List Of Cosmologists

This is a list of people who have made noteworthy contributions to cosmology (,the study of the history and large-scale structure of the universe) and their cosmological achievements.

- Tom Abel (1970-) studied primordial star formation
- Roberto Abraham (1965-) studied the shapes of early galaxies
- Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995) theorized that galactic magnetic fields could be generated by plasma currents
- Ralph A. Alpher (1921-2007) argued that observed proportions of hydrogen and helium in the universe could be explained by the big bang model, predicted cosmic background radiation
- Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 BC) early proponent of heliocentrism
- Aristotle (circa 384-322 BC) posited a geocentric cosmology that was widely accepted for many centuries
- Aryabhata (476-550) described a geocentric model with slow and fast epicycles

- Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (787-886) conveyed Aristotle's theories from Persia to Europe
- James M. Bardeen (1939-) studied the mathematics of black holes and of vacua under general relativity
- John D. Barrow (1952-) popularized the anthropic cosmological principle
- Charles L. Bennett (1956-) studied the large-scale structure of the universe by mapping irregularities in microwave background radiation
- Orfeu Bertolami (1959-) studied the cosmological constant, inflation, dark energy-dark matter unification and interaction, alternative gravity theories
- Somnath Bharadwaj studied large-scale structure formation
- James Binney (1950-) studied galactic dynamics and supernova disruption of galactic gasses
- Martin Bojowald (1973-) studied loop quantum gravity and established loop quantum cosmology
- Hermann Bondi (1919-2005) developed the steady-state model
- Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) promoted a geo-heliocentric system of epicycles
- Robert Brandenberger (1956-) formulated the theory of string gas cosmology, with colleague Cumrun Vafa, and developed cosmological perturbation theory

- Bernard J. Carr promoted the anthropic principle, studied primordial black holes
- Sean M. Carroll (1966-) researched dark energy, general relativity, and spontaneous inflation
- Peter Coles (1963-) modeled galactic clustering and authored several cosmology books
- C. B. Collins used the anthropic principle to solve the flatness problem
- Asantha Cooray (1973-) studied dark energy, halo models of large structure, and cosmic microwave radiation
- Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) formulated a heliocentric cosmology

- Paul Davies (1946-) developed a vacuum model that explains microwave background fluctuation, studies time's arrow, and has written many popular-press books
- Marc Davis (astronomer) (1947-) was lead astronomer of a survey of 50,000 high-redshift galaxies
- Avishai Dekel (1951-) studied galaxy formation and large scale structure in dark matter-dark energy dominated universes
- Robert H. Dicke (1916-1997) measured background radiation, used an early version of the anthropic principle to relate the gravitational constant to the age of the universe
- Mike J. Disney (1937-) discovered low surface brightness galaxies

- Jürgen Ehlers (1929-2008) described gravitational lensing and studied the mathematical implications of an isotropic microwave background
- Jaan Einasto (1929-) studied structure in the large-scale distribution of superclusters of galaxies, early proponent of dark matter
- Albert Einstein (1879-1955) invented general relativity and the cosmological constant
- George F. R. Ellis (1939-) theorized a cylindrical steady-state universe with a naked singularity as recycling mechanism
- Richard S. Ellis (1950-) used gravitational lensing and high-redshift supernovae to study the origin of galaxies, large scale structure, and dark matter

- Sandra M. Faber (1944-) discovered the Great Attractor, a supercluster-scale gravitational anomaly; co-inventor of the theory of cold dark matter
- Carlos S. Frenk (1951-) studied cosmic structure formation
- Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925) discovered the expanding-universe solution to general relativity

- George Gamow (1904-1968) argued that observed proportions of hydrogen and helium in the universe could be explained by the big bang model, modeled the mass and radius of primordial galaxies
- Margaret J. Geller (1947-) discovered the Great Wall, a superstructure-scale filament of galaxies
- Thomas Gold (1920-2004) proposed the steady-state theory
- Gerson Goldhaber (1924-) used supernova observations to measure the energy density of the universe
- J. Richard Gott (1947-) proposed the use of cosmic strings for time travel
- Alan Guth (1947-) explained the isotropy of the universe by theorizing a phase of exponential inflation soon after the big bang

- Stephen W. Hawking (1942-) described singularities in general relativity and developed singularity-free models of the big bang; predicted primordial black holes
- Charles W. Hellaby described models of general relativity with nonconstant metric signature
- Micha? Heller (1936-) researched noncommutative approaches to quantum relativity
- Robert C. Herman (1914-1997) predicted the background radiation temperature
- Lars Hernquist studied galaxy formation and evolution
- Honorius Augustodunensis (-1151) wrote a popular encyclopedia of cosmology, geography, and world history
- Hanns Hörbiger (1860-1931) formulated a pseudoscientific theory of ice as the basic substance of all cosmic processes
- Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) promoted the steady state theory, used the anthropic principle to explain the energy levels of carbon nuclei
- Edwin P. Hubble (1889-1953) demonstrated the existence of other galaxies and confirmed the relation between redshift and distance
- John P. Huchra (1948-2010) discovered the Great Wall, a superstructure-scale filament of galaxies

- Jamal Nazrul Islam (1939-2013) published seven books on Cosmology

- Ronald Kantowski discovered spatially homogeneous but anisotropic solutions to general relativity
- Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) pioneered heliocentrism, discovered elliptical planetary motion, attempted to explain heavenly motions through physical causes
- Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov (1919-) conjectured an oscillatory model with an essential singularity for the evolution of the universe
- Tom W. B. Kibble (1932-) introduced the concept of cosmic strings
- Robert Kirshner (1949-) discovered the Boötes void, a large region sparsely populated with galaxies, and wrote a popular book on cosmology
- Edward Kolb studied big bang cosmology including the emergence of baryons and dark matter, and wrote a popular textbook on cosmology
- Lawrence M. Krauss (1954-) author of popular science books on cosmology including
*A Universe from Nothing*

- Ofer Lahav (1959-) studied dark matter and dark energy
- Tod R. Lauer (1957-) catalogued massive black holes at galaxy centers and correlated their mass with other properties of the galaxies' structures
- Georges Henri Lemaître (1894-1966) proposed the big bang theory and the distance-redshift relation
- Janna Levin (1967-) seeks evidence for a bounded universe of nontrivial topology
- Andrew R. Liddle (1965-) studied inflationary models, wrote two books on inflation and primordial inhomogeneities
- Evgeny M. Lifshitz (1915-1985) conjectured an oscillatory model with an essential singularity for the evolution of the universe
- Andrei Linde (1948-) pioneered inflationary models and proposed eternal chaotic inflation of universes from the false vacuum
- Abraham Loeb (1962-) researched primordial stars, primordial black holes, quasars, reionization, gravitational lensing, and gamma-ray bursts
- David H. Lyth studied particle cosmology, wrote two books on inflation and primordial inhomogeneities

- João Magueijo (1967-) proposed much faster speeds of light in the young universe as an alternative explanation to inflation for its homogeneity
- Richard Massey (1977-) mapped dark matter in the universe
- Charles W. Misner (1932-) studied solutions to general relativity including the mixmaster universe and Misner space, wrote influential text on gravitation
- John Moffat (1932-) proposed much faster speeds of light in the young universe, developed antisymmetric theories of gravity
- Lauro Moscardini modeled galaxy clustering in the early universe
- Anupam Mazumdar (1972 -) showed existence of a non-singular cosmological and blackhole solution, within ghost free infinite derivative theories of gravity

- Jayant Narlikar (1938-) promoted steady state theories

- György Paál (1934-1992) in the late 1950s studied the quasar and galaxy cluster distributions, in 1970 from redshift quantization came up with the idea that the Universe might have nontrivial topological structure
- Thanu Padmanabhan (1957-) studied quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
- Leonard Parker established the study of quantum field theory within general relativity
- P. James E. Peebles (1935-) predicted cosmic background radiation, contributed to structure theory, developed models that avoid dark matter
- Roger Penrose (1931-) linked singularities to gravitational collapse, conjectured the nonexistence of naked singularities, and used gravitational entropy to explain homogeneity
- Arno Penzias (1933-) was the first to observe the cosmic background radiation
- Saul Perlmutter (1959-) used supernova observations to measure the expansion of the universe
- Mark M. Phillips (1951-) used supernova observations to discover acceleration in the expansion of the universe, calibrated the supernova distance scale
- Joel Primack (1945-) co-invented the theory of cold dark matter
- Ptolemy (90-168) wrote the only surviving ancient text on astronomy, conjectured a model of the universe as a set of nested spheres with epicycles

- Ali Qushji (1403-1474) challenged Aristotelian physics, in particular presenting empirical evidence against a stationary Earth, and may have influenced Copernicus

- Martin Rees (1942-) proposed that quasars are powered by black holes, disproved steady state by studying distribution of quasars
- Yoel Rephaeli used the distortion of the cosmic background by high-energy electrons to infer the existence of galaxy clusters
- Adam Riess (1969-) found evidence in supernova data that the expansion of the universe is accelerating and confirming dark energy models
- Wolfgang Rindler (1924-) coined the phrase "event horizon", Rindler Coordinates, and popularized the use of spinors (with Roger Penrose)
- Howard P. Robertson (1903-1961) solved the two-body problem in an approximation to general relativity, developed the standard model of general relativity
- Vera Rubin (1928-2016) discovered discrepancies in galactic rotation rates leading to the theory of dark matter

- Rainer K. Sachs (1932-) discovered gravitationally induced redshifts in the cosmic background radiation
- Carl Sagan (1934-1996)
- Allan Sandage (1936-2010) set the cosmological distance scale and accurately estimated the speed of expansion of the universe
- Brian P. Schmidt (1967-) used supernova data to measure the acceleration in the expansion of the universe
- David N. Schramm (1945-1997) was an expert on big bang theory and an early proponent of dark matter
- Dennis W. Sciama (1926-1999) studied many aspects of cosmology and supervised many other leading cosmologists
- Irving Segal (1918 - 1998) created chronogeometric cosmology with alternative solution of the redshift problem
- Seleucus of Seleucia (fl. c. 150 BC) used tidal observations to support a heliocentric model
- Roman Ulrich Sexl (1939-1986) developed an ether-based theory of absolute simultaneity that is mathematically equivalent to special relativity
- Al-Sijzi (c. 945-1020) invented an astrolabe based on heliocentric principles
- Joseph Silk (1942-) explained the homogeneity of the early universe using photon diffusion damping
- Willem de Sitter (1872-1934) developed a theory of dark matter with Einstein, found an expanding matterless solution to general relativity
- Lee Smolin (1955-) studied quantum gravity, popularized a theory of cosmological natural selection
- George F. Smoot (1945-) used Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite to measure the temperature and anisotropy of the early universe
- David N. Spergel (1961-) used Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite to measure the temperature and anisotropy of the early universe
- Paul Steinhardt (1952-) pioneered inflationary cosmology, introduced first example of eternal inflation, introduced quintessential dark energy, introduced the concept of strongly self-interacting dark matter, studied brane cosmology and cyclic models of the universe
- Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (903-986) identified the large Magellanic cloud and made the first recorded observation of the Andromeda galaxy
- Nicholas B. Suntzeff (1952-) used supernova observations to discover acceleration in the expansion of the universe, calibrated the supernova distance scale
- Rashid Sunyaev (1943-) developed a theory of density fluctuations in the early universe, described how to use cosmic background distortion to observe large-scale density fluctuations
- Brian Swimme (1950-) wrote four books on religious aspects of cosmology
- Alex Szalay (1949-) was working on structure formation in a neutrino-dominated universe, biased galaxy formation in a cold dark matter dominated universe and computing the power spectrum in hot, cold and warm dark matter dominated universes

- Max Tegmark (1967-) determined the parameters of the lambda-cold dark matter model using Sloan Survey data, studied mathematical models of multiverses
- William G. Tifft theorized that galactic redshifts are quantized
- Beatrice Tinsley (1941-1981) researched galactic evolution, the creation of lightweight elements, and accelerated expansion of the universe
- Frank J. Tipler (1947-) proved that time travel requires singularities, promoted the anthropic principle
- Richard C. Tolman (1881-1948) showed that the cosmic background keeps a black-body profile as the universe expands
- Trinh Xuan Thuan (1948-) researched galaxy formation and evolution
- Mark Trodden (1968-) studied cosmological implications of topological defects in field theories
- Michael S. Turner (1949-) coined the term
*dark energy* - Neil Turok (1958-) predicted correlations between polarization and temperature anisotropy in the cosmic background, explained the big bang as a brane collision
- Henry Tye (1947-) proposed brane-antibrane interactions as a cause of inflation

- Alexander Vilenkin (1949-) showed that eternal inflation is generic, studied cosmic strings, theorized the creation of the universe from quantum fluctuations

- Robert M. Wald (1947-) wrote a popular text on general relativity, studied the thermodynamics of black holes
- Arthur Geoffrey Walker (1909-2001) developed the standard model of general relativity and studied the mathematics of relativistic reference frames
- David Wands studied inflation, superstrings, and density perturbations in the early universe
- Yun Wang (1964-) uses supernova and galactic redshift data to probe dark energy
- Jeffrey Weeks (1956-) used cosmic background patterns to determine the topology of the universe
- Simon D. White (1951-) studied galaxy formation in the lambda-cold dark matter model
- David Todd Wilkinson (1935-2002) used satellite probes to measure the cosmic background radiation
- Edward L. Wright (1947-) promoted big bang theories, studied the effect of dust absorption on measurements of the cosmic background

- Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (1914-1987) used accretion disks of massive black holes to explain quasars, predicted Compton scattering of the cosmic background
- Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) along with Walter Baade coined the term "supernova", contributions in understanding neutron stars, supernovae as standard candles, gravitational lensing, and dark matter.

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