Learning By Observing And Pitching In

Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) is a conceptual system developed by Barbara Rogoff and colleagues that describes a common paradigm in Indigenous communities of the Americas whereby children learn by taking an active role in household and community endeavors. LOPI includes seven distinct yet interrelated aspects, or facets. [1][2]

Facets of LOPI

Facet 1

Children and adults are equally integrated into family and community endeavors, with all members expected to contribute and participate.[3]

Facet 2

As a crucial member of the community, the learner is invested in taking part within the community while others seek to fulfill a given task.[4]

Facet 3

Tasks are navigated in a collaborative and flexible manner that openly approaches different ideas and needs; thus, everyone freely pitches in and contributes.

Facet 4

The goal of learning is for the learner to shift their current method of participation by acquiring necessary skills and information, which includes learning to be a responsible and contributing member of the community.

Facet 5

Community members learn through broad eager attention and contribution during events, with responsibility for the result. Members also learn through input from their community, revealing community expectations.

Facet 6

Tasks are navigated by multiple participants who communicate using both nonverbal means (including various types of body language) and verbal means (including indirect reference to ideas through storytelling). All participants use the task as reference while employing these multiple forms of communication in order to eventually complete the task.

Facet 7

Assessment of the participant's learning is based on feedback on the quality of work done by the participant during some endeavor in order to aid in their competent contribution.

Evidence of LOPI has also been found within the Native Hawaiians ways of learning.


  1. ^ Rogoff, Barbara (2014). "Overview of Learning by Observing and Pitching In". UCSC. Retrieved 2017. 
  2. ^ Coppens, Andrew D.; Silva, Katie G.; Ruvalcaba, Omar; Alcalá, Lucía; López, Angélica; Rogoff, Barbara. "Learning by Observing and Pitching In: Benefits and Processes of Expanding Repertoires". Human Development. 57 (2-3): 150-161. doi:10.1159/000356770. 
  3. ^ Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich (2003-12-01). "Responsibilities of children in Latino immigrant homes". New Directions for Youth Development. 2003 (100): 25-39. ISSN 1537-5781. doi:10.1002/yd.61. 
  4. ^ Gaskins, Suzanne (2000-11-01). "Children's Daily Activities in a Mayan Village: A Culturally Grounded Description". Cross-Cultural Research. 34 (4): 375-389. ISSN 1069-3971. doi:10.1177/106939710003400405. 

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