Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, in nearly 11,100 households. Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775. It is part of the Greater Boston Area and is the sixth wealthiest small city in the United States.
Lexington was first settled circa 1642 as part of Cambridge, Massachusetts. What is now Lexington was then incorporated as a parish, called Cambridge Farms, in 1691. This allowed them to have a separate church and minister, but were still under jurisdiction of the Town of Cambridge. Lexington was incorporated as a separate town in 1713. It was then that it got the name Lexington. How it received its name is the subject of some controversy. Some people believe that it was named in honor of Lord Lexington, an English peer. Some, on the other hand, believe that it was named after Lexington (which was pronounced and is today spelled Laxton) in Nottinghamshire, England.
In the early colonial days, Vine Brook, which runs through Lexington, Burlington, and Bedford, and then empties into the Shawsheen River, was a focal point of the farming and industry of the town. It provided for many types of mills, and in the 20th Century, for farm irrigation.
For decades, Lexington grew modestly while remaining largely a farming community, providing Boston with much of its produce. It always had a bustling downtown area, which remains to this day. Lexington began to prosper, helped by its proximity to Boston, and having a rail line (originally the Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad, later the Boston and Maine Railroad) service its citizens and businesses, beginning in 1846 (turned into a bikeway in 1992). For many years, East Lexington was considered a separate village from the rest of the town, though it still had the same officers and Town Hall. Most of the farms of Lexington became housing developments by the end of the 1960s.
Lexington, as well as many of the towns along the Route 128 corridor, experienced a jump in population in the 1960s and 70s, due to the high-tech boom. Property values in the town soared, and the school system became nationally recognized for its excellence. The town participates in the METCO program, which buses minority students from Boston to suburban towns to receive better educational opportunities than those available to them in the Boston Public Schools.
On April 19, 1775, what many regard as the first battle of the American Revolutionary War was a battle at Lexington. After the rout, the British march on toward Concord where the militia had been allowed time to organize at the Old North Bridge and turn back the British and prevent them from capturing and destroying the militia's arms stores.
Lexington was the Cold War location of the USAF "Experimental SAGE Subsector" for testing a prototype IBM computer that arrived in July 1955 for development of a computerized "national air defense network" (the namesake "Lexington Discrimination System" for incoming ICBM warheads was developed in the late 1960s).
Topography of Lexington and environs
Lexington is located at 42°26?39?N 71°13?36?W / 42.44417°N 71.22667°W (42.444345, -71.226928).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.5 square miles (42.8 km²), of which 16.4 square miles (42.5 km²) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.4 km²), or 0.85%, is water.
Lexington borders the following towns: Burlington, Woburn, Winchester, Arlington, Belmont, Waltham, Lincoln, and Bedford. It has more area than all other municipalities that it borders.
By the 2010 census, the population had reached 31,394.
As of the census of 2010, there had been 31,394 people, 11,530 households, and 8,807 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,851.0 people per square mile (714.6/km²). There were 12,019 housing units at an average density of 691.1 per square mile (266.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 75.5% White, 19.9% Asian (8.6% Chinese, 4.8% Asian Indian, 3.2% Korean), 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population.
There were 11,530 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, and 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.
In 2013, the mean home price for detached houses was $852,953, and the median price of a house or condo was $718,300. According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $191,350, and the median income for a family was $218,890. Males had a median income of $101,334 versus $77,923 for females. The per capita income for the town was $70,132. About 1.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.
By race, the median household income was highest for mixed race households, at $263,321. Hispanic households had a median income of $233,875. Asian households had a median income of $178,988. White households had a median income of $154,533. Black households had a median income of $139,398. American Indian or Alaskan Native households had a median income of $125,139.
In 2010, 20% of the residents of Lexington were born outside of the United States.
Lexington's public education system includes six elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. Overall the Lexington school district is among the top ranked in the state and nationally.
Bridge Elementary School and Jonas Clarke Middle School were High Performing National Blue Ribbon Schools in 2010 and 2013 respectively. They have been ranked as top schools based on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) test scores. Lexington High School was ranked in 2014 as the 19th best high school in the nation by U.S. News. In 2012 and again in 2017, Lexington High School won the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Bowl competition. In addition to Lexington High School, students may attend Minuteman Regional High School.
The Lexington Chinese School (LCS; ?) holds its classes at Belmont High School in Belmont. In 2003 over 400 students attended classes at LCS, held on Sundays.
Culture and Art
Engraved memorial bricks lining the Lexington Depot sidewalk
Historic Mullikan Oak Tree, September 2012
Old Belfry in Belfry Hill Park, Clarke Street. Its plaque reads: "This belfry was erected on this hill in 1761 and removed to the Common in 1768. In it was hung the bell which rung out the alarm on the 19th of April 1775. In 1797 it was removed to the Parker Homestead in the south part of the town. In 1891 it was brought back to this hill by the Lexington Historical Society. Destroyed by a gale in 1909. Rebuilt 1910."
Lexington is home to the Lexington Symphony, which performs regularly at Cary Hall.
Major employers in Lexington include the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Stride Rite, Agilent, Global Insight, CareOne, the Cotting School, Ipswitch, and Lexington Public Schools.
Points of interest
- Lexington is most well known for its history and is home to many historical buildings, parks, and monuments, most dating from Colonial and Revolutionary times.
- One of the most prominent historical landmarks, located in Lexington Centre, is the Common, or as it later became known, the Battle Green, where the battle was fought, and a statue of John Parker, captain of the Lexington militia stands.
- Another important historical monument is the Revolutionary Monument, the nation's oldest standing war memorial (completed on July 4, 1799) and the gravesite of those colonists slain in the Battle of Lexington.
- Other landmarks of historical importance include the Old Burying Ground (with gravestones dating back to 1690), the Old Belfry, Buckman Tavern (circa 1704-1710), Munroe Tavern (circa 1695), the Hancock-Clarke House (1737), the U.S.S. Lexington Memorial, the Centre Depot (old Boston and Maine train station, today the headquarters of the town Historical Society), Follen Church (the oldest standing church building in Lexington, built in 1839), and the Mulliken White Oak (one of Lexington's most distinguished and oldest trees).
- Lexington is also home, along with neighboring Lincoln and nearby Concord to the 900-acre (3.6 km2) Minute Man National Historical Park.
- The Scottish Rite Masonic Museum & Library showcases exhibits on American history and Freemasonry.
- Lexington's town center is home to numerous dining opportunities, fine art galleries, retail shopping, a small cinema, the Cary Memorial Library, the Minuteman Bikeway, Depot Square, and many of the aforementioned historical landmarks.
- The Great Meadow, a.k.a. Arlington's Great Meadows, is a sprawling meadow and marshland located in East Lexington, but owned by the town of Arlington, Lexington's neighbor to the east.
- Willards Woods Conservation Area, a small forest of conservation land donated years ago by the Willard Sisters. Willards Woods is referenced in the classic Saturday Night Live skit "Donnie's Party".
- Wilson Farm, a farm and farm stand in operation since 1884.
- The Lexington Community Center is a meeting place for Lexington residents.
- Notable Lexington neighborhoods include Lexington Centre, Meriam Hill (and Granny Hill), Irish Village, Loring Hill, Belfry Hill, Munroe Hill, Countryside (sometimes referred to as "Scotland"), the Munroe District, the Manor Section, Four Corners, Grapevine Corner, Woodhaven, and East Lexington (fondly "East Village", or "The East End").
- Marrett Square, at the intersection of Marrett Road and Waltham Street, is the location of some light shopping and dining.
- The "Old Reservoir," sometimes referred to by locals as "The Res," used to provide drinking water to Lexington residents and surrounding areas. Now it offers a place to swim and picnic in the summer time. In the winter, when it freezes over, it is used as an ice skating area.
- Book publisher D.C. Heath was founded in 1885 at 125 Spring Street in Lexington, near the present day intersection of Route 128 and MA Route 2, and was headquartered on that spot until its 1995 sale to Houghton Mifflin.
- Lexington is home to several historically significant modernist communities built by notable architects. These neighborhoods include Six Moon Hill, Peacock Farm, and Five Fields.
The Lexington Community Center, opened on October 17, 2015. It is located next to the Headquarters of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry.
- Henry David Abraham, M.D., psychiatrist
- Orny Adams, comedian
- Alice Standish Allen, the first female engineering geologist in North America
- Charles Bachman, computer scientist and early developer of database management systems
- Nariman Behravesh, economic forecaster
- Tim Berners-Lee, computer scientist and creator of the World Wide Web
- Konrad Bloch, Nobel Prize in Medicine
- Nicolaas Bloembergen, Nobel Prize in Physics
- Sidney Burbank, officer in the U.S. Army during the American Civil War
- James MacGregor Burns, Historian, grad LHS in 1935
- Noam Chomsky, professor of linguistics at MIT, creator of the theory of generative grammar, noted political activist, commentator, and author
- Francis Judd Cooke, composer
- Mary Dailey (1928-1965), All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player
- Alan Dawson (1929-1996), famous jazz drummer and percussion teacher
- Dave DeGuglielmo, U.S. football coach
- Joseph Dennie, writer
- John M. Deutch, Deputy Secretary of Defense (1994-1995), Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) (1995-1996) and professor of chemistry at MIT
- Peter A. Diamond, 2010 Nobel Prize in Economics, Professor of Economics at MIT
- Dane DiLiegro, professional basketball player
- Harold Dow Bugbee, Western artist
- Rachel Dratch, cast member of Saturday Night Live
- David Elkind, child psychologist and author
- Brad Ellis, composer and pianist appearing on the television show Glee (TV Series)
- Philip Elmer-DeWitt, science editor for Time Magazine
- Pavel Etingof, mathematician, fellow of the American Mathematics Society, and professor at MIT.
- Carlton Fisk, Hall of Fame catcher for Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox
- Jean B. Fletcher, Norman C. Fletcher (see John & Sarah Harkness below)
- Henry Louis Gates, Jr., African-American Studies scholar, co-editor of Encarta Africana encyclopedia
- Peter Glaser, pioneer in solar energy engineering
- George B. Grant, inventor of calculators and gear industry pioneer
- Dana Greeley, last president of the American Unitarian Association and first president of the Unitarian Universalist Association
- Jonathan Gruber, professor of Economics at MIT and former Deputy Assistant Secretary of the U. S. Treasury
- Cyrus Hamlin, co-founder of Robert College in Istanbul
- G. Hannelius, child actress
- John C. Harkness and Sarah P. Harkness, founders of The Architects Collaborative in Cambridge, Massachusetts with Bauhaus veteran Walter Gropius
- Oliver Hart, 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics, Professor of Economics at Harvard
- Yu-Chi Ho, mathematician
- Pete Holmes, comedian
- Bill Janovitz, lead singer and guitarist of the rock and roll band Buffalo Tom
- Tama Janowitz, author, Slaves of New York (1986)
- Dennis Johnson, guard for the Boston Celtics
- Claude Julien, head coach for the Boston Bruins
- Jon Kabat-Zinn, creator of Mindfulness-based stress reduction
- X. J. Kennedy, noted poet and writer
- Mehran Khaghani, comedian
- Joyce Kulhawik, arts and entertainment anchor for WBZ-TV news
- Steve Leach, former NHL player
- Gerald S. Lesser (1926-2010), psychologist who played a major role in developing the educational programming included in Sesame Street
- Bill Lichtenstein, Peabody Award-winning journalist, filmmaker, radio producer
- Abraham Loeb, chair of Astronomy department and director of the Institute for Theory & Computation, Harvard University
- Salvador Luria, Nobel Prize in Medicine
- Rollie Massimino, led Villanova Wildcats to basketball national championship in 1985, former Lexington High School teacher and coach
- Scott McCloud, cartoonist
- Bill McKibben, environmentalist
- Andrew McMahon, musician, lead vocalist and songwriter of Jack's Mannequin and Something Corporate
- Douglas Melton, pioneer of stem cell research
- Eugene Mirman, comedian
- Mario Molina, Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Russell Morash, pioneer of 'how-to' television, creator and producer of the PBS shows "The Victory Garden," "This Old House," and "New Yankee Workshop"
- Robbie Mustoe, former English Footballer, current ESPN analyst
- Matt Nathanson, musician
- Marjorie Newell Robb, (1889-1992), one of the last survivors of the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912
- Ryan Jude Novelline, contemporary artist and fashion designer
- Joseph Nye, political analyst, author of Soft power
- Cathy O'Neil, Data Scientist, Occupier and blogger at mathbabe. LHS Grad.
- Peter Orszag, economist, Director of the Office of Management and Budget
- Amanda Palmer, songwriter, vocalist, pianist of the duo The Dresden Dolls
- John Parker, captain of the Lexington militia at the Battle of Lexington & Concord
- Theodore Parker, Unitarian minister and Transcendentalist
- Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, astronomer known for her work on spectral analysis of stars. Awarded the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship by the American Astronomical Society in 1976.
- Charles Ponzi, con man, bought mansion in Lexington during 1920 (see Ponzi scheme)
- Dionne Quan, voice actress
- John Rawls, philosopher; known for his theory of justice
- Ruth Sawyer, author, winner of the Newbery Medal
- Clifford Shull, Nobel Prize in Physics
- Aafia Siddiqui, neuroscientist convicted of assaulting with a deadly weapon and attempting to kill U.S. soldiers and FBI agents (alleged Al-Qaeda operative)
- Tom Silva, building contractor and co-host of the PBS show This Old House
- Clarence Skinner, Dean of Crane School of Theology at Tufts University and influential 20th-century American Universalist
- Robert Solow, Nobel Prize-winning economist
- Jill Stein, 2012 and 2016 Green Party presidential candidate
- Samuel Ting, Nobel Prize in Physics
- Bradford Washburn (1910-2007), mountaineer and Barbara Washburn (1914-2014), first woman to summit Denali
- Rumay "Hafu" Wang, eSports player
- Sheila E. Widnall, aerospace researcher and educator at MIT, former Secretary of the Air Force
- Edward Osborne Wilson, entomologist and two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author
- Ethan Zohn, winner of Survivor: Africa
Lexington is a sister city of:
- ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Lexington town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "These Are The 10 Richest Small Cities In America". Movoto Real Estate. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b Tracing the Past in Lexington, Massachusetts. Edwin B. Worthen.
- ^ Lexington, MA Chamber of Commerce Home Page Archived 2015-02-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ 
- ^ Lexington - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ "America's Top Schools - Lexington High School #19 in 2014".
- ^ "METCO FAQ". Massachusetts Department of Education.
- ^ Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride, pp. 184-232, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.
- ^ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD0419183
- ^ Biweekly Report for 29 July 1955 (PDF) (minutes). Memorandum 6M-3797. Lincoln Laboratory Division 6. Retrieved .
All XD-1 frames have now been delivered. The LRI and output frame3 arrived 29 July.
- ^ "Overview". SAGE: The First [computerized]National Air Defense Network. IBM.com. Retrieved .
the AN/FSQ-7...was developed, built and maintained by IBM. ... In June 1956, IBM delivered the prototype of the computer to be used in SAGE.
- ^ Lemnios, William Z.; Grometstein, Alan A. (November 1, 2002). "Overview of the Lincoln Laboratory Ballistic Missile Defense Program". Lincoln Laboratory journal. 13.
- ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved .
- ^ "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved .
- ^ "QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". factfinder2.census.gov. 2010 Census. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Lexington, MA 02421 Zip Code Detailed Profile". City-data.com. Retrieved .
- ^ a b "Lexington, MA Income and Careers". Usa.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Sacchetti, Maria. "A melting pot stretches out to the suburbs." Boston Globe. September 15, 2010. p. 2 (Archived November 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.). Retrieved on September 23, 2014.
- ^ "2010 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education.
- ^ "2013 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education.
- ^ .
- ^ Past High School National Science Bowl Winners (1991 - 2016) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC). Science.energy.gov. Retrieved on 2017-05-06.
- ^ "? About Us." Lexington Chinese School. Retrieved on September 8, 2015. "Lexington Chinese School 221 Concord Ave. Belmont, MA 02478, USA (at Belmont High School)" Directions
- ^ Hsiao, Teresa. "WEEKEND TRAINING" ( Archived 2015-09-07 at WebCite). The Patriot Ledger. July 2, 2003 (from the summary page(Archive). Retrieved on September 8, 2015.
- ^ "Lexington Symphony | Concert Venue: Cary Memorial Hall".
- ^ "Cary Hall | Lexington Symphony - Czechs & Diamonds - February 11".
- ^ Search Results - Lexington, Massachusetts - ReferenceUSA Current Businesses
- ^ We Are Lexington, MA - Celebrating 300 Years, "The Oldest Tree in Lexington" by Nell Walker.
- ^ Willards Woods Conservation Area
- ^ Kathleen Burge, Boston Globe, Out to save the modern home, 2011 Feb 24
- ^ "Directions to Dr. A's Office". drabraham.com. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Hatheway, Allen W.; Newton, Elisabeth Guerry (2003). "Memorial to Alice Standish Allen, Honorary Member (1907-2002)". Environmental and Engineering Geoscience. 9 (2): 189-190. doi:10.2113/9.2.189.
- ^ Andrew L. Russell (April 9, 2011). "Oral-History:Charles Bachman". IEEE Oral History Network. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "MIT Alumni". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "29 Are Chosen for Fellowships From the MacArthur Foundation", The New York Times, June 2, 1998, retrieved 2012
- ^ Hudson, Charles (1913), History of the town of Lexington, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, from its first settlement to 1868, Houghton Mifflin, p. 80, retrieved 2012
- ^ Famous folks from Lexington, Boston.com, retrieved 2012
- ^ Wishart, David J., ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, Center for Great Plains Studies, p. 112, retrieved 2012
- ^ "She'll Take Manhattan", New York Magazine, July 14, 1986
- ^ Simon, Cecilia Capuzzi (12 July 2005). "Mr. Mindfulness". Washington Post. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Famous folks from Lexington". Boston.com. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Fox, Margalit. "Gerald S. Lesser, Shaper of 'Sesame Street,' Dies at 84", The New York Times, October 4, 2010. Accessed October 4, 2010.
- ^ "Miss Marjorie Anne Newell".
- ^ Campbell, Ami (October 2, 2014), Lexington's Novellines 'A Power House' of Creativity, 149 (50), Lexington, MA: Lexington Minuteman, p. C1, archived from the original (Print & Web) on October 12, 2014, retrieved 2014
- ^ "Catherine O'Neil". LinkedIn.com. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Famous folks from Lexington". Boston.com. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride, pp. 149-51, 158, 160, 180, 182, 188, 191, 193, 197, 201, 203, 210, 228, 229, 285, 319, 395, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.
- ^ Commager, Henry Steele. Theodore Parker: An Anthology, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1960.
- ^ Commager, Henry Steele. Theodore Parker, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1947.
- ^ "Henry Norris Russell Lectureship". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "In the World of Professional Gaming, Rumay 'Hafu' Wang Found Her Niche". NBC News. Retrieved 2018.
- ^ a b c d e Lexington's Sister Cities Archived 2015-11-24 at the Wayback Machine.
- 1871 Atlas of Massachusetts. by Wall & Gray.Map of Massachusetts. Map of Middlesex County.
- History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Volume 1 (A-H), Volume 2 (L-W) compiled by Samuel Adams Drake, published 1879 and 1880. 572 and 505 pages. Lexington section by Charles Hudson in volume 2 pages 9-33 (note page 9 missing).
- History of the Town of Lexington, Middlesex County, Massachusetts,Volume 1 - History, Volume2 - Genealogies, by Charles Hudson, published 1913.
- Paul Revere's Ride, by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.