^ "Lake County Public Library". Retrieved . 
  26. ^ "Lowell Public Library". Retrieved . 
  27. ^ "Whiting Public Library". Retrieved . 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hospital Facility Directory for Lake County". Indiana State Department of Health. Retrieved . 
  29. ^ a b c d "Franciscan Health is New Name for Leading Hospital System". Franciscan Alliance, Inc. September 6, 2016. Retrieved . 
  30. ^ Giles Bruce (December 18, 2015). "Crown Point hospital becomes Region's 2nd trauma center". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved . 
  31. ^ a b "Indiana Trauma Centers". Indiana State Department of Health. Retrieved . 
  32. ^ Giles Bruce (August 17, 2017). "Gary hospital becomes first in Northwest Indiana to earn trauma center designation". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved . 
  33. ^ "Largest Employers in Lake County". Lake County Community Economic Development Department. Retrieved . 
  34. ^ a b "NCDC: U.S. Climate Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 
  35. ^ http://scenarios.globalchange.gov/data-library/997
  36. ^ Laird, Neil F.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Arritt, Raymond W.; Labas, Kenneth (March 1, 2001). "Lake Michigan Lake Breezes: Climatology, Local Forcing, and Synoptic Environment". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 40 (3): 409-424. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)0402.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2017 - via journals.ametsoc.org (Atypon). 
  37. ^ Service, National Weather. "NWS JetStream - Thunderstorms". www.srh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017. 
  38. ^ http://www.spc.noaa.gov/wcm/2013/WIND.png
  39. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved . 
  40. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved . 
  41. ^ Bill Dolan (September 16, 2017). "New Lake County Sheriff Martinez credited experience, Hammond support for victory". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved . 
  42. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2017. 
  43. ^ "US Congressman Pete Visclosky". US Congress. Retrieved . 
  44. ^ "Awaiting one county". CNN. 2008-05-06. Retrieved . 
  45. ^ a b Indiana's Lake County has tradition of late vote tallies[dead link]
  46. ^ "Clinton's Indiana win keeps Democratic race alive - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  47. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved 2017. 
  48. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved 2014. 
  49. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 2014. 
  50. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014. 
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