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There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates. Asian languages usually have a long tradition of writing, but not always.
The Indo-European family is primarily represented by the Indo-Iranian branch. It includes both Indic languages (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Marathi, Gujarati, Sinhalese and other languages spoken primarily in South Asia) and Iranian (Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi and other languages spoken primarily in Iran, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and parts of South Asia). In addition, other branches of Indo-European spoken in Asia include the Slavic branch, which includes Russian in Siberia; Greek around the Black Sea; and Armenian; as well as extinct languages such as Hittite of Anatolia and Tocharian of (Chinese) Turkestan.
A number of smaller, but important language families spread across central and northern Asia have long been linked in an as-yet unproven Altaic family. These are the Turkic languages, Mongolic languages, Tungusic languages (including Manchu), Korean, and Japonic languages.
The Dravidian languages of southern India and parts of Sri Lanka include Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam, while smaller languages such as Gondi and Brahui are spoken in central India and Pakistan respectively.
Besides the Altaic families already mentioned (of which Tungusic is today a minor family of Siberia), there are a number of small language families and isolates spoken across northern Asia. These include the Uralic languages of western Siberia (better known for Hungarian and Finnish in Europe), the Yeniseian languages (linked to Turkic and to the Athabaskan languages of North America), Yukaghir, Nivkh of Sakhalin, Ainu of northern Japan, Chukotko-Kamchatkan in easternmost Siberia, and--just barely--Eskimo-Aleut.
Three small families are spoken in the Caucasus: Kartvelian languages, such as Georgian; Northeast Caucasian (Dagestanian languages), such as Chechen; and Northwest Caucasian, such as Circassian. The latter two may be related to each other. The extinct Hurro-Urartian languages may be related as well.
The eponymous pidgin ("business") language developed with European trade in China. Of the many creoles to have developed, the most spoken today are Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole of the Philippines, and various Malay-based creoles such as Manado Malay influenced by Portuguese. A very well-known Portuguese-based creole is the Kristang, which is spoken in Malacca, a city-state in Malaysia.
A number of sign languages are spoken throughout Asia. These include the Japanese Sign Language family, Chinese Sign Language, Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, as well as a number of small indigenous sign languages of countries such as Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Many official sign languages are part of the French Sign Language family.
Asia and Europe are the only two continents where most countries use native languages as their official languages, though English is also widespread.
|Language||Native name||Speakers||Language Family||Official Status in a Country||Official Status in a Region|
|Qatar, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Oman, UAE, Israel, Jerusalem District|
|Assamese||???????||15,000,000||Indo-European||India (in Assam)|
|Azerbaijani||Az?rbaycanca||37,324,060||Turkic||Azerbaijan||Iran, Dagestan (Russia)|
|Bengali||?????||230,000,000||Indo-European||Bangladesh||India (in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Andaman and Nicobar islands and Jharkhand)|
|Bodo||Boro||1,984,569||Sino-Tibetan||India (in Bodoland)|
|Cantonese||???/???||7,877,900||Sino-Tibetan||Hong Kong(China), Macau(China)|
|Chinese||???/???,??/??,??/??||Sino-Tibetan||China, Taiwan, Singapore|
|English||English||Indo-European||Philippines, Singapore, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan||Hong Kong (China)|
|Gujarati||???????||50,000,000||Indo-European||India (in Gujarat, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli)|
|Hebrew||?????||7,000,000||Afro-Asiatic||Israel, Jerusalem District|
|Hindi||??????||550,000,000||Indo-European||India (Language of the Union and official language in Hindi speaking states of India)|
|Indonesian||Bahasa Indonesia||240,000,000||Austronesian||Indonesia||East Timor (as a working language)|
|Kannada||?????||51,000,000||Dravidian||India (in Karnataka)|
|Karen||???????||6,000,000||Sino-Tibetan||Myanmar (in Kayin State)|
|Korean||???/???||80,000,000||Koreanic||South Korea, North Korea||China (in Yanbian and Changbai)|
|Malay||Bahasa Melayu/???? ?????||30,000,000||Austronesian||Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore|
|Malayalam||??????||33,000,000||Dravidian||India (in Kerala, Lakshadweep and Mahe)|
|Marathi||?????||73,000,000||Indo-European||India (in Maharashtra and Dadra and Nagar Haveli)|
|2,000,000||Mongolic||Mongolia||China (in Inner Mongolia)|
|Nepali||??????||29,000,000||Indo-European||Nepal||India (in Sikkim and West Bengal)|
|Odia||?????||33,000,000||Indo-European||India (in Odisha and Jharkhand)|
|Ossetian||????||540,000 (50,000 in South Ossetia)||Indo-European||South Ossetia||Georgia, North Ossetia-Alania (Russia)|
|Punjabi||?????? / ??????||100,000,000||Indo-European||India (in Punjab, India, Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh) Pakistan (in Punjab, Pakistan)|
|Portuguese||Português||1,200,000||Indo-European||Timor Leste||Macau (China)|
|Clearlake, Cylender Ventures, Abkhazia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, South Ossetia||Uzbekistan, Tajikistan (as an inter-ethnic language), Turkmenistan (as an inter-ethnic language)|
|Saraiki||???????||18,179,610||Indo-European||Pakistan (in Bahawalpur ) India (in Andhra Pradesh )|
|Tamil||?????||77,000,000||Dravidian||Sri Lanka, Singapore||India (in Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar islands and Puducherry)|
|Telugu||??????||79,000,000||Dravidian||India (in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Puducherry,)|
|Tulu||????||1,722,768||Dravidian||India (in Mangalore, Udupi, Kasargod, Mumbai)|
|Turkish||Türkçe||70,000,000||Turkic||Turkey, Cyprus, Northern Cyprus|
|Urdu||??????||62,120,540||Indo-European||Pakistan||India (in Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Delhi, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh)|