Latin Verb
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Latin Verb

Conjugation has two meanings.[1] One meaning is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms, or principal parts. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

The second meaning of the word conjugation is a group of verbs which all have the same pattern of inflections. Thus all those Latin verbs which have 1st singular -?, 2nd singular -?s, and infinitive -?re are said to belong to the 1st conjugation, those with 1st singular -e?, 2nd singular -?s and infinitive -?re belong to the 2nd conjugation, and so on. The number of conjugations of regular verbs is usually said to be four.

The word "conjugation" comes from the Latin coniug?ti?, a calque of the Greek ? suzugía, literally "yoking together (horses into a team)".

For simple verb paradigms, see the appendix pages for first conjugation, second conjugation, third conjugation, and fourth conjugation.

Number of conjugations

The ancient Romans themselves, beginning with Varro (1st century BC), originally divided their verbs into three conjugations (coniugationes verbis accidunt tres: prima, secunda, tertia "there are three different conjugations for verbs: the first, second, and third" (Donatus), 4th century A.D.), according to whether the ending of the 2nd person singular had an a, an e or an i in it.[2] However, others, such as Sacerdos (3rd century AD), Dositheus (4th century A.D.) and Priscian[3] (c. 500 A.D.), recognised four different groups.[4]

Modern grammarians[5] generally recognise four conjugations, according to whether their active present infinitive has the ending -?re, -?re, -ere, or -?re (or the passive equivalent of these), for example: (1) am?, am?re "to love", (2) vide?, vid?re "to see", (3) reg?, regere "to rule" and (4) audi?, aud?re "to hear". There are also some verbs of mixed conjugation, having some endings like the 3rd and others like the 4th conjugation, for example, capi?, capere "to capture" and orior, or?r? "to arise".

In addition to regular verbs, which belong to one or other of the four conjugations, there are also a few irregular verbs, which have a different pattern of endings. The most important of these is the verb sum, esse "to be". There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs in which some of the tenses are missing).

Principal parts

The grouping in conjugations is based on the behaviour of the verb in the present system; the stems for other tenses cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of forms for any particular verb.

In a dictionary, Latin verbs are therefore listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:

  1. the first person singular of the present indicative active
  2. the present infinitive active
  3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
  4. the supine or, in some grammars, the perfect passive participle, which uses the same stem. (Texts that list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs.) Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.

First conjugation

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ? and can be recognized by the -?re ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -?v?. The majority of first-conjugation verbs adhere to this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
    • port?, port?re, port?v?, port?tum, "to carry, to bring";
    • am?, am?re, am?v?, am?tum, "to love, to be fond of";
  • perfect has the suffix -u?, for example:
    • sec?, sec?re, secu?, sectum, "to cut, to divide";
    • fric?, fric?re, fricu?, frictum, "to rub";
    • vet?, vet?re, vetu?, vetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
  • perfect has the suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
    • lav?, lav?re, l?v?, lautum, "to wash, to bathe";
    • iuv?, iuv?re, i?v?, i?tum, "to help, to assist";
  • perfect is reduplicated, for example:
    • st?, st?re, stet?, statum, "to stand";
    • d?, dare, ded?, datum, "to give"; this verb is irregular, since except in the 2nd singular (d?, d?s) the a is short (d?re, d?tum, d?b? etc.)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation all follow the pattern below, which is the passive of the first type above:[6]

  • arbitror, arbitr?r?, arbitr?tus sum (to think)
  • c?nor, c?n?r?, c?n?tus sum (to try)
  • c?nctor, c?nct?ri, c?nct?tus sum (to hesitate)

Second conjugation

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ?, and can be recognized by the -e? ending of the first person present indicative and the -?re ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -u?. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum (to frighten, to deter)
    • doce?, doc?re, docu?, doctum (to teach, to instruct)
    • tene?, ten?re, tenu?, tentum (to hold, to keep)
  • perfect has the suffix -?v?. Examples:
    • d?le?, d?l?re, d?l?v?, d?l?tum (to destroy, to efface)
    • cie?, ci?re, c?v?, citum (to arouse, to stir)
  • perfect has the suffix -s? (which combines with a preceding c or g to -x?). Examples:
    • auge?, aug?re, aux?, auctum (to increase, to enlarge)
    • iube?, iub?re, iuss?, iussum (to order, to bid)
  • perfect is reduplicated with -?. Examples:
    • morde?, mord?re, momord?, morsum (to bite, to nip)
    • sponde?, spond?re, spopond?, sp?nsum (to vow, to promise)
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • vide?, vid?re, v?d?, v?sum (to see, to notice)
    • fove?, fov?re, f?v?, f?tum (to caress, to cherish)
  • perfect has suffix -? and no perfect passive participle. Examples:
    • str?de?, str?d?re, str?d? (to hiss, to creak)
    • ferve?, ferv?re, ferv? (sometimes fervu? or ferbu?) (to boil, to seethe)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation are few. They mostly go like the passive of terre?, but fateor and confiteor have a perfect participle with ss:[7]

  • mereor, mer?r?, meritus sum (to deserve)
  • polliceor, pollic?r?, pollicitus sum (to promise)
  • fateor, fat?r?, fassus sum (to confess)

Third conjugation

The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between e, i, and u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in -ere in the present active infinitive. There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:

  • perfect has suffix -s? (-x? when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • carp?, carpere, carps?, carptum (to pluck, to select)
    • trah?, trahere, tr?x?, tr?ctum (to drag, to draw)
    • ger?, gerere, gess?, gestum (to wear, to bear)
    • flect?, flectere, flex?, flexum (to bend, to twist)
  • perfect is reduplicated with suffix -?. Examples:
    • curr?, currere, cucurr?, cursum (to run, to race)
    • caed?, caedere, cec?d?, caesum (to kill, to slay)
    • tang?, tangere, tetig?, t?ctum (to touch, to hit)
    • pell?, pellere, pepul?, pulsum (to beat, to drive away)
  • perfect has suffix -v?. Examples:
    • pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum (to seek, to attack)
    • lin?, linere, l?v?, l?tum (to smear, to befoul)
    • ser?, serere, s?v?, satum (to sow, to plant)
    • ter?, terere, tr?v?, tr?tum (to rub, to wear out)
    • stern?, sternere, str?v?, str?tus (to spread, to stretch out)
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • ag?, agere, ?g?, ?ctum (to do, to drive)
    • leg?, legere, l?g?, l?ctum (to collect, to read)
    • em?, emere, ?m?, ?mptum (to buy, to purchase)
    • vinc?, vincere, v?c?, victum (to conquer, to master)
    • fund?, fundere, f?d?, f?sum (to pour, to utter)
  • perfect has suffix -? only. Examples:
    • ?c?, ?cere, ?c?, ?ctum (to strike, to smite)
    • vert?, vertere, vert?, versum (to turn, to alter)
    • v?s?, v?sere, v?s?, v?sum (to visit)
  • perfect has suffix -u?. Examples:
    • met?, metere, messu?, messum (to reap, to harvest)
    • vom?, vomere, vomu?, vomitum (to vomit)
    • col?, colere, colu?, cultum (to cultivate, to till)
    • tex?, texere, texu?, textum (to weave, to plait)
    • gign?, gignere, genu?, genitum (to beget, to cause)
  • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix with -sc?. Examples:
    • n?sc?, n?scere, n?v?, n?tum (to get to know, to learn)
    • adol?sc?, adol?scere, adol?v? (to grow up, to mature)
    • fl?r?sc?, fl?r?scere, fl?ru? (to begin to flourish, to blossom)
    • haer?sc?, haer?scere, haes?, haesum (to adhere, to stick)
    • p?sc?, p?scere, p?v?, p?stum (to feed upon, to feed (an animal))

Deponent verbs in the 3rd conjugation include the following:

  • l?bor, l?b?, l?psus sum (to glide)
  • loquor, loqu?, loc?tus sum (to speak)
  • obl?v?scor, obl?v?sc?, obl?tus sum (to forget)
  • sequor, sequ?, sec?tus sum (to follow)
  • ?tor, ?t?, ?sus sum (to use)

Third conjugation -i? verbs

Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix -i?. These resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms. Some examples are:

  • capi?, capere, c?p?, captum (to take, capture)
  • faci?, facere, f?c?, factum (to do, to make)
  • rapi?, rapere, rapu?, raptum (to plunder, seize)
  • cupi?, cupere, cup?v?, cup?tum (to desire, long for)

Deponent verbs in this group include:

  • morior, mor?, mortuus sum (to die)
  • patior, pat?, passus sum (to suffer, to allow)
  • aggredior, aggred?, aggressus sum (to attack)

They resemble the fourth conjugation in the following parts of the verb:

Present indicative (first person singular, third person plural): capi?, capiunt.
Indicative imperfect: capi?bam, capi?b?mus.
Indicative future: capiam, capi?mus.
Subjunctive present: capiam, capi?mus
Imperative future (third person plural): capiunt?
Present Active Participle: capi?ns, -entis
Gerund: capiend?, capiendum (also capiund?)
Gerundive: capiendus, -a, -um (also capiundus)

Fourth conjugation

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ? and can be recognized by the -?re ending of the present active infinitive. Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:

  • perfect has suffix -v?. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum (to hear, listen (to))
    • m?ni?, m?n?re, m?n?v?, m?n?tum (to fortify, to build)
  • perfect has suffix -u?. Examples:
    • aperi?, aper?re, aperu?, apertum (to open, to uncover)
  • perfect has suffix -s? (-x? when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • saepi?, saep?re, saeps?, saeptum (to surround, to enclose)
    • sanci?, sanc?re, s?nx?, s?nctum (to confirm, to ratify)
    • senti?, sent?re, s?ns?, s?nsum (to feel, to perceive)
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • veni?, ven?re, v?n?, ventum (to come, to arrive)

Deponent verbs in the 4th conjugation include the following:[8]

  • assentior, assent?r?, ass?nsus sum (to assent)
  • largior, larg?r?, larg?tus sum (to bestow)
  • mentior, ment?r?, ment?tus sum (to tell a lie)
  • m?tior, m?t?r?, m?nsus sum (to measure)
  • sortior, sort?r?, sort?tus sum (to cast lots)

The verb orior, or?r?, ortus sum (to arise) is also regarded as 4th conjugation, although some parts, such as the 3rd singular present tense oritur and imperfect subjunctive orerer, have a short vowel like the 3rd conjugation. But its compound adorior (to rise up, attack) is entirely 4th conjugation.

Personal endings

Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice. These are formed by a participle and a form of esse (to be). For example, the perfect passive 1st person singular form of the verb am?re (to love) is amatus sum, using the participle and sum rather than the perfect stem amav- and some form of -ir. The perfect uses its own personal endings in the active voice, which are shown in the chart below.

Active voice Passive voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present tense, etc. First person -?, -m -mus -or, -r -mur
Second person -s -tis -ris -min?
Third person -t -nt -tur -ntur
Perfect First person -? -imus
Second person -ist? -istis
Third person -it -?runt / -?re

Present-tense system

The tenses of the present-tense system are the present, imperfect, and future tenses. As examples, the following verbs will be used here:

  • the first conjugation verb port?, port?re, port?v?, port?tum (to carry, to bring)
  • the second conjugation verb terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum (to frighten, to deter)
  • the third conjugation verb pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum (to seek, to attack)
  • the fourth conjugation verb audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum (to hear, to listen (to))

In all the conjugations except for the third conjugation, the -re is removed from the second principal part (for example, port?re without the suffix -re becomes port?-) to form the present stem, which is used for all of the tenses in the imperfective aspect. In the third conjugation, the -? ending of the present indicative is dropped in order to form the present stem (for example, the present indicative form of petere is pet?, and without the -? it is the present stem, pet-).[9] Occasionally, the terminating vowel of the stem is lengthened and/or shortened, and sometimes completely changed. This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations.

Present tense

The present tense (Latin tempus praes?ns) is used to show an uncompleted action that happens in the current time. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. However, in this tense the thematic vowel, most notably the ? in the third conjugation, changes the most frequently.

Present indicative

The present indicative expresses general truths, facts, demands and desires. Most commonly, a verb like port? can be translated as "I carry," "I do carry," or "I am carrying". In all but the third conjugation, only the thematical vowel of the stem is used. In the third conjugation, the e is only used in the second person singular in the passive for a less difficult pronunciation. Otherwise, it becomes either an i or u. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part. All end in -?.

Present active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port? port?mus terre? terr?mus pet? petimus audi? aud?mus
Second person port?s port?tis terr?s terr?tis petis petitis aud?s aud?tis
Third person portat portant terret terrent petit petunt audit audiunt

Add the passive endings to form the passive voice. The passive portor can be translated as "I am carried," or "I am being carried".

Present passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portor port?mur terreor terr?mur petor petimur audior aud?mur
Second person port?ris port?min? terr?ris terr?min? peteris petimin? aud?ris aud?min?
Third person port?tur portantur terr?tur terrentur petitur petuntur aud?tur audiuntur

Notice that in the second person singular of petere, the thematic vowel is e (peteris, not petiris).

Present subjunctive

The present subjunctive may be used to assert many things. In general, in independent sentences, it is translated hortatorily (in the first person plural), jussively and optatively. Portem can be translated as "I may carry", "I would carry", "I should carry", or in subordinate clauses simply as "I carry". Port?mus can be "Let us carry".

The vowels of the verb endings in the present subjunctive differ from the indicative:

  • The first conjugation uses e or ? instead of ?.
  • The second conjugation uses ea and e?.
  • The third conjugation uses a or ?.
  • The fourth conjugation uses ia or i?.
Present active subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portem port?mus terream terre?mus petam pet?mus audiam audi?mus
Second person port?s port?tis terre?s terre?tis pet?s pet?tis audi?s audi?tis
Third person portet portent terreat terreant petat petant audiat audiant

Like the indicative, active personal endings may be replaced by passive personal endings. Porter can be translated as "Let me be carried" or "May I be carried." Hortatorily, Port?mur can be "Let us be carried".

Present passive subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person porter port?mur terrear terre?mur petar pet?mur audiar audi?mur
Second person port?ris port?min? terre?ris terre?min? pet?ris pet?min? audi?ris audi?min?
Third person port?tur portentur terre?tur terreantur pet?tur petantur audi?tur audiantur

Present imperative

The present imperative conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. Port? can be translated as "(You) Carry" or simply, "Carry". The imperative present occurs only in the second person.

  • The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending.
Present active imperative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person port? port?te terr? terr?te pete petite aud? aud?te

The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used, except in the case of deponent verbs, whose passive forms carry active meaning. Port?min? can be translated as "(You) Be carried". The deponent sequimin?, on the other hand, means "(You) Follow!".

  • The singular uses the alternate form of the present passive indicative (which looks like the present active infinitive) and the plural uses the present passive indicative form of the second person plural.
Present passive imperative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person port?re port?min? terr?re terr?min? petere petimin? aud?re aud?min?

Imperfect

The imperfect (Latin tempus praeteritum imperfectum) indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It is recognized by the tense signs b? and b? in the indicative, and re and r? in the subjunctive.

Imperfect indicative

The imperfect indicative simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. Port?bam can be translated to mean, "I was carrying," "I carried," or "I used to carry".

  • In the indicative, the imperfect employs its tense signs ba and b? before personal endings are added.
Imperfect active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?bam port?b?mus terr?bam terr?b?mus pet?bam pet?b?mus audi?bam audi?b?mus
Second person port?b?s port?b?tis terr?b?s terr?b?tis pet?b?s pet?b?tis audi?b?s audi?b?tis
Third person port?bat port?bant terr?bat terr?bant pet?bat pet?bant audi?bat audi?bant

As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. Port?bar can be translated as "I was being carried," "I kept being carried," or "I used to be carried".

Imperfect passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?bar port?b?mur terr?bar terr?b?mur pet?bar pet?b?mur audi?bar audi?b?mur
Second person port?b?ris port?b?min? terr?b?ris terr?b?min? pet?b?ris pet?b?min? audi?b?ris audi?b?min?
Third person port?b?tur port?bantur terr?b?tur terr?bantur pet?b?tur pet?bantur audi?b?tur audi?bantur

Imperfect subjunctive

In the subjunctive, the imperfect is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. Port?rem can mean, "I should carry," or "I would carry".

  • Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. The third conjugation's thematical remains short as an e, and the fourth conjugation does not use an i? before the imperfect signs. It keeps its ?.
  • In the subjunctive, the imperfect employs its tense signs re and r? before personal endings.
  • The verb esse (to be) has two imperfect subjunctives: one using the present infinitive (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and one using the future infinitive (forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent).
Imperfect active subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?rem port?r?mus terr?rem terr?r?mus peterem peter?mus aud?rem aud?r?mus
Second person port?r?s port?r?tis terr?r?s terr?r?tis peter?s peter?tis aud?r?s aud?r?tis
Third person port?ret port?rent terr?ret terr?rent peteret peterent aud?ret aud?rent

As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. Port?rer may be translated as "I should be carried," or "I would be carried."

Imperfect passive subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?rer port?r?mur terr?rer terr?r?mur peterer peter?mur aud?rer aud?r?mur
Second person port?r?ris port?r?min? terr?r?ris terr?r?min? peter?ris peter?min? aud?r?ris aud?r?min?
Third person port?r?tur port?rentur terr?r?tur terr?rentur peter?tur peterentur aud?r?tur aud?rentur

Future tense

The future tense (Latin tempus fut?rum simplex) expresses an uncompleted action in the future. It is recognized by its tense signs b?, bi, bu, a and ? in the indicative and the vowel ? in the imperative mood.

Future indicative

The future tense always refers to an incomplete action. In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. Standing alone, port?b? can mean, "I shall carry," or "I will carry."

  • The first and second conjugations append -b- and then add third conjugation present endings.
  • The third and fourth conjugations replace their thematic vowels with a, ? and ?. The fourth conjugation inserts an ? before the a, e and ?.
Future active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?b? port?bimus terr?b? terr?bimus petam pet?mus audiam audi?mus
Second person port?bis port?bitis terr?bis terr?bitis pet?s pet?tis audi?s audi?tis
Third person port?bit port?bunt terr?bit terr?bunt petet petent audiet audient

As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. Port?bor translates as, "I shall be carried."

Future passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?bor port?bimur terr?bor terr?bimur petar pet?mur audiar audi?mur
Second person port?beris port?bimin? terr?beris terr?bimin? pet?ris pet?min? audi?ris audi?min?
Third person port?bitur port?buntur terr?bitur terr?buntur pet?tur petentur audi?tur audientur

Future imperative

The future imperative was a formal form of the imperative; by the classical period, it was chiefly used in legal documents[], though it retained some currency in distinct reference to future time.[10] A few irregular or defective verbs (meminisse 'remember') used this form as their only imperative.

Port?t? can be translated as "You shall carry".

  • As mentioned previously, the vowel ? is used as a sign of the future imperative.
Future active imperative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person port?t? port?t?te terr?t? terr?t?te petit? petit?te aud?t? aud?t?te
Third person portant? terrent? petunt? audiunt?

The ending -or marks the passive voice in the future imperative. Port?tor translates as "You shall be carried." The second person plural is exceptionally rare and only occurs in Plautus with select deponent verbs: arbitr?min?, opper?min?, and not attested with any second conjugation verbs at all.

Future passive imperative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person port?tor port?min? terr?tor ---- petitor petimin? aud?tor aud?min?
Third person portantor terrentor petuntor audiuntor

Perfect-system tenses

The tenses of the perfect system, which are the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses, are used to express actions that have been, had been, or will have been completed. The verbs used for explanation are:

1st conjugation: port?, port?re, port?v?, port?tum - to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum - to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum - to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum - to hear, listen (to)

To find the stem for the three perfect tenses active in all of the conjugations, the -? is removed from the 3rd principal part. For example, from port?v?, port?v- is formed.

Deponent and passive verbs, however, use the perfect passive participle together with part of the verb esse "to be" to make the perfect tenses. The participle is formed by taking the 4th principal part and changing the ending to the appropriate gender and number, e.g. aud?tus est "he was heard", aud?t? sunt "they were heard".

Unlike the present-system tenses, inflection does not deviate from conjugation to conjugation.

Perfect

The perfect (Latin tempus praeteritum perfectum) refers to an action completed in the past. Tense signs are only used in this tense with the indicative. The tense signs of the subjunctive are eri and er?.

Perfect indicative

The indicative perfect expresses a finished action in the past. Port?v? is translated as "I carried," "I did carry," or "I have carried."

  • The perfect indicative perfect in the active voice has its special personal endings which are not used with any other tense.
Perfect active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?v? port?vimus terru? terruimus pet?v? pet?vimus aud?v? aud?vimus
Second person port?vist? port?vistis terruist? terruistis pet?vist? pet?vistis aud?vist? aud?vistis
Third person port?vit port?v?runt terruit terru?runt pet?vit pet?v?runt aud?vit aud?v?runt

In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with the auxiliary verb esse. It uses the present indicative form of esse. Port?tus sum translates as "I was carried," or "I have been carried."

Perfect passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?tus sum port?t? sumus territus sum territ? sumus pet?tus sum pet?t? sumus aud?tus sum aud?t? sumus
Second person port?tus es port?t? estis territus es territ? estis pet?tus es pet?t? estis aud?tus es aud?t? estis
Third person port?tus est port?t? sunt territus est territ? sunt pet?tus est pet?t? sunt aud?tus est aud?t? sunt

Note the participle changes from singular to plural when the subject changes respectively. Treat the participle as an adjective with only nominative singular and plural forms. The participle must also be declined for gender. This can be done by removing the -us on the participle and adding -us, -a, -um with the plural being: -i -ae -a. -us, -i is Masculine, -a, -ae is Feminine, and -um, -a is neuter.

Perfect subjunctive

Like the imperfect subjunctive, the perfect subjunctive is largely used in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is usually translated as the potential subjunctive. By itself, port?verim translates as "I may have carried."

  • The tense signs eri and er? are used before the personal endings are added.
Perfect active subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?verim port?ver?mus terruerim terruer?mus pet?verim pet?ver?mus aud?verim aud?ver?mus
Second person port?veris port?ver?tis terrueris terruer?tis pet?veris pet?ver?tis aud?ver?s aud?ver?tis
Third person port?verit port?verint terruerit terruerint pet?verit pet?verint aud?verit aud?verint

The passive voice uses the perfect passive participle with the subjunctive present forms of esse. Port?tus sim means, "I may have been carried."

Perfect passive subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?tus sim port?t? s?mus territus sim territ? s?mus pet?tus sim pet?t? s?mus aud?tus sim aud?t? s?mus
Second person port?tus s?s port?t? s?tis territus s?s territ? s?tis pet?tus s?s pet?t? s?tis aud?tus s?s aud?t? s?tis
Third person port?tus sit port?t? sint territus sit territ? sint pet?tus sit pet?t? sint aud?tus sit aud?t? sint

Pluperfect

The pluperfect (Latin tempus praeteritum pl?squamperfectum) expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. It is recognized by the tense signs era and er? in the indicative and isse and iss? in the subjunctive.

Pluperfect indicative

As with English, in Latin, the pluperfect indicative is used to assert an action that was completed before another (perfect). Port?veram translates as "I had carried."

  • The tense sign er? is employed before adding the personal endings, with the long ? following the usual rules for shortening before final -m, -t, and -nt.
Pluperfect active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?veram port?ver?mus terrueram terruer?mus pet?veram pet?ver?mus aud?veram aud?ver?mus
Second person port?ver?s port?ver?tis terruer?s terruer?tis pet?ver?s pet?ver?tis aud?ver?s aud?ver?tis
Third person port?verat port?verant terruerat terruerant pet?verat pet?verant aud?verat aud?verant

In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with esse in the imperfect indicative. Port?tus eram is translated as "I had been carried."

Pluperfect passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?tus eram port?t? er?mus territus eram territ? er?mus pet?tus eram pet?t? er?mus aud?tus eram aud?t? er?mus
Second person port?tus er?s port?t? er?tis territus er?s territ? er?tis pet?tus er?s pet?t? er?tis aud?tus er?s aud?t? er?tis
Third person port?tus erat port?t? erant territus erat territ? erant pet?tus erat pet?t? erant aud?tus erat aud?t? erant

Pluperfect subjunctive

The pluperfect subjunctive is to the perfect subjunctive as the imperfect subjunctive is to the present subjunctive. Simply put, it is used with the perfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Like the imperfect subjunctive, it is translated conditionally independently. Port?vissem is translated as "I should have carried," or "I would have carried."

  • The tense signs isse and iss? are used before the personal endings.
Pluperfect active subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?vissem port?viss?mus terruissem terruiss?mus pet?vissem pet?viss?mus aud?vissem aud?viss?mus
Second person port?viss?s port?viss?tis terruiss?s terruiss?tis pet?viss?s pet?viss?tis aud?viss?s aud?viss?tis
Third person port?visset port?vissent terruisset terruissent pet?visset pet?vissent aud?visset aud?vissent

As always, the passive voice uses the perfect passive participle. The imperfect subjunctive of esse is used here. Port?tus essem may mean "I should have been carried," or "I could have been carried," in the conditional sense.

Pluperfect passive subjunctive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?tus essem port?t? ess?mus territus essem territ? ess?mus pet?tus essem pet?t? ess?mus aud?tus essem aud?t? ess?mus
Second person port?tus ess?s port?t? ess?tis territus ess?s territ? ess?tis pet?tus ess?s pet?t? ess?tis aud?tus ess?s aud?t? ess?tis
Third person port?tus esset port?t? essent territus esset territ? essent pet?tus esset pet?t? essent aud?tus esset aud?t? essent

Future perfect

Probably the least used of all the tenses, the future perfect (Latin tempus fut?rum ex?ctum) conveys an action that will have been completed before another action. It is signified by the tense signs er? and eri. The future perfect is the only tense that occurs in a single mood.

Future perfect indicative

As said, the future perfect is used to mention an action that will have been completed in futurity before another action. It is often used with the future tense. In simple translation, port?ver? means, "I will have carried," or "I shall have carried."

  • The tense signs er? and eri or er? are used before the personal endings.
Future perfect active indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?ver? port?ver?mus terruer? terruer?mus pet?ver? pet?ver?mus aud?ver? aud?ver?mus
Second person port?ver?s port?ver?tis terruer?s terruer?tis pet?ver?s pet?ver?tis aud?ver?s aud?ver?tis
Third person port?verit port?verint terruerit terruerint pet?verit pet?verint aud?verit aud?verint

Endings with short -i- (e.g. port?veris, port?verimus, port?veritis) are found in the 2nd singular and 1st and 2nd person plural in some authors, e.g. Terence, Eunuchus 592, but Cicero and Catullus preferred the form with long -i-, e.g. Catullus 5.10 (with Fordyce's note).

As with all perfective aspect tenses, the perfect passive participle is used in the passive voice. However, the future perfect uses the future indicative of esse as the auxiliary verb. Port?tus er? is "I will have been carried," or "I shall have been carried."

Future perfect passive indicative
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person port?tus er? port?t? erimus territus er? territ? erimus pet?tus er? pet?t? erimus aud?tus er? aud?t? erimus
Second person port?tus eris port?t? eritis territus eris territ? eritis pet?tus eris pet?t? eritis aud?tus eris aud?t? eritis
Third person port?tus erit port?t? erunt territus erit territ? erunt pet?tus erit pet?t? erunt aud?tus erit aud?t? erunt

Non-finite forms

The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:

1st conjugation: port?, port?re, port?v?, port?tum - to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum - to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum - to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum - to hear, listen (to)

Participles

There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.

  • The present active participle is declined like a third declension adjective with one ending.
    • In the first and second conjugations, the present active is formed by taking the present stem and adding an -ns. The genitive singular form adds an -ntis, and the thematicals ? and ? are shortened.
    • In the third conjugation, the e of the present stem is lengthened. In the genitive, the ? is short again.
    • In the fourth conjugation, the ? is shortened, and an ? is placed. Of course, this ? is short in the genitive.
    • Puer port?ns translates into "carrying boy."
  • The perfect passive participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the -um from the supine, and adding a -us (masculine nominative singular).
    • Puer port?tus translates into "carried boy."
  • The future active participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations the -um is removed from the supine, and an -?rus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
    • Puer port?t?rus translates into "boy going to carry," or "boy who is going to carry."
  • The future passive participle is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and then the adjective ending "-us, -a, -um". Thus "laudare" forms "laudandus".
    • The literal translation is "about to be praised", but this often extends a sense of obligation, thus "must be praised". Thus the "future passive participle" is often cross-listed as the "gerundive" (see below).
Participles
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Present active port?ns, -antis terr?ns, -entis pet?ns, -entis audi?ns, -entis
Perfect passive port?tus, -a, -um territus, -a, -um pet?tus, -a, -um aud?tus, -a, -um
Future active port?t?rus, -a, -um territ?rus, -a, -um pet?t?rus, -a, -um aud?t?rus, -a, -um
Future passive portandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um audi?ndus, -a, -um

Infinitives

There are six infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active and future passive.

  • The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusativus cum infinitivo, for instance.
    • Port?re means, "to carry."
  • The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a -r? to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an -? is added.
    • Port?r? translates into "to be carried."
  • The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an -isse onto the perfect stem.
    • Port?visse translates into "to have carried."
  • The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Port?tus esse means, "to have been carried."
  • The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
    • Port?t?rus esse means, "to be going to carry." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore (fore is mostly used in a substitute expression for the Future Passive Infinitive)
  • The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb ?r?.
    • Port?tum ?r? is translated as "to be going to be carried." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: Omn?s sen?t?res d?x?runt templum conditum ?r?. "All of the senators said that a temple would be built."
Infinitives
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Present active port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Present passive port?r? terr?r? pet? aud?r?
Perfect active port?visse terruisse pet?visse aud?visse
Perfect passive port?tus esse territus esse pet?tus esse aud?tus esse
Future active port?t?rus esse territ?rus esse pet?t?rus esse aud?t?rus esse
Future passive port?tum ?r? territum ?r? pet?tum ?r? aud?tum ?r?
Here, masculine endings are used.

The Future Passive Infinitive was actually not very commonly used (Wheelock's Latin mentions it exists but makes it a point to avoid using it in any practice examples). In practice, the Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, "fore ut" followed by a subjunctive clause.

Supine

The supine is the fourth principal part of the verb, as given in Latin dictionaries. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.

  • The accusative form ends in a -um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show purpose. Thus it is only used with verbs like ?re "to go", ven?re "to come", etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
    • Pater v?nit port?tum l?ber?s su?s. - The father came to carry his children.
  • The ablative, which ends in a -?, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
    • Arma haec facillima port?t? erant. - These arms were the easiest to carry.
Supine
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Accusative port?tum territum pet?tum aud?tum
Ablative port?t? territ? pet?t? aud?t?

Gerund

The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the -ns becomes an -ndus, and the preceding ? or ? is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form portand? can mean "of carrying", the dative form portand? can mean "to carrying", the accusative form portandum can mean "carrying", and the ablative form portand? can mean "by carrying", "in respect to carrying", etc.

Gerund
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
Accusative portandum terrendum petendum audiendum
Genitive portand? terrend? petend? audiend?
Dative portand? terrend? petend? audiend?
Ablative

One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example, paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example, for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[11]

Gerundive

The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see § Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with an implicit esse, to show obligation.

  • Puer portandus "The boy to be carried"
  • Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
Gerundive
port?re terr?re petere aud?re
portandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um audiendus, -a, -um

For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.

Periphrastic conjugations

There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.

Active

The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to carry," "I was going to carry", etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. port?t?rus sum I am going to carry
Imp. ind. port?t?rus eram I was going to carry
Fut. ind. port?t?rus er? I shall be going to carry
Perf. ind. port?t?rus fu? I have been going to carry
Plup. ind. port?t?rus fueram I had been going to carry
Fut. perf. ind. port?t?rus fuer? I shall have been going to carry
Pres. subj. port?t?rus sim I may be going to carry
Imp. subj. port?t?rus essem I should be going to carry
Perf. subj. port?t?rus fuerim I may have been going to carry
Plup. subj. port?t?rus fuissem I should have been going to carry

Passive

The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am to be carried," "I was to be carried", etc., or as "I have to (must) be carried," "I had to be carried," etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. portandus sum I am to be carried Imp. ind. portandus eram I was to be carried
Fut. ind. portandus er? I will deserve to be carried
Perf. ind. portandus fu? I was to be carried
Plup. ind. portandus fueram I had deserved to be carried
Fut. perf. ind. portandus fuer? I will have deserved to be carried
Pres. subj. portandus sim I may deserve to be carried
Imp. subj. portandus essem I should deserve to be carried
Perf. subj. portandus fuerim I may have deserved to be carried
Plup. subj. portandus fuissem I should have deserved to be carried
Pres. inf. portandus esse To deserve to be carried
Perf. inf. portandus fuisse To have deserved to be carried

Peculiarities

Irregular verbs

There are a few irregular verbs in Latin that are not grouped into a particular conjugation (such as esse and posse), or deviate slightly from a conjugation (such as ferre, ?re, and dare). It consists of the following list and their compounds (such as conferre). Many irregular verbs lack a fourth principal part.

sum esse, fu?, fut?rum[1] - to be, exist
possum, posse[2], potu? - to be able, can
e?, ?re, ?v? / , ?tum - to go
vol?, velle, volu? - to wish, want
n?l?, n?lle, n?lu? - not to want, refuse
m?l?, m?lle, m?lu? - to prefer
fer?, ferre, tul?, l?tum - to bear, endure, carry, bring
f, fier?, factus sum - to become, happen, be made
ed?, ?sse, ?d?, ?sum - to eat, waste
d?, dare, ded?, datum - to give, bestow

Of these, esse, ferre, and fier? are suppletive, that is, their deviating third and fourth principal parts reflect what was an entirely different verb historically (in Proto-Indo-European).

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:

1st conjugation: m?ror, m?r?r?, m?r?tus sum - to admire, wonder
2nd conjugation: polliceor, pollic?r?, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer
3rd conjugation: loquor, loqu?, loc?tus sum - to speak, say
4th conjugation: mentior, ment?r?, ment?tus sum - to tell a lie

Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves (except the gerundive), and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loqu?, and there are no forms like loqu?, loquis, loquit, etc.

Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus, semi-deponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:

aude?, aud?re, ausus sum - to dare, venture

Unlike the proper passive of active verbs, which is always intransitive, some deponent verbs are transitive, which means that they can take an object. For example:

Eo die quo consueverat intervallo hostes sequitur. - That day he follows the enemy at his usual distance.

Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, m?r?r? changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and aude? changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Defective verbs

Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.

  • Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ?d? means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
?d?, ?disse - to hate
memin?, meminisse - to remember
coep?, coepisse - to have begun
  • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" or "Out with it" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.

The following are conjugated irregularly:

Aio

Conjugation of ai?
Indicative
present
Indicative
imperfect
Subjunctive
present
Imperative
present
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
First person ai? ---- ai?bam ai?b?mus ---- ---- ----
Second person ais ai?b?s ai?b?tis ai?s* ai
Third person ait aiunt ai?bat ai?bant aiat aiant* ----
Present Active Participle: - ai?ns, -entis

Inquam

Conjugation of inquam
Present indicative Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Imperfect
indicative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular
First person inquam inquimus[12] ---- inqui?[13] ----
Second person inquis ---- inqui?s inquist?[14]
Third person inquit inquiunt inquiet inquit inqui?bat[3]

Fari

Conjugation of f?r?
Present
indicative
Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Pluperfect
indicative
Present
imperative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular Singular Plural
First person for ---- f?bor f?tus sum f?tus eram ---- ----
Second person ---- ---- ---- ---- f?re f?min?
Third person f?tur fantur f?bitur ---- ----
Present Active Participle - f?ns, fantis
Present Active Infinitive - f?r? (variant: f?rier)
Supine - (acc.) f?tum, (abl.) f?t?
Gerund - (gen.) fand?, (dat. and abl.) fand?, no accusative
Gerundive - fandus, -a, -um

The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ?d?) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).

Impersonal verbs

Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "It storms"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:

pluit, pluere, pluvit - to rain (it rains)
ningit, ningere, ninxit[4] - to snow (it snows)
oportet, oport?re, oportuit - to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
licet, lic?re, licuit - to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])

The third person forms of esse may also be seen as impersonal when seen from the perspective of English:

Nox aest?va calida fuit. - It was a hot, summer night.
Est e? qu? terram colunt. - It is they who till the land.

Irregular future active participles

As stated, the future active participle is normally formed by removing the -um from the supine, and adding a -?rus. However, some deviations occur.

Present
active
infinitive
Supine Future
active
participle
iuv?re i?tum iuv?t?rus
lav?re/lavere lav?tum (but PPP lautus) lav?t?rus
parere partum parit?rus
ruere rutum ruit?rus
sec?re sectum sec?t?rus
fru? fr?ctum/fruitum fruit?rus
nasc? n?tum n?t?rus/nascit?rus
mor?[5] mortuum morit?rus
or?r? ortum orit?rus

Alternative verb forms

Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):

  • The ending -ris in the passive voice may be -re as in:
port?b?ris -> port?b?re
  • The ending -?runt in the perfect may be -?re (primarily in poetry) as in:
port?v?runt -> port?v?re
  • The ending -? in the passive infinitive may be -ier as in:
port?r? -> port?rier, dic? -> dicier

Syncopated verb forms

Like in most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:

  • Perfect stems that end in a -v may be contracted when inflected.
port?visse -> port?sse
port?vist? -> port?st?
port?verant -> port?rant
port?visset -> port?sset
  • The compounds of noscere (to learn) and mov?re (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
n?vist? -> n?st?
n?vistis -> n?stis
comm?veram -> comm?ram
comm?ver?s -> comm?r?s

Summary of forms

The four conjugations in the finite forms

The Four Conjugations, Finite Forms
1st 2nd 3rd 3rd (i-stem) 4th
laud?, laud?re, laud?v?, laud?tus terre?, terr?re, terru?, territus ag?, agere, ?g?, actus capi?, capere, c?p?, captus audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tus
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
Present
Indicative
1st singular laud? laudor terre? terreor ag? agor capi? capior audi? audior
2nd person laud?s laud?ris terr?s terr?ris agis ageris capis caperis aud?s aud?ris
3rd person laudat laud?tur terret terr?tur agit agitur capit capitur audit aud?tur
1st plural laud?mus laud?mur terr?mus terr?mur agimus agimur capimus capimur aud?mus aud?mur
2nd person laud?tis laud?min? terr?tis terr?min? agitis agimin? capitis capimin? aud?tis aud?min?
3rd person laudant laudantur terrent terrentur agunt aguntur capiunt capiuntur audiunt audiuntur
Subjunctive
1st singular laudem lauder terream terrear agam agar capiam capiar audiam audiar
2nd person laud?s laud?ris terre?s terre?ris ag?s ag?ris capias capi?ris audi?s audi?ris
3rd person laudet laud?tur terreat terre?tur agat ag?tur capiat capi?tur audiat audi?tur
1st plural laud?mus laud?mur terre?mus terre?mur ag?mus ag?mur capi?mus capi?mur audi?mus audi?mur
2nd person laud?tis laud?min? terre?tis terre?min? ag?tis ag?min? capi?tis capi?min? audi?tis audi?min?
3rd person laudent laudentur terreant terreantur agant agantur capiant capiantur audiant audiantur
Imperative
2nd person laud? laud?re terr? terr?re age agere cape capere aud? aud?ris
2nd plural laud?te laud?min? terr?te terr?min? agite agimin? capite capimin? aud?te aud?min?
Imperfect
Indicative
1st singular laud?bam laud?bar terr?bam terr?bar ag?bam ag?bar capi?bam capi?bar audi?bam audi?bar
2nd person laud?b?s laud?b?ris terr?b?s terr?b?ris ag?b?s ag?b?ris capi?b?s capi?b?ris audi?b?s audi?b?ris
3rd person laud?bat laud?b?tur terr?bat terr?b?tur ag?bat ag?b?tur capi?bat capi?b?tur audi?bat audi?b?tur
1st plural laud?b?mus laud?b?mur terr?b?mus terr?b?mur ag?b?mus ag?b?mur capi?b?mus capi?b?mur audi?b?mus audi?b?mur
2nd person laud?b?tis laud?b?min? terr?b?tis terr?b?min? ag?b?tis ag?b?min? capi?b?tis capi?b?min? audi?b?tis audi?b?min?
3rd person laud?bant laud?bantur terr?bant terr?bantur ag?bant ag?bantur capi?bant capi?bantur audi?bant audi?bantur
Subjunctive
1st singular laud?rem laud?rer terr?rem terr?rer agerem agerer caperem caperer aud?rem aud?rer
2nd person laud?r?s laud?r?ris terr?r?s terr?r?ris ager?s ager?ris caper?s caper?ris aud?r?s aud?r?ris
3rd person laud?ret laud?r?tur terr?ret terr?r?tur ageret ager?tur caperet caper?tur aud?ret aud?r?tur
1st plural laud?r?mus laud?r?mur terr?r?mus terr?r?mur ager?mus ager?mur caper?mus caper?mur aud?r?mus aud?r?mur
2nd person laud?r?tis laud?r?min? terr?r?tis terr?r?min? ager?tis ager?min? caper?tis caper?min? aud?r?tis aud?r?min?
3rd person laud?rent laud?rentur terr?rent terr?rentur agerent agerentur caperent caperentur aud?rent aud?rentur
Future
Indicative
1st singular laud?b? laud?bor terr?b? terr?bor agam agar capiam capiar audiam audiar
2nd person laud?bis laud?beris terr?bis terr?beris ag?s ag?ris capi?s capi?ris audi?s audi?ris
3rd person laud?bit laud?bitur terr?bit terr?bitur aget ag?tur capiet capi?tur audiet audi?tur
1st plural laud?bimus laud?bimur terr?bimus terr?bimur ag?mus ag?mur capi?mus capi?mur audi?mus audi?mur
2nd person laud?bitis laud?bimin? terr?bitis terr?bimin? ag?tis ag?min? capi?tis capi?min? audi?tis audi?min?
3rd person laud?bunt laud?buntur terr?bunt terr?buntur agent agentur capient capientur audient audientur
Subjunctive
1st singular laud?t?rus, -a, -um sim territ?rus, -a, -um sim act?rus, -a, -um sim capt?rus, -a, -um sim aud?t?rus, -a, -um sim
2nd person laud?t?rus, -a, -um sis territ?rus, -a, -um sis act?rus, -a, -um sis capt?rus, -a, -um sim sis aud?t?rus, -a, -um sis
3rd person laud?t?rus, -a, -um sit territ?rus, -a, -um sit act?rus, -a, -um sit capt?rus, -a, -um sit aud?t?rus, -a, -um sit
1st plural laud?t?r?, -ae, -a simus territ?r?, -ae, -a simus act?r?, -ae, -a simus capt?r?, -ae, -a simus aud?t?r?, -ae, -a simus
2nd person laud?t?r?, -ae, -a sitis territ?r?, -ae, -a sitis act?r?, -ae, -a sitis capt?r?, -ae, -a sitis aud?t?r?, -ae, -a sitis
3rd person laud?t?r?, -ae, -a sint territ?r?, -ae, -a sint act?r?, -ae, -a sint capt?r?, -ae, -a sint aud?t?r?, -ae, -a sint
Imperative
2nd person laud?t? laud?tor terr?t? terr?re agit? agere capit? capitor aud?t? aud?tor
3rd person laud?t? laud?tor terr?t? terr?tor agit? agitor capit? capitor aud?t? aud?tor
2nd plural laud?t?te terr?t?te agit?te capit?te aud?t?te
3rd person laudant? laudantor terrent? terrentor agunt? agunto capiunt? capiuntor audiunt? audiuntor
Perfect
Indicative
1st singular laud?v? laud?tus, -a, -um sum terru? territus, -a, -um sum ?g? actus, -a, -um sum c?p? captus, -a,-um sum aud?v? aud?tus, -a, -um sum
2nd person laud?vist? laud?tus, -a, -um es terruist? territus, -a, -um es ?gist? actus, -a, -um es c?pist? captus, -a,-um es aud?vist? aud?tus, -a, -um es
3rd person laud?vit laud?tus, -a, -um est terruit territus, -a, -um est ?git actus, -a, -um est c?pit captus, -a,-um est aud?vit aud?tus, -a, -um est
1st plural laud?vimus laud?t?, -ae, -a sumus terruimus territ?, -ae, -a sumus ?gimus act?, -ae, -a sumus c?pimus capt?, -ae, -a sumus aud?vimus aud?t?, -ae, -a sumus
2nd person laud?vistis laud?t?, -ae, -a estis terruistis territ?, -ae, -a estis ?gistis act?, -ae, -a estis c?pistis capt?, -ae, -a estis aud?vistis aud?t?, -ae, -a estis
3rd person laud?v?runt laud?t?, -ae, -a sunt terru?runt territ?, -ae, -a sunt ?g?runt act?, -ae, -a sunt c?p?runt capt?, -ae, -a sunt aud?v?runt aud?t?, -ae, -a sunt
Subjunctive
1st singular laud?verim laud?tus, -a, -um sim terruerim territus, -a, -um sim ?gerim actus, -a, -um sim c?perim captus, -a,-um sim aud?verim aud?tus, -a, -um sim
2nd person laud?veris laud?tus, -a, -um sis terrueris territus, -a, -um sis ?geris actus, -a, -um sis c?peris captus, -a,-um sis aud?veris aud?tus, -a, -um sis
3rd person laud?verit laud?tus, -a, -um sit terruerit territus, -a, -um sit ?gerit actus, -a, -um sit c?perit captus, -a,-um sit aud?verit aud?tus, -a, -um sit
1st plural laud?verimus laud?t?, -ae, -a simus terruerimus territ?, -ae, -a simus ?gerimus act?, -ae, -a simus c?perimus capt?, -ae, -a simus aud?verimus aud?t?, -ae, -a simus
2nd person laud?veritis laud?t?, -ae, -a sitis terrueritis territ?, -ae, -a sitis ?geritis act?, -ae, -a sitis c?peritis capt?, -ae, -a sitis aud?veritis aud?t?, -ae, -a sitis
3rd person laud?verint laud?t?, -ae, -a sint terruerint territ?, -ae, -a sint ?gerint act?, -ae, -a sint c?perint capt?, -ae, -a sint aud?verint aud?t?, -ae, -a sint
Pluperfect
Indicative
1st singular laud?veram laud?tus, -a, -um eram terrueram territus, -a, -um eram ?geram actus, -a, -um eram c?peram captus, -a,-um eram aud?veram aud?tus, -a, -um eram
2nd person laud?ver?s laud?tus, -a, -um er?s terruer?s territus, -a, -um er?s ?ger?s actus, -a, -um er?s c?per?s captus, -a,-um er?s aud?ver?s aud?tus, -a, -um er?s
3rd person laud?verat laud?tus, -a, -um erat terruerat territus, -a, -um erat ?gerat actus, -a, -um erat c?perat captus, -a,-um erat aud?verat aud?tus, -a, -um erat
1st plural laud?ver?mus laud?t?, -ae, -a er?mus terruer?mus territ?, -ae, -a er?mus ?ger?mus act?, -ae, -a er?mus c?per?mus capt?, -ae, -a er?mus aud?ver?mus aud?t?, -ae, -a er?mus
2nd person laud?ver?tis laud?t?, -ae, -a er?tis terruer?tis territ?, -ae, -a er?tis ?ger?tis act?, -ae, -a er?tis c?per?tis capt?, -ae, -a er?tis aud?ver?tis aud?t?, -ae, -a er?tis
3rd person laud?verant laud?t?, -ae, -a erant terruerant territ?, -ae, -a erant ?gerant act?, -ae, -a erant c?perant capt?, -ae, -a erant aud?verant aud?t?, -ae, -a erant
Subjunctive
1st singular laud?vissem laud?tus, -a, -um essem terruissem territus, -a, -um essem ?gissem actus, -a, -um essem c?pissem captus, -a,-um essem aud?vissem aud?tus, -a, -um essem
2nd person laud?viss?s laud?tus, -a, -um ess?s terruiss?s territus, -a, -um ess?s ?giss?s actus, -a, -um ess?s c?piss?s captus, -a,-um ess?s aud?viss?s aud?tus, -a, -um ess?s
3rd person laud?visset laud?tus, -a, -um esset terruisset territus, -a, -um esset ?gisset actus, -a, -um esset c?pisset captus, -a,-um esset aud?visset aud?tus, -a, -um esset
1st plural laud?viss?mus laud?t?, -ae, -a ess?mus terruiss?mus territ?, -ae, -a ess?mus ?giss?mus act?, -ae, -a ess?mus c?piss?mus capt?, -ae, -a ess?mus aud?viss?mus aud?t?, -ae, -a ess?mus
2nd person laud?viss?tis laud?t?, -ae, -a ess?tis terruiss?tis territ?, -ae, -a ess?tis ?giss?tis act?, -ae, -a ess?tis c?piss?tis capt?, -ae, -a ess?tis aud?viss?tis aud?t?, -ae, -a ess?tis
3rd person laud?vissent laud?t?, -ae, -a essent terruissent territ?, -ae, -a essent ?gissent act?, -ae, -a essent c?pissent capt?, -ae, -a essent aud?vissent aud?t?, -ae, -a essent
Future Perfect
Indicative
1st singular laud?ver? laud?tus, -a, -um er? terruer? territus, -a, -um er? ?ger? actus, -a, -um er? c?per? captus, -a,-um er? aud?ver? aud?tus, -a, -um er?
2nd person laud?ver?s laud?tus, -a, -um er?s terruer?s territus, -a, -um er?s ?ger?s actus, -a, -um er?s c?per?s captus, -a,-um er?s aud?ver?s aud?tus, -a, -um er?s
3rd person laud?verit laud?tus, -a, -um erit terruerit territus, -a, -um erit ?gerit actus, -a, -um erit c?perit captus, -a,-um erit aud?verit aud?tus, -a, -um erit
1st plural laud?verimus laud?t?, -ae, -a erimus terruerimus territ?, -ae, -a erimus ?gerimus act?, -ae, -a erimus c?perimus capt?, -ae, -a erimus aud?verimus aud?t?, -ae, -a erimus
2nd person laud?veritis laud?t?, -ae, -a eritis terrueritis territ?, -ae, -a eritis ?geritis act?, -ae, -a eritis c?peritis capt?, -ae, -a eritis aud?veritis aud?t?, -ae, -a eritis
3rd person laud?verint laud?t?, -ae, -a erunt terruerint territ?, -ae, -a erunt ?gerint act?, -ae, -a erunt c?perint capt?, -ae, -a erunt aud?verint aud?t?, -ae, -a erunt

Notes

^ Fut?rus esse is sometimes contracted as fore as seen in Caesar's De Bello Gallico.
^ The archaic uncontracted form potesse occurs frequently in Lucretius.
^ Form moriri, Ovid, Metamorphoses (poem) 14.215[15]
^ Used by Cicero frequently.
^ Used personally by Lucretius (2.627): ningunt[16]

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary "Conjugation".
  2. ^ Donatus [Ars Maior], 10.16.
  3. ^ Priscian, "Liber octauus de uerbo" (Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum)
  4. ^ Daniel J. Taylor "Latin declensions and conjugations: from Varro to Priscian" Historie Épistémologie Langage 13.2 (1991), p. 85-93.
  5. ^ e.g. Gildersleeve and Lodge, 3rd edition (1895), §120.
  6. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §163.
  7. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §164.
  8. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge Latin Grammar (1985), §166.
  9. ^ Jenney, Charles; Roger Scudder; Eric C. Baade (1979). First Year Latin. Allyn and Bacon. p. 123. ISBN 0-205-07859-1. 
  10. ^ Allen, Joseph and James Greenough. Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar. New York: Ginn & Co., 1888. 282.
  11. ^ Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 111. 
  12. ^ Horace. "1.3.66". Sermonum liber primus (in Latin). 
  13. ^ Catullus. "10.27". Poems of Catullus (in Latin). 
  14. ^ Cicero. "2.259". De Oratore (in Latin). 
  15. ^ "P. OVIDI NASONIS METAMORPHOSEN LIBER QVARTVS DECIMVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved 2010. 
  16. ^ "TITI LVCRETI CARI DE RERVM NATVRA LIBER SECVNDVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved 2010. 

See also

References

External links


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