List of Countries by GDP (PPP)
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List of Countries by GDP PPP
Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2018.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January-April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP (see List of countries by GDP (nominal)) when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list says "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in October 2017. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in billions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Purchasing Power Parity) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2019.
The economy of the United States will be larger
than that of the European Union's after Brexit.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[5]

Lists

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (Forecasted estimates for 2017)[6] List by the World Bank (2016)[7][8] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993-2017)[9]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 126,687,917
1  China[n 1] 23,122,027
--  European Union[n 2] 20,852,702
2  United States 19,362,129
3  India 9,446,789
4  Japan 5,405,072
5  Germany 4,149,573
6  Russia 4,000,096
7  Indonesia 3,242,966
8  Brazil 3,219,129
9  United Kingdom 2,880,254
10  France 2,826,456
11  Mexico 2,406,087
12  Italy 2,307,073
13  Turkey 2,132,717
14  South Korea 2,026,651
15  Saudi Arabia 1,789,264
16  Spain 1,768,574
17  Canada 1,763,785
18  Iran 1,630,859
19  Australia 1,235,297
20  Thailand 1,228,941
21  Egypt 1,199,013
22  Taiwan 1,177,052
23  Nigeria 1,124,627
24  Poland 1,114,105
25  Pakistan 1,060,569
26  Malaysia 922,057
27  Argentina 912,816
28  Netherlands 907,619
29  Philippines 878,980
30  South Africa 761,926
31  Colombia 720,151
32  United Arab Emirates 693,765
33  Bangladesh 686,598
34  Vietnam 648,243
35  Iraq 641,005
36  Algeria 634,746
37  Belgium 529,289
38  Sweden 522,849
39  Singapore 514,837
40   Switzerland 514,162
41  Kazakhstan 472,563
42  Romania 470,312
43  Chile 455,941
44  Hong Kong 449,589
45  Austria 432,424
46  Peru 429,711
47  Venezuela 404,109
48  Norway 377,100
49  Czech Republic 368,659
50  Ukraine 368,047
51  Qatar 347,887
52  Ireland 343,682
53  Myanmar 334,856
54  Israel 316,120
55  Portugal 310,651
56  Kuwait 309,640
57  Greece 302,150
58  Morocco 300,556
59  Hungary 284,266
60  Denmark 284,040
61  Sri Lanka 278,415
62  Finland 239,662
63  Uzbekistan 222,792
64  Ethiopia 194,980
65  Angola 193,935
66  Oman 189,582
67  Sudan 186,715
68  New Zealand 186,476
69  Ecuador 184,629
70  Slovak Republic 179,527
71  Dominican Republic 174,180
72  Belarus 173,405
73  Azerbaijan 167,431
74  Kenya 164,340
75  Tanzania 163,522
76  Bulgaria 152,079
77  Guatemala 138,987
78  Tunisia 136,797
79  Ghana 131,498
80  Puerto Rico 129,848
81  Serbia 107,131
82  Turkmenistan 103,987
83  Panama 100,512
84  Croatia 100,006
85  Côte d'Ivoire 95,887
86  Uganda 91,212
87  Lithuania 90,387
88  Jordan 89,555
89  Lebanon 88,786
90  Libya 87,067
91  Costa Rica 85,781
92  Bolivia 83,608
93  Cameroon 81,535
94  Uruguay 77,800
95    Nepal 77,147
96  Yemen 74,250
97  Bahrain 69,922
98  Slovenia 69,358
99  Zambia 68,648
100  Democratic Republic of the Congo 68,331
101  Paraguay 68,005
102  Afghanistan 67,462
103  Macau 65,732
104  Cambodia 64,405
105  Luxembourg 63,549
106  El Salvador 57,285
107  Latvia 53,268
108  Honduras 45,628
109  Trinidad and Tobago 44,654
110  Laos 44,639
111  Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,462
112  Senegal 43,326
113  Mali 40,974
114  Estonia 41,202
115  Madagascar 40,055
116  Georgia 39,318
117  Botswana 39,054
118  Mongolia 37,731
119  Mozambique 37,321
120  Gabon 36,999
121  Albania 36,198
122  Nicaragua 35,835
123  Burkina Faso 35,598
124  Brunei Darussalam 32,838
125  Macedonia 31,924
126  Cyprus 31,093
127  Equatorial Guinea 30,807
128  Republic of Congo 30,607
129  Zimbabwe 29,795
130  Chad 29,730
131  Papua New Guinea 29,481
132  Tajikistan 27,802
133  Mauritius 27,507
134  Namibia 27,451
135  Armenia 27,116
136  Jamaica 26,474
137  Benin 25,407
138  Rwanda 24,717
139  Kyrgyz Republic 22,737
140  Malawi 22,577
141  Niger 21,655
142  South Sudan 20,423
143  Moldova 20,207
144  Haiti 19,979
145  Kosovo 19,509
146  Malta 18,404
147  Iceland 17,846
148  Mauritania 17,421
149  Guinea 17,056
150  Togo 12,494
151  Sierra Leone 11,551
152  Swaziland 11,352
153  Montenegro 10,934
154  Eritrea 9,678
155  The Bahamas 9,374
156  Fiji 8,798
157  Burundi 8,024
158  Suriname 7,961
159  Lesotho 7,287
160  Bhutan 7,045
161  Guyana 6,398
162  Maldives 5,853
163  Barbados 4,983
164  Timor-Leste 4,567
165  Liberia 3,960
166  Cabo Verde 3,762
167  Djibouti 3,658
168  The Gambia 3,607
169  Central African Republic 3,411
170  Belize 3,252
171  Guinea-Bissau 3,089
172  Seychelles 2,761
173  Antigua and Barbuda 2,372
174  St. Lucia 2,110
175  San Marino 2,093
176  Grenada 1,588
177  St. Kitts and Nevis 1,544
178  Comoros 1,329
179  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
180  Solomon Islands 1,247
181  Samoa 1,129
182  Dominica 847
183  Vanuatu 772
184  São Tomé and Príncipe 685
185  Tonga 597
186  Micronesia 345
187  Palau 297
188  Kiribati 222
189  Marshall Islands 188
190  Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 115,165,700
1  China[n 1] 21,417,150
--  European Union[n 2] 19,721,689
2  United States 18,569,100
3  India 8,702,900
4  Japan 5,266,444
5  Germany 4,028,362
6  Russia 3,397,368
7  Brazil 3,141,333
8  Indonesia 3,032,090
9  United Kingdom 2,796,732
10  France 2,773,932
11  Italy 2,312,559
12  Mexico 2,278,072
13  Turkey 1,927,693
14  South Korea 1,832,073
15  Saudi Arabia 1,756,793
16  Spain 1,686,373
17  Canada 1,597,517
18  Iran 1,352,814
19  Thailand 1,164,928
20  Australia 1,128,908
21  Nigeria 1,091,228
22  Egypt 1,065,179
23  Poland 1,055,354
24  Pakistan 1,014,181
25  Netherlands 866,204
26  Malaysia 815,645
27  Philippines 741,029
28  South Africa 723,516
29  Colombia 665,594
30  United Arab Emirates 643,166
31  Algeria 582,598
32  Venezuela 554,329
33  Vietnam 552,297
34  Iraq 542,520
35  Bangladesh 536,567
36   Switzerland 501,653
37  Belgium 496,477
38  Singapore 471,631
39  Sweden 454,868
40  Kazakhstan 453,981
41  Romania 424,474
--  Hong Kong 414,376
42  Austria 411,818
43  Chile 400,534
44  Peru 389,147
45  Czech Republic 339,402
46  Ukraine 339,155
47  Qatar 321,418
48  Norway 319,401
49  Portugal 302,329
50  Israel 296,931
51  Greece 288,778
52  Kuwait 277,554
53  Morocco 273,358
54  Denmark 264,702
55  Ireland 253,635
56  Hungary 251,842
57  Sri Lanka 246,117
58  Finland 222,575
59  Uzbekistan 187,668
60  Angola 184,438
61  Ecuador 183,855
62  Oman 171,692
63  Azerbaijan 171,214
64  New Zealand 169,960
65  Belarus 168,009
66  Sudan 167,909
67  Ethiopia 161,571
68  Slovakia 156,632
69  Dominican Republic 149,627
70  Kenya 141,951
71  Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
72  Tunisia 126,598
73  Guatemala 125,950
74  Puerto Rico 125,861
75  Bulgaria 125,699
76  Ghana 115,137
77  Croatia 111,812
78  Serbia 95,698
79  Yemen 92,432
80  Libya 88,867
81  Turkmenistan 88,657
82  Panama 87,196
83  Jordan 82,631
84  Lebanon 81,547
85  Lithuania 80,699
86 Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
87  Costa Rica 73,931
88  Bolivia 73,796
89  Cameroon 72,896
90  Uruguay 72,751
91  Uganda 71,246
92    Nepal 70,090
--  Macau 65,383
93  Bahrain 64,656
94  Slovenia 64,229
95  Afghanistan 62,913
96  Zambia 62,458
97  Paraguay 62,458
98  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
99  Luxembourg 58,065
100  Cambodia 54,263
101  El Salvador 52,701
102  Latvia 48,049
103  Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
104  Mali 42,737
105  Honduras 41,057
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
107  Laos 38,605
108  Estonia 36,860
109  Senegal 36,776
110  Mongolia 36,068
111  Botswana 35,763
112  Georgia 35,610
113  Madagascar 35,366
114  Gabon 34,523
115  Mozambique 33,177
116  Albania 32,663
117  Nicaragua 31,564
118  Chad 30,481
119  Burkina Faso 30,041
120  Brunei Darussalam 29,969
121  Congo, Republic of the 29,423
122  Macedonia 28,907
123  Zimbabwe 27,985
124  Cyprus 25,864
125  Namibia 25,606
126  Equatorial Guinea 25,386
127  Armenia 25,329
128  Jamaica 24,704
129  Mauritius 24,596
130  Tajikistan 23,579
131  Benin 22,955
132  South Sudan 22,829
133  West Bank and Gaza 22,155
134  Papua New Guinea 21,384
135  Rwanda 20,418
136  Kyrgyzstan 20,413
137  Malawi 20,359
138  Niger 18,975
139  Haiti 18,875
140  Moldova 17,908
141  Kosovo 17,454
142  Mauritania 15,425
143  Iceland 15,399
144  Guinea 15,213
145  Malta 12,500
146  Swaziland 10,845
147  Togo 10,663
148  Sierra Leone 10,264
149  Montenegro 9,638
150  Bahamas, The 9,233
151  Suriname 9,214
152  Burundi 8,228
153  Fiji 8,171
154  Bhutan 6,258
155  Guyana 5,758
156  Lesotho 5,585
157  Maldives 5,170
158  Barbados 4,659
159  Liberia 3,766
160  Cape Verde 3,482
161  Bermuda 3,409
162  Gambia 3,155
163  Belize 3,064
164  Central African Republic 2,927
165  Djibouti 2,876
166  Timor-Leste 2,813
167  Guinea-Bissau 2,680
168  Seychelles 2,534
169  Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
170  Saint Lucia 2,033
171  Grenada 1,385
172  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
173  Solomon Islands 1,276
174  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
175  Samoa 1,144
176  Comoros 1,105
177  Dominica 820
178  Vanuatu 787
179  Sao Tome and Principe 594
180  Tonga 552
181  Federated States of Micronesia 348
182  Palau 325
183  Kiribati 209
184  Marshall Islands 202
185  Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1  China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
--  European Union[n 2] 19,970 2016 est.
2  United States 19,360 2017 est.
3  India 9,447 2017 est.
4  Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5  Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6  Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7  Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8  Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10  France 2,826 2017 est.
11  Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12  Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13  Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14  South Korea 2,027 2017 est.
15  Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16  Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17  Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18  Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19  Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20  Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21  Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
--  Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
22  Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
23  Poland 1,111 2017 est.
24  Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
25  Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
26  Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
27  Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
28  Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
29  South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
30  Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
31  United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
32  Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
33  Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
34  Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
35  Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
36  Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
37  Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
38   Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
39  Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
40  Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
41  Romania 474.0 2017 est.
--  Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
42  Chile 452.1 2017 est.
43  Austria 434.1 2017 est.
44  Peru 424.6 2017 est.
45  Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
46  Norway 375.9 2017 est.
47  Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
48  Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
49  Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
50  Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
51  Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
52  Israel 315.6 2017 est.
53  Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
54  Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
55  Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
56  Greece 299.5 2017 est.
57  Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
58  Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
59  Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
60  Finland 242.4 2017 est.
61  Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
62  Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
63  Angola 192.0 2017 est.
64  Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
65  Oman 187.9 2017 est.
66  Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
67  New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
68  Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
69  Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
70  Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
71  Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
72  Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
73  Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
74  Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
75  Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
76  Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
77  Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
78  Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
--  Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
79  Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
80  Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
81  Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
82  Panama 99.43 2017 est.
83  Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
84  Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
85  Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
86  Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
87  Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
88  Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
89  Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
90  Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
91    Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
92  Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
--  Macau 73.58 2017 est.
93  Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
94  Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
95  Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
96  Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
97  Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
98  Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
100  Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
101  Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
102  Libya 63.14 2017 est.
103  El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
104  Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
105  Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106  Laos 49.21 2017 est.
107  Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
108  Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
109  Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
110  Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
111  Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
112  Mali 40.98 2017 est.
113  North Korea 40.00 2015 est.
114  Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
115  Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
116  Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
117  Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
118  Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
119  Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
120  Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
121  Albania 35.87 2017 est.
122  Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
123  Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
124  Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
125  Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
126  Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
127  Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
128  Chad 29.64 2017 est.
129  Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
130  Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
131  Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
132  Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
133  Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
134  Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
135  Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
136  Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
137  Benin 25.29 2017 est.
138  Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
139  Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
140  Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
141  Niger 21.62 2017 est.
--  West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
142  Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
143  Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
144  South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
--  Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
145  Malta 18.53 2017 est.
146  Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
147  Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
148  Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
149  Togo 12.43 2017 est.
150  Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
151  Swaziland 11.34 2017 est.
152  Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
--  New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
153  Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
154  Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
155  Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
156  Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
157  Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
158  Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
159  Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
--  Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
160  Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
161  Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
162  Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
163  Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
--  French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
--  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
--  Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
164  Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
165  Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
--  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
166  Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
--  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
167  Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
168  Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
169  Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
--  Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
170  Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
171  Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
172  Belize 3.230 2017 est.
--  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
173  Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
174  Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
--  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
--  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
175  Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
176  Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
--  Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
177  San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
--  Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
--  Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
178  Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
179  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
180  Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
181  Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
183  Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
--  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
184  Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
185  Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
--  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
--  Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
186  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
--  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
187  Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
--  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
--  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
--  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
188  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
189  Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
--  Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
--  Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
190  Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
--  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
191  Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
--  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
192  Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
--  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
--  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194  Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
--  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
--  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
--  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[10] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 2017. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 2017. 
  6. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 2017. 
  7. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  8. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 2017. 
  9. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. 

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