Liga MX
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Liga MX
Liga MX
Liga MX.svg
Organising body Mexican Football Federation
Founded 17 October 1943; 74 years ago (1943-10-17)
Country Mexico
Confederation CONCACAF
Number of teams 18
Level on pyramid 1
Relegation to Ascenso MX
Domestic cup(s) Copa MX
Supercopa MX
Campeón de Campeones
International cup(s) CONCACAF Champions League
Current champions Guadalajara (12th title)
(Clausura 2017)
Most championships América
Guadalajara
(12 titles each)
TV partners Televisa[1]
TV Azteca[2]
ESPN[3]
Grupo Imagen[4]
Fox Sports
Claro[5]
Website LigaMX.net
2017-18 Liga MX season

The Liga MX (Spanish pronunciation: ['li?a 'eme 'ekis]) is the top level of the Mexican football league system. Currently sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, it is officially known as Liga BBVA Bancomer.[6]

Each season, the league holds two tournaments: the Apertura, which starts in the summer, and the Clausura, which starts in the winter. As of 2017, the league comprises 18 clubs, with one being relegated every year (two tournaments) based upon its league performances over the previous three years. The first 8 teams in the table at the end of the regular phase of the tournament qualify to the liguilla ("mini-league", or "playoff"). Up until July 2011, the league was divided into 3 groups. The group formatting was removed in favor of a single-table format.

The league is considered the strongest in North America, and among the strongest in all of Latin America. According to the International Federation of Football History and Statistics, the league currently ranks 11th worldwide[7] and was ranked as the 10th strongest league in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010).[8] According to CONCACAF, the league - with an average attendance of 25,557 during the 2014-15 season - draws the largest crowds on average of any soccer league in the Americas and the third largest crowds of any professional sports league in North America, behind only the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and ahead of Canadian Football League.[9] It is also the fourth most attended football league in the world behind Germany's Bundesliga, England's Premier League and Spain's La Liga.[10]

Of the 56 teams to have competed in the league, América and Guadalajara have each won the title 12 times, followed by Toluca (10), Cruz Azul (8), León and Pumas UNAM (7), and Pachuca (6). The current league champions are Guadalajara, who won the Clausura 2017 tournament.

History

Amateur era

Prior to the Liga Mayor, there was no national football league in Mexico, and football competitions were held within relatively small geographical regions. The winners of the Primera Fuerza, a local league consisting of teams near and around Mexico City, was considered the national competition. There were other regional leagues such as the Liga Amateur de Veracruz, the Liga Occidental De Jalisco and the Liga del Bajío that also had notable clubs. Many club owners were not keen on the idea of establishing a professional league, despite paying players under the table. With the increasing demand for football, there was a sense of urgency to unite all the local amateur leagues in Mexico to progress as a football nation. The professional national league was finally established in 1943.[11]

Professional era

When the Federación Mexicana de Fútbol Asociación (F.M.F.) announced the formation of the nation's first professional league, many clubs petitioned to join. The F.M.F. announced that 10 clubs would form the Liga Mayor (Major League). The league was founded by six clubs from the Primera Fuerza of Mexico City, two clubs from the Liga Occidental, and two from the Liga Veracruzana.

Founding members

Club Asturias in 1927.
Primera Fuerza: América, Asturias, Atlante, Necaxa, and Marte.
Liga Occidental De Jalisco: Atlas and Guadalajara.
Liga Amateur de Veracruz: ADO, Veracruz and Moctezuma.

Reformation

Throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s, many small clubs faced economic difficulties which were attributed to the lack of international competition by Mexico's clubs and an unrewarding league format. Like many South American and European clubs, Mexico's clubs that placed high in the league standings could not afford to participate in prestigious international tournaments, such as the Copa Libertadores.

The Mexican league boom

The 1970 World Cup held in Mexico was the first World Cup televised on a grand scale. The season following the FIFA World Cup, the F.M.F. changed the league format and established a playoff phase to determine the national champion. This was done to regenerate interest and reward teams that placed fairly high in the standings.

The play-off, called the Liguilla, was played using various formats to determine the champion. The most common format was a straight knock-out between the top eight teams in the table. At other times the league was divided into groups with the top two in each group, often as well as the best 3rd placed teams, qualifying for the play-offs and in some seasons the play-offs themselves involved teams playing in groups with the group winners playing off for the title.. The format was changed from season to season to accommodate international club commitments and the schedule of the Mexico national team.

The change in the rules affected teams that traditionally dominated the table, as talented teams that had not performed well in the regular season were able to perform successfully in the play-offs (Cruz Azul in the 1970s, América in the 1980s, and Toluca in the 2000s).

Liga MX

Before the 2012-13 season, the organization LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX was created to replace the Federación Mexicana de Fútbol Asociación, A.C. as the organizing body of the competition.[12]

Competition format

Regular season tournaments

From 1996 to 2002, the league followed a two-tournament schedule with invierno (winter) and verano (summer) tournaments but from 2002 to 2011 the 18 teams were divided into three groups of six with the top two teams from each group and the two best third place teams qualified for the liguilla. The teams played in the same group for each tournament. The qualification phase of the tournament lasted 17 weeks, with all teams playing each other once per tournament in a home and away series over both tournaments.

Liga MX uses a single table of 18 teams that play two annual tournaments resulting in two champions per season. The season opens with the apertura tournament (opening tournament- running from July to December) followed by the clausura (closing - running from January to May). This format matches other Latin American schedules and correspond with FIFA's world footballing calendar, which "opens" in July/August and "closes" in April/May of the next year. The top eight teams progress to the liguilla for each tournament.

Playoffs (liguilla)

The liguilla (Spanish for "little league") is the play-off phase of the tournament. This phase starts with eight qualifying teams playing two-legged ties with the winner on aggregate-score progressing. The Champion team is awarded the First division trophy, and the runner up is awarded a smaller version of the trophy. The birth of La liguilla in 1970 modernized the league despite the disagreements between the traditionalists and the modernists. Clubs that were near bankruptcy were now better able to compete and generate profits.

Relegation

At the end of a season, after the Apertura and Clausura tournaments, one team is relegated to the next lower division, Ascenso MX, and one team from that division is promoted and takes the place left open by the relegated team. Currently, the relegated team is determined by computing the points-per-game-played ratio for each team, considering all the games played by the team during the last three seasons (six tournaments). The team with the lowest ratio is relegated. For teams recently promoted, only the games played since their promotion are considered (two or four tournaments). The team promoted from Ascenso MX is the winner of a two-leg match between the champions of the Apertura and Clausura tournaments of that division. If a team becomes the champion in both tournaments, it is automatically promoted.

CONCACAF Champions League Qualification

Each year, four teams from Liga MX qualify for the CONCACAF Champions League, the premier North American club competition. Generally, the Apertura and Clausura champions and the Apertura and Clausura runners-up qualify, and are placed in Pot 3. Should one or more teams reach the finals of both tournaments, Liga MX has implemented a formula for ensuring that two teams that qualify via the Apertura and two teams qualify via the Clausura:[13]

  • If the same two teams qualify for the finals of both tournaments, those two teams will qualify along with the non-finalists with the best record in both the Apertura and Clausura.
  • If the same team wins both the Apertura and the Clausura (facing two different teams in the finals of each tournament), then the berth reserved for the Clausura champions is passed to the Clausura runners-up and the berth reserved for the Clausura runners-up is passed to the non-finalists with best record in the Clausura. This occurred most recently in the 2013-14 season (2014-15 CONCACAF Champions League) when León (2013 Apertura and 2014 Clausura champions) and Pachuca (2014 Clausura runners-up) were placed in Pot A, while América (2013 Apertura runners-up) and Cruz Azul (non-finalists with the best record in the 2014 Clausura) were placed in Pot B (at the time, the champions and runners-up were placed in different pots).
  • If the Apertura runners-up win the Clausura (facing two different teams in the finals of each tournament), then the berth reserved for the Apertura runners-up is passed to the non-finalists with best record in the Apertura. This occurred most recently in the 2011-12 season (2012-13 CONCACAF Champions League) when UANL (2011 Apertura champions) and Santos Laguna (2011 Apertura runners-up and 2012 Clausura champions) were placed in Pot A, while Guadalajara (non-finalists with the best record in the 2011 Apertura) and Monterrey (2012 Clausura runners-up) were placed in Pot B (again, at the time, the champions and runners-up were placed in different pots).
  • If the Apertura champions are runners-up of the Clausura (facing two different teams in the finals of each tournament), then the berth reserved for the Clausura runners-up is passed to the non-finalists with best record in the Clausura. This has not happened since Liga MX began using this qualification procedure.

Previous Qualification Tournaments

Campeonato Centroamericano (1959), Copa Interamericana (1968-91), CONCACAF Cup Winners Cup (1991-98), CONCACAF Giants Cup 2001, Interliga (2004-10), Copa Sudamericana (2005-08), and SuperLiga (2007-10), Copa Libertadores (1998-2015)

Clubs

2017-18 season

The following 18 clubs will compete in the Liga MX during the 2017-18 season.

Club Position in
2016-17
First season in
top division
Seasons
in top
division
First season of
current spell in
top division
Consecutive
Seasons
in Liga MX
Top
division
titles
Last top
division title
América 6th 1943-44 94 1943-44 94 12 Apertura 2014
Atlas 10th 1943-44 90 1979-80 56 1 1950/51
BUAP 11th in Ascenso MX 2017-18 0 2017-18 0 0 -
Cruz Azul 14th 1964-65 72 1964-65 72 8 Invierno 1997
Guadalajara 4th 1943-44 94 1943-44 94 12 Clausura 2017
León 9th 1944-45 69 2012-13 6 7 Clausura 2014
Monterrey 1st 1945-46 78 1960-61 76 4 Apertura 2010
Morelia 12th 1957-58 65 1981-82 54 1 Invierno 2000
Necaxa 8th 1951-52 82 2016-17 2 3 Invierno 1998
Pachuca 3rd 1967-68 44 1998-99 34 6 Clausura 2016
Puebla 16th 1944-45 73 2007-08 16 2 1989/90
Querétaro 15th 1990-91 22 2009-10 12 0 -
13th 1988-89 46 1988-89 46 5 Clausura 2015
Tijuana 5th 2011-12 8 2011-12 8 1 Apertura 2012
Toluca 7th 1953-54 83 1953-54 83 10 Bicentenario 2010
UANL 2nd 1974-75 59 1997-98 36 5 Apertura 2016
UNAM 11th 1962-63 74 1962-63 74 7 Clausura 2011
Veracruz 17th 1943-44 53 2013-14 4 2 1949/50

Champions

Club Winners Runners-up Winning years
América 12 9 1965-66, 1970-71, 1975-76, 1983-84, 1984-85, PRODE 85, 1987-88, 1988-89, Verano 2002, Clausura 2005, Clausura 2013, Apertura 2014
Guadalajara 12 9 1956-57, 1958-59, 1959-60, 1960-61, 1961-62, 1963-64, 1964-65, 1969-70, 1986-87, Verano 1997, Apertura 2006, Clausura 2017
Toluca 10 6 1966-67, 1967-68, 1974-75, Verano 1998, Verano 1999, Verano 2000, Apertura 2002, Apertura 2005, Apertura 2008, Bicentenario 2010
Cruz Azul 8 10 1968-69, México '70, 1971-72, 1972-73, 1973-74, 1978-79, 1979-80, Invierno 1997
U.N.A.M. 7 7 1976-77, 1980-81, 1990-91, Clausura 2004, Apertura 2004, Clausura 2009, Clausura 2011
León 7 5 1947-48, 1948-49, 1951-52, 1955-56, 1991-92, Apertura 2013, Clausura 2014
Pachuca 6 3 Invierno 1999, Invierno 2001, Apertura 2003, Clausura 2006, Clausura 2007, Clausura 2016
Santos Laguna 5 5 Invierno 1996, Verano 2001, Clausura 2008, Clausura 2012, Clausura 2015
U.A.N.L. 5 5 1977-78, 1981-82, Apertura 2011, Apertura 2015, Apertura 2016
Monterrey 4 5 México '86, Clausura 2003, Apertura 2009, Apertura 2010
Atlante + 3 4 1946-47, 1992-93, Apertura 2007
Necaxa 3 3 1994-95, 1995-96, Invierno 1998
Puebla 2 2 1982-83, 1989-90
Zacatepec + 2 1 1954-55, 1957-58
Veracruz 2 0 1945-46, 1949-50
Oro +++ 1 5 1962-63
Morelia 1 3 Invierno 2000
Atlas 1 3 1950-51
Tampico Madero + 1 2 1952-53
U.A.G. ++ 1 1 1993-94
Real España ++++ 1 1 1944-45
Tijuana 1 0 Apertura 2012
Asturias ++++ 1 0 1943-44
Marte ++++ 1 0 1953-54
U.D.G. + 0 3
Querétaro 0 1
Neza ++++ 0 1
Atlético Celaya ++++ 0 1
Atlético Español ++++ 0 1
San Luis ++++ 0 1

+ Teams currently in the Ascenso MX
++ Teams currently in the Liga Premier
+++ Teams currently in the Amateur Levels
++++ Defunct teams

Stadiums and locations

Media coverage

In theory, all First Division clubs have the right to sell their own broadcast rights. In practice, however, the league is divided between teams broadcast on Televisa, TV Azteca, Imagen Televisión, Claro Sports, Fox Sports, ESPN in México. ESPN Deportes and Univision have the rights in the United States.

In previous years, when a team got relegated, the team that got promoted could only negotiate with the company that had the television rights of the team that got relegated. This agreement was cancelled in 2012 by the Liga MX when the promotion of Club León caused a television rights dispute with Televisa.[33] Currently, Club León matches are broadcast in Mexico by Fox Sports and other online media sites, and in the United States by Univision (Telemundo from 2013-16).[34]

Telelatino and Fox Sports World hold broadcasting rights in Canada; Fox Sports is the only network that holds rights to broadcast selected matches in United States and South America. Additionally, Televisa-owned networks Sky Sports and TDN hold exclusive broadcasting rights over selected matches throughout the regular season, although the majority of the most important ones are broadcast live on the national networks.

Most of the Saturday afternoon and evening matches broadcast by Televisa are shown primarily on Gala TV, though Saturday games played by Televisa's club America, are broadcast on Televisa's flagship network, Canal de las Estrellas. However, a blackout policy is usually applied in selected markets where affiliates are forced to air alternate programming during the matches, Sunday noon and afternoon games broadcast by Televisa are shown on Canal de las Estrellas. All of the games broadcast by TV Azteca on Saturday and Sunday are shown on Azteca 13; Friday's matches however are shown on Azteca 7. Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday (known in Mexico as Fecha Doble or Double Date) matches picked by the national networks are shown on Canal 5 and Azteca 7 and the rest of the matches air on Sky Sports and TDN.

A recent rule, in effect since 2011, requires teams to play the final game of every season on Sunday during prime time, regardless of whether the team used to play local games in another timeslot, in order to capture more television audience during the game.

On February 13, 2017, it was announced Univision Deportes would live stream 46 games in English on Facebook in the United States.[35]

After the Clausura 2017 season, Azteca América sold the rights of the Atlas, Morelia, Tijuana and Veracruz matches to Univision, thus the network held the rights of 17 of the 18 clubs, the only team the network did not carry was recently promoted team Lobos BUAP. In September 2017, Univision started airing Lobos BUAP's home matches, thus the network has the rights to all 18 Liga MX teams through the end of the Clausura 2018 season.

ESPN Deportes airs all of Necaxa and Querétaro regular season home matches as well as select León, Monterrey, Pachuca, and UANL home matches.

In July 2017, Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN) announced it would show Liga MX matches involving Chilean players in Chile.

In Japan, Liga MX will be broadcast on Fuji TV. León and Pachuca's home matches will be broadcast on Fox Sports Asia

Television home matches broadcast rights

Team Mexico Broadcaster U.S. Broadcaster Day Time[1]
América Televisa Univision Saturday 9:00 PM
Atlas TV Azteca / ESPN Univision Friday 9:00 PM
BUAP Televisa Univision Saturday 5:00 PM
Cruz Azul Televisa Univision Saturday 5:00 PM
Guadalajara Televisa[Note 1] Univision Saturday 9:06 PM
León Grupo Imagen / Fox Sports / Claro ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 7:06 PM
Monterrey Televisa ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 7:00 PM
Morelia TV Azteca / ESPN[Note 2] Univision Friday 7:00 PM
Necaxa Televisa ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 9:00 PM
Pachuca Grupo Imagen / Fox Sports / Claro ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 7:06 PM
Puebla TV Azteca / ESPN[Note 2] Univision Friday 7:00 PM
Querétaro Grupo Imagen ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 5:00 PM
Santos Laguna TV Azteca / ESPN Univision Sunday 6:30 PM
Tijuana TV Azteca / ESPN[Note 2] Univision Friday 7:00 PM[1]
Toluca Televisa Univision Sunday 12:00 PM
UANL Televisa ESPN Deportes / Univision Saturday 7:00 PM
UNAM Televisa Univision Sunday 12:00 PM
Veracruz TV Azteca / ESPN[Note 2] Univision Sunday 6:30 PM
  1. ^ For the Apertura 2016 and the majority of the Clausura 2017, Guadalajara home matches in Mexico were not shown on over-the-air television or cable and satellite operators, instead they exclusively were shown on an internet streaming service called Chivas TV. As of April 8, 2017, the matches are shown on both Televisa's Televisa Deportes Network (TDN) and Chivas TV.
  2. ^ Games are shown on ESPN but only on tape delay
  3. ^ All match times are UTC-06:00 except for matches in Tijuana (UTC-08:00).

Sponsorship

BBVA Bancomer was named the league's official sponsor in 2013.

Up until its re-branding in 2012, the Liga MX did not have a title sponsor. In July 2013, league president Decio de María announced BBVA Bancomer as the official sponsor, with the goal of modernizing the league's image. De María also stated that the money generated from the sponsorship would be divided among the eighteen clubs and to be invested in each club's youth teams.[36] On 18 September 2015, it was announced that the sponsorship deal was extended until 2019.[37]

Since 1986, Voit has been the official match ball manufacturer. In 2014, the contract was extended for four years.[38]

Managers

The current managers in the Liga MX are:

Nat. Name Club Appointed Time as manager
Brazil Ferretti, RicardoRicardo Ferretti UANL 20 May 2010 7 years, 185 days
Uruguay Alonso, DiegoDiego Alonso Pachuca 5 December 2014 2 years, 351 days
Argentina Mohamed, AntonioAntonio Mohamed Monterrey 16 February 2015 2 years, 278 days
Argentina Almeyda, MatíasMatías Almeyda Guadalajara 15 September 2015 2 years, 67 days
Mexico Cruz, José GuadalupeJosé Guadalupe Cruz Atlas 9 May 2016 1 year, 196 days
Argentina Cristante, HernánHernán Cristante Toluca 31 May 2016 1 year, 174 days
Mexico Puente, Jr., RafaelRafael Puente, Jr. BUAP 5 October 2016 1 year, 47 days
Spain Jémez, PacoPaco Jémez Cruz Azul 28 November 2016 358 days
Mexico Hernández, RobertoRoberto Hernández Morelia 7 February 2017 287 days
Mexico Ambríz, IgnacioIgnacio Ambríz Necaxa 15 May 2017 190 days
Mexico Herrera, MiguelMiguel Herrera América 26 May 2017 179 days
Uruguay Díaz, GustavoGustavo Díaz León 30 August 2017 83 days
Uruguay Siboldi, RobertRobert Siboldi Santos Laguna 18 September 2017 64 days
Paraguay Cardozo, JoséJosé Cardozo Veracruz 23 September 2017 59 days
Mexico Meza, EnriqueEnrique Meza Puebla 3 October 2017 49 days
Mexico Patiño, DavidDavid Patiño UNAM 3 October 2017 49 days
Mexico Luis Fernando Tena Querétaro 22 October 2017 30 days
Mexico Torres Ortíz, DiegoDiego Torres Ortíz Tijuana 31 October 2017 21 days

Player records

Most appearances

Rank Player Appearances
1 Mexico Óscar Pérez 726
2 Mexico Oswaldo Sanchez 725
3 Mexico Benjamín Galindo 700
4 Chile Rodrigo Ruiz 638
5 Mexico Adolfo Ríos 635
6 Mexico Juan Pablo Rodríguez 634
7 Mexico Miguel España 631
8 Mexico Alfonso Sosa 610
9 Mexico Cristóbal Ortega 608
10 Mexico Israel López 604
Italics denotes players still playing professional football.
Bold denotes players still playing in the Liga MX.

Top scorers

Rank Nat Name Years Goals Apps Ratio
1 Brazil Evanivaldo Castro 1974-1987 312 427 0.73
2 Mexico Carlos Hermosillo 1984-2001 294 539 0.55
3 Mexico Jared Borgetti 1994-2010 252 475 0.63
4 Paraguay José Cardozo 1994-2005 249 332 0.75
5 Mexico Horacio Casarín 1936-1957 238 326 0.73
6 Chile Osvaldo Castro 1971-1984 214 398 0.54
7 Mexico Luis Roberto Alves 1986-2003 209 577 0.36
8 Mexico Adalberto López 1942-1955 201 231 0.87
9 Brazil Carlos Eloir Perucci 1972-1984 199 398 0.5
10 Mexico Sergio Lira 1978-1996 191 564 0.34
Italics denotes players still playing professional football.
Bold denotes players still playing in the Liga MX.

Promotion and relegation

Relegation and Promotion by Club
Club Promotions Relegations
Zacatepec 5 (1950-51, 1962-63, 1969-70, 1977-78, 1983-84) 5 (1961-62, 1965-66, 1976-77, 1982-83, 1984-85)
Querétaro 4 (México '86, 1989-90, 2005-06, 2009-10) 3 (1993-94, 2006-07, 2012-13*)
Pachuca 4 (1966-67, 1991-92, 1995-96, 1997-98) 3 (1972-73, 1992-93, 1996-97)
Irapuato 4 (1953-54, 1984-85, 1999-00*, 2002-03) 2 (1971-72, 1990-91)
Atlas 3 (1954-55, 1971-72, 1978-79) 3 (1953-54, 1970-71, 1977-78)
San Luis 3 (1970-71, 2001-02, 2004-05) 2 (1973-74, 2002-03)
Puebla 3 (1969-70, 1998-99, 2006-07) 2 (1998-99, 2004-05)
Unión de Curtidores 2 (1982-83, 1998-99*) 2 (1980-81, 1983-84)
Veracruz 2 (1963-64, 2001-02) 4 (1951-52, 1978-79, 1997-98, 2007-08)
Real Zamora 2 (1954-55, 1956-57) 2 (1955-56, 1959-60)
Tampico Madero 2 (1964-65, 1972-73) 2 (1966-67, 1974-75)
Atlante 2 (1976-77, 1990-91) 3 (1975-76, 1989-90, 2013-14)
Monterrey 2 (1955-56,1959-60) 1 (1956-57)
Morelia 2 (1956-57, 1980-81) 1 (1967-68)
U.A.N.L. 2 (1973-74, 1996-97) 1 (1995-96)
León 2 (1989-90, 2011-12) 2 (1986-87, 2001-02)
Sinaloa 2 (2004-05, 2014-15) 2 (2005-06, 2015-16)
La Piedad 2 (2000-01, 2012-13*) -
Necaxa 2 (2009-10, 2015-16) 2 (2008-09, 2010-11)
U.A.T. 1 (1986-87) 1 (1994-95)
Atlético Potosino 1 (1974-75) 1 (1988-89)
Ciudad Juárez 1 (2007-08) 1 (2009-10)
Toros Neza 1 (1988-89) 1 (1999-00)
U.A.G. 1 (1974-75) 1 (2011-12)
Tijuana 1 (2010-11) -
U.D.G. 1 (2013-14) 1 (2014-15)
B.U.A.P. 1 (2016-17) -
Oro - 1 (1979-80)
Chiapas 1 (2016-17)

Notes:

See also

References

  1. ^ Includes Canal 5, Canal de las Estrellas, Gala TV, SKY México, and TDN
  2. ^ includes Azteca 7 and Azteca Trece
  3. ^ includes ESPN 2
  4. ^ includes Imagen Televisión
  5. ^ includes Claro Sports
  6. ^ "BBVA entra a la Liga MX". Expansión (in Spanish). CNN Expansión. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  7. ^ "The strongest National League in the World 2016". IFFHS. International Federation of Football History and Statistics. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ "The strongest Leagues in the World in the first Decade of 21st Century (2001-2010)". IFFHS. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ "A quick primer on Mexico's Liga MX". Media Life Magazine. Retrieved 2016. 
  10. ^ "Best attended domestic sports leagues in the world". sportingintelligence. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ "Historia del futbol en México". Femexfut. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ "Corporativo" (in Spanish). ligamx.net. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. 
  13. ^ "América, Monterrey y Chivas podrían ir a la ConcaChampions sin llegar a la final". vavel.com. 5 March 2012. [dead link]
  14. ^ . 90min.com http://www.90min.com/es/posts/4503509-enorme-la-capacidad-de-espectadores-que-tendra-el-azteca-despues-de-ser-remodelado.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "Estadio Jalisco". atlasfc.com.mx. Retrieved 2016. 
  16. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  17. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  18. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  19. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  20. ^ "Historia". estadiobbvabancomer.com. Retrieved 2016. 
  21. ^ Click It - http://www.clickit.com.mx. "Monarcas Morelia". Sitio Oficial de Monarcas Morelia. Retrieved 2016. 
  22. ^ Click It - clubnecaxa.mx. "Estadio Victoria". 
  23. ^ "Tuzos  » ESTADIO HIDALGO". tuzos.com.mx. Retrieved 2016. 
  24. ^ pueblaonline.com.mx. "Los estadios de la Liga Bancomer". 
  25. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  26. ^ "ESTADIO CORONA". clubsantos.mx. Retrieved 2016. 
  27. ^ "Estrenará "Caliente" capacidad el viernes". el-mexicano.com.mx. 
  28. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "Estrenará "Caliente" capacidad el viernes". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  29. ^ "Estadio Universitario". tigres.com.mx. Retrieved 2016. 
  30. ^ "Estadio Olímpico Universitario". pumas.mx. Retrieved 2016. 
  31. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  32. ^ LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX. "LIGA MX - Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". ligamx.net. Retrieved 2016. 
  33. ^ "Carlos Slim And Multi-Ownership In Mexico". businessofsoccer.com. Retrieved 2013. 
  34. ^ "Fox Sports adquiere los derechos de transmisión del Club Mexicano León F.C". Revista Merca2.0. Retrieved 2016. 
  35. ^ http://www.espnfc.com/mexican-liga-mx/story/3059930/univision-to-air-46-liga-mx-games-this-year-live-on-facebook-in-english
  36. ^ "La Liga MX consiguió patrocinador". Fox Deportes (in Spanish). Retrieved 2013. 
  37. ^ "Bancomer renueva patrocinio con la Liga MX" (in Spanish). Noticias MVS. Retrieved 2015. 
  38. ^ "Renueva Voit patrocinio con Liga MX". Radio Fórmula. Grupo Fórmula. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 2014. 

External links


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