Anglesite, fast white, milk white
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||303.26 g/mol|
|Melting point||1,087 °C (1,989 °F; 1,360 K) decomposes|
|0.0032 g/100 mL (15 °C)
0.00443 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility product (Ksp)
|2.13 x 10-8 (20 °C)|
|Solubility||insoluble in alcohol|
Refractive index (nD)
|103 J/degree mol|
Std enthalpy of
|Repr. Cat. 1/3
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases (outdated)||R61, R20/22, R33, R62, R50/53|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S53, S45, S60, S61|
|Lead(II) chloride, Lead(II) bromide, Lead(II) iodide, Lead(II) fluoride|
|Tin(II) sulfate, Sodium sulfate, Copper(II) sulfate|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form. It is also known as fast white, milk white, sulfuric acid lead salt or anglesite.
It is often seen in the plates/electrodes of car batteries, as it is formed when the battery is discharged (when the battery is recharged, then the lead sulfate is transformed back to metallic lead and sulfuric acid on the negative terminal or lead dioxide and sulfuric acid on the positive terminal). Lead sulfate is poorly soluble in water.
Lead(II) sulfate is prepared by treating lead oxide, hydroxide or carbonate with warm sulfuric acid, or by treating a soluble lead salt with sulfuric acid.
Alternatively, it can be produced by the interaction of solutions of lead nitrate and sodium sulfate.
Lead sulfate is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It is a cumulative poison, and repeated exposure may lead to anemia, kidney damage, eyesight damage or damage to the central nervous system (especially in children). It is also corrosive - contact with the eyes can lead to severe irritation or burns. Typical threshold limit value (above which the substance is harmful) is 0.15 mg/m3.
A number of lead basic sulfates are known: PbSO4·PbO; PbSO4·2PbO; PbSO4·3PbO; PbSO4·4PbO. They are used in manufacturing of active paste for lead acid batteries. A related mineral is leadhillite, 2PbCO3·PbSO4·Pb(OH)2.
At high concentration of sulfuric acid (>80%), lead hydrogensulfate, Pb(HSO4)2, forms.
Lead(II) sulfate can be dissolved in concentrated HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 producing acidic salts or complex compounds, and in concentrated alkali giving soluble hexahydroxidoplumbate(II) [Pb(OH)6]2- complexes.
Lead(II) sulfate decomposes when heated above 1000 °C:
Salts and esters of the sulfate ion