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List of Physicians
This is a list of famous physicians in history.
Chronological list of physicians
- 460-370 BC Hippocrates, is considered the most outstanding figure in the history of medicine.
- 129 AD - c. 200/c. 216), Galen, the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity,
- d.260 - Gargilius Martialis, short Latin handbook on Medicines from Vegetables and Fruits
- 325-400 - Oribasius 70 volume encyclopedia
- 369 Basil of Caesarea founded at Caesarea in Cappadocia an institution (hospital) called Basilias, with several buildings for patients, nurses, physicians, workshops, and schools
- 375 - Ephrem the Syrian opened a hospital at Edessa They spread out and specialized nosocomia for the sick, brephotrophia for foundlings, orphanotrophia for orphans, ptochia for the poor, xenodochia for poor or infirm pilgrims, and gerontochia for the old.
- 400 - The first hospital in Latin Christendom was founded by Fabiola at Rome
- 420 - Caelius Aurelianus a doctor from Sicca Veneria (El-Kef, Tunisia) handbook On Acute and Chronic Diseases in Latin.
Middle Ages 5th-16th century
Islamic Middle Ages 9th-12th
- c. 800-873 - Al-Kindi (Alkindus) De Gradibus
- 820 - Benedictine hospital founded, School of Salerno would grow around it
- 857d - Mesue the elder (Yann? ibn M?sawayh) Syriac Christian
- c. 830-870 - Hunayn ibn Ishaq (Johannitius) Syriac-speaking Christian also knew Greek and Arabic. Translator and author of several medical tracts.
- c. 838-870 - Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, writes an encyclopedia of medicine in Arabic.
- c.910d - Ishaq ibn Hunayn
- 9th century Yahya ibn Sarafyun a Syriac physician Johannes Serapion, Serapion the Elder
- c. 865-925 - Rhazes pediatrics, and makes the first clear distinction between smallpox and measles in his al-Hawi.
- d.955 - Isaac Judaeus Isq ibn Sulaym?n al-Isrl? Egyptian born Jewish physician 
- 913-982 - Shabbethai Donnolo alleged founding father of School of Salerno wrote in Hebrew
- d. 990 - Al-Tamimi, the physician
- d. 982-994 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi Haly Abbas
- 1000 - Albucasis (936-1018) surgery Kitab al-Tasrif, surgical instruments.
- d.1075 - Ibn Butlan Christian physician of Baghdad Tacuinum sanitatis the Arabic original and most of the Latin copies, are in tabular format 
- 1018-1087 Michael Psellos or Psellus a Byzantine monk, writer, philosopher, politician and historian. several books on medicine
- 1021 - Alhazen
- c. 1030 - Avicenna The Canon of Medicine The Canon remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 18th century.
- c.1071-1078 Simeon Seth or Symeon Seth an 11th-century Jewish Byzantine translated Arabic works into Greek
- 1084 - First documented hospital in England Canterbury
- 1087d - Constantine the African
- 1083-1153 Anna Komnene, Latinized as Comnena
- 1095 - Congregation of the Antonines, was founded to treat victims of "St. Anthony's fire" a skin disease.
- late 11th early 12th century Trotula
- 1123 - St Bartholomew's Hospital founded by the court jester Rahere Augustine nuns originally cared for the patients. Mental patients were accepted along with others
- 1127 - Stephen of Antioch translated the work of Haly Abbas
- 1100-1161 - Avenzoar . Teacher of Averroes
- 1126-1198 - Averroes
Scholastic Medicine 13th-16th century
Renaissance to Early Modern Period 16th-18th century
19th century: Rise of modern medicine
Physicians famous for their role in advancement of medicine
- William Osler Abbott (1902-1943) -- co-developed the Miller-Abbott tube
- William Stewart Agras -- feeding behavior
- Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) -- anesthesiologist who devised the Apgar score used after childbirth
- Jean Astruc (1684-1766) -- wrote one of the first treatises on syphilis
- Averroes (1126-1198) -- Andalusian polymath
- Avicenna (980-1037) -- Persian physician
- Gerbrand Bakker (1771-1828) -- Dutch physician, with works in Dutch and Latin on midwifery, practical surgery, animal magnetism, worms, the human eye, comparative anatomy, and the anatomy of the brain
- Frederick Banting (1891-1941) -- isolated insulin
- Christiaan Barnard (1922-2001) -- performed first heart transplant
- Charles Best (1899-1978) -- assisted in the discovery of insulin
- Norman Bethune (1890-1939) -- developer of battlefield surgical techniques
- Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) -- father of modern abdominal surgery
- Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) -- first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States; first openly identified woman to receive a medical degree; pioneered the advancement of women in medicine
- Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) -- noted for his research on the medical condition of shock and the development of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, surgical relief of the cyanosis from Tetralogy of Fallot, known commonly as the blue baby syndrome, with his assistant Vivien Thomas and pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig
- James Carson
- Charaka -- Indian physician
- Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) -- pioneering neurologist
- Guy de Chauliac (1290-1368) -- one of the first physicians to have an experimental approach towards medicine; also recorded the Black Death
- Loren Cordain (1950) -- American nutritionist and exercise physiologist, Paleolithic diet
- Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) -- American neurosurgeon; father of modern-day brain surgery
- Garcia de Orta (1501-1568) -- revealed herbal medicines of India, described cholera
- Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964) -- pathologist and bacteriologist; credited with the discovery of Sulfonamidochrysoidine (KI-730), the first commercially available antibiotic; won 1939 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Charles R. Drew (1904-1950) -- blood transfusion pioneer
- Helen Flanders Dunbar (1902-1959) -- important early figure in U.S. psychosomatic medicine
- Galen (129 - c. 210) -- Roman physician and anatomist
- Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) -- German scientist; won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; developed Ehrlich's reagent
- Christiaan Eijkman (1858-1930) -- pathologist, studied beriberi
- Pierre Fauchard -- father of dentistry
- René Gerónimo Favaloro (1923-2000) -- Argentine cardiac surgeon who created the coronary bypass grafting procedure
- Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)-- Scottish scientist, inventor of penicillin
- Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553) -- wrote on syphilis, forerunner of germ theory
- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) -- founder of psychoanalysis
- Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008) -- studied Kuru, Nobel prize winner
- George E. Goodfellow (1855-1910) -- recognized as first U.S. civilian trauma surgeon, expert in gunshot wound treatment
- Henry Gray (1827-1861) -- English anatomist and surgeon, creator of Gray's Anatomy
- Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) -- physician and anatomist
- William Harvey (1578-1657) -- English physician, described the circulatory system
- Henry Heimlich (born 1920) -- inventor of the Heimlich maneuver and the Vietnam War-era chest drain valve
- Orvan Hess (1906-2002) -- fetal heart monitor and first successful use of penicillin
- Hippocrates (c. 460-370 BCE) -- Greek father of medicine
- John Hunter (1728-1793) -- father of modern surgery, famous for his study of anatomy
- Kurt Julius Isselbacher (Born 1928) -- Former editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, prominent Gastroenterologist, founder of the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Association of American Physicians Kober Medal winner
- Edward Jenner (1749-1823) -- English physician popularized vaccination
- Elliott P. Joslin (1869-1962) -- pioneer in the treatment of diabetes
- Carl Jung (1875-1961) -- Swiss psychiatrist
- Leo Kanner (1894-1981) -- Austrian-American psychiatrist known for work on autism
- Seymour Kety (1915-2000) -- American neuroscientist
- Robert Koch (1843-1910) -- formulated Koch's postulates
- Theodor Kocher -- thyroid surgery; first surgeon to win the Nobel Prize
- Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) -- inventor of the stethoscope
- Janet Lane-Claypon (1877-1967) -- pioneer of epidemiology
- Thomas Linacre (1460-1524) -- founder of Royal College of Physicians
- Joseph Lister (1827-1912) -- pioneer of antiseptic surgery
- Richard Lower (1631-1691) -- studied the lungs and heart, and performed the first blood transfusion
- Paul Loye (1861-1890) -- studied the nervous system and decapitation
- Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig (1790-1865) -- a German physician known for his 1836 publication on the condition now known as Ludwig's angina
- Amato Lusitano (1511-1568) -- discovered venous valves, studied blood circulation
- Madhav (8th century A.D.) -- medical text author and systematizer
- Maimonides (1135-1204)
- Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) -- Italian anatomist, pioneer in histology
- Barry Marshall
- Charles Horace Mayo (1865-1939) -- co-founder, Mayo Clinic
- William James Mayo (1861-1939) -- co-founder, Mayo Clinic
- William Worrall Mayo (1819-1911) -- co-founder, Mayo Clinic
- Salvador Mazza (1886-1946) -- Argentine epidemiologist who helped in controlling American trypanosomiasis
- William McBride -- discovered teratogenicity of thalidomide
- Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884-1951) -- studied muscle metabolism; Nobel prize
- George Richards Minot (1885-1950) -- Nobel prize for his study of anemia
- Frederic E. Mohs (1910-2002) -- responsible for the method of surgery now called Mohs surgery
- Egas Moniz (1874-1955) -- developed lobotomy and brain artery angiography
- Richard Morton (1637-1698) -- identified tubercles in consumption (phthisis) of lungs; basis for modern name tuberculosis
- Herbert Needleman -- scientifically established link between lead poisoning and neurological damage; key figure in successful efforts to limit lead exposure
- Charles Jean Henri Nicolle (1866-1936) -- microbiologist who won Nobel prize for work on typhus
- Ian Olver (born 1953)
- Gary Onik -- inventor and pioneer of ultrasound guided cryosurgery for both the prostate and the liver
- William Osler (1849-1919) -- the "father of modern medicine"
- Ralph Paffenbarger -- conducted classic studies demonstrating conclusively that active people reduce their risk of heart disease and live longer
- George Papanicolaou (1883-1962) -- Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection; inventor of the Pap smear
- Paracelsus (1493-1541) -- founder of toxicology
- Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) -- advanced surgical wound treatment
- Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) -- pioneer in neurology
- Marcus Raichle (born 1937) -- father of functional neuroimaging
- Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) -- father of modern neuroscience for his development of the neuron theory
- Joseph Ransohoff (1915-2001) -- neurosurgeon who invented the modern technique for removing brain tumors
- Sir William Refshauge (1913-2009) -- Australian public health administrator
- Rhazes (c. 854-925) (Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi)
- Juan Rosai (born 1940) -- advanced surgical pathology; discovered the desmoplastic small round cell tumor and Rosai-Dorfman disease
- Jonas Salk (1914-1995) -- developed a vaccine for polio
- Lall Sawh (born 1951) -- Trinidadian surgeon/urologist and pioneer of kidney transplantation in the Caribbean
- Martin Schurig (1656-1733) -- first physician to occupy himself with the anatomy of the sexual organs.
- Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) -- a pioneer of avoiding cross-infection -- introduced hand washing and instrument cleaning
- Victor Skumin (born 1948) -- first to describe a previously unknown disease, now called Skumin syndrome (a disorder of the central nervous system of some patients after receiving a prosthetic heart valve)
- John Snow (1813-1858) -- anaesthetist and pioneer epidemiologist who studied cholera
- Thomas Starzl (1926-2017) -- performed the first liver transplant
- Andrew Taylor Still (1828-1917) -- father of osteopathic medicine
- Susruta (c. 500 BCE) -- Indian physician and pioneering surgeon
- Thomas Sydenham (1642-1689) -- clinician
- James Mourilyan Tanner (born 1920) -- developed Tanner stages and advanced auxology
- Helen B. Taussig (1898-1986) -- founded field of pediatric cardiology, worked to prevent thalidomide marketing in the US
- Carlo Urbani (1956-2003) -- discovered and died from SARS
- Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) -- Belgian anatomist, often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy
- Vidus Vidius (1508-1569) -- first professor of medicine at the College Royal and author of medical texts
- Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) -- German pathologist, founder of fields of comparative pathology and cellular pathology
- Carl Warburg (1805-1892) -- German/British physician and clinical pharmacologist, inventor of Warburg's Tincture, a famed antipyretic and antimalarial medicine of the Victorian era
- Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970) -- German physiologist, medical doctor; Nobel prize 1931
- Allen Oldfather Whipple (1881-1963) -- devised the Whipple procedure in 1935 for treatment of pancreatic cancer
- Priscilla White -- developed classification of diabetes mellitus and pregnancy to assess and reduce the risk of miscarriage, birth defect, stillbirth, and maternal death
- Carl Wood -- developed and commercialized in-vitro fertilization
- Alfred Worcester (1855-1951) -- pioneer in geriatrics, palliative care, appendectomy, cesarean section, student health, nursing education
- Ole Wormius (1588-1654) -- pioneer in embryology
- Sir Magdi Yacoub (born 1935) -- one of the leading developers of the techniques of heart and heart-lung transplantation
- Boris Yegorov (1937-1994) -- first physician in space (1964)
- Zhang Xichun (1860--1933) -- first physician to integrate Chinese and Western medicine
Physicians famous chiefly as eponyms
Among the better known eponyms:
Physicians famous as criminals
Physicians famous as writers
Among the better known writers:
- Mikhail Bulgakov (1891-1940) - Russian novelist and playwright
- Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961) - French novelist, author of Journey to the End of the Night
- Graham Chapman (1941-1989) - writer and actor, founding member of Monty Python
- Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) - Russian playwright
- Robin Cook - American author of bestselling novels, wrote Coma
- Michael Crichton (1942-2008) - American author of Jurassic Park
- A. J. Cronin (1896-1981) - Scottish novelist and essayist, author of The Citadel
- Anthony Daniels (1949- ) - as 'Theodore Dalrymple' and under his own name, a British author, critic and social and cultural commentator
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) - British author of Sherlock Holmes fame
- Khaled Hosseini (1965-) - American author, originally from Afghanistan, of bestselling novels The Kite Runner and A Thousand Splendid Suns
- John Keats (1795-1821) - English poet
- Morio Kita - Japanese novelist and essayist; son of Mokichi Sait?
- Jean Baptiste Lefebvre de Villebrune (1732-1809) - French physician who translated several works from Latin, English, Spanish, Italian, and German into French
- Luke the Evangelist - one of the four Gospel writers of the Bible
- John S. Marr - proposed natural explanations for the ten plagues of Egypt
- W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) - British novelist and short story writer, wrote Of Human Bondage
- Alfred de Musset (1810-1857) - French playwright, discovered sign of syphilitic aortitis
- Taslima Nasrin
- Mori ?gai - Japanese novelist, poet, and literary critic
- Walker Percy (1916-1990) - American philosopher and writer
- François Rabelais (1483-1553) - French author of Gargantua and Pantagruel
- Mokichi Sait? - Japanese poet
- Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), German writer, poet, essayist and dramatist
- William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) - American poet and essayist
- Patrick Abercromby (1656 - c. 1716) - historian
- Chris Adrian
- Jacob Appel - short story writer
- John Arbuthnot
- Janet Asimov (born 1926) (née Janet O. Jeppson) - American psychiatrist, wife of Isaac Asimov
- Arnie Baker - cycling coach
- Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682) - British writer
- Georg Büchner - German dramatist
- Ludwig Büchner - German philosopher
- Thomas Campion - poet, composer
- Ethan Canin - novelist, short story writer
- Deepak Chopra - Indian/American writer of self-help and health books
- Alex Comfort (1920-2000) - British writer and poet, author of The Joy of Sex
- Ctesias (5th century B.C.) - Greek historian
- Steven Clark Cunningham (born 1972), children's poem writer
- Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) - British poet, grandfather of Charles Darwin
- Georges Duhamel (1884-1966) - French writer, dramatist, poet and humanist
- Havelock Ellis (1859-1940) - British writer and poet, author of The Psychology of Sex
- Viktor Frankl (1905-1997) - Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist, author of Man's Search for Meaning
- Samuel Garth (1661-1719) - British author and translator of classics
- Atul Gawande - surgeon and New Yorker medical writer
- William Gilbert - British author; father of W. S. Gilbert
- Oliver Goldsmith - British author
- Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894) - American essayist
- Richard Hooker - author of M*A*S*H
- Arthur Johnston (1587-1641) - poet
- Charles Krauthammer (1950-2018) - American psychiatrist, syndicated political columnist
- R. D. Laing - Scottish writer and poet, leader of the anti-psychiatry movement
- Stanis?aw Lem (1929-2006) - Polish author of science-fiction (Solaris)
- Carlo Levi (1902-1975) - Italian novelist and writer
- David Livingstone (1813-1873) - Scottish medical missionary, explorer of Africa, travel writer
- Adeline Yen Mah - Chinese-American author
- Paolo Mantegazza (1831-1910) - Italian writer, author of science fiction book L'Anno 3000
- Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793) - French writer, a leader of French Revolution; assassinated in bathtub
- Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914) - American writer
- Mungo Park- Scottish physician and explorer
- Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman - Indian author and translator of classical manuscripts
- José Rizal (1861-1896) - Filipino novelist, scientist, linguist, and national hero
- João Guimarães Rosa - Brazilian writer
- Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) - British writer and poet, discovered the malarial parasite
- Theodore Isaac Rubin (born 1923) - American author of David and Lisa
- Oliver Sacks (born 1933) - British essayist (The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat)
- Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) - German charitative worker, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1952), theologian, philosopher, organist, musicologist
- Frank Slaughter (1908-2001) - American bestseller author, wrote (Doctor's Wives)
- Tobias Smollett (1721-1771) - author
- Benjamin Spock (1903-1988) - American pediatrician, wrote Baby and Child Care
- Patrick Taylor - Canadian best-selling novelist
- Osamu Tezuka - Japanese cartoonist and animator; the "father of anime"
- Lewis Thomas (1913-1993) - American essayist and poet
- Sir Henry Thompson — British surgeon and polymath
- Vladislav Van?ura (1891-1942) - Czech writer, screenwriter and film director
- Francis Brett Young (1884-1954) - English novelist and poet
Physicians famous as politicians
- Ayad Allawi - interim Prime Minister of Iraq
- Salvador Allende (1908-1973) - Chilean president
- Emilio Álvarez Montalván - Foreign Minister of Nicaragua
- Arnulfo Arias - Panaman President
- Bashar Al-Assad - Syrian national leader
- Michelle Bachelet (born 1951) - Chilean president
- Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1898-1997) - Prime Minister, President and later dictator of Malawi
- Gro Harlem Brundtland (born 1939) - first Norwegian female prime minister; Director-General of the World Health Organization
- Margaret Chan - Director General of the WHO; former Director of Health of Hong Kong
- Chen Chi-mai - former mayor of Kaohsiung, Taiwan
- York Chow - Secretary for Health, Welfare and Food of Hong Kong
- Denzil Douglas - Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 1995-2015
- François Duvalier (1907-1971) - also known as Papa Doc; President and later dictator of Haiti
- Antônio Palocci Filho - Brazilian politician, Finance Minister
- Christian Friedrich, Baron von Stockmar - Anglo-Belgian statesman
- Che Guevara - Latin American revolutionary leader
- George Habash - founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
- Ibrahim al-Jaafari - Prime minister of Iraq
- Radovan Karad?i? (born 1945) - first President of Republika Srpska, now facing charges for genocide and crimes against humanity
- Mohammad-Reza Khatami - Iranian politician
- Ewa Kopacz (2014 - Till Date) - Polish Prime Minister who succeeded Donald Tusk
- Juscelino Kubitscheck - Brazilian president
- Mahathir bin Mohamad - Malaysian prime minister
- Agostinho Neto (1922-1979) - MPLA leader and president of Angola
- Navin Ramgoolam - Prime minister of Mauritius
- Lloyd Richardson - President of the Parliament of Sint Maarten, 2014-2015
- José Rizal (1861-1896) - Filipino revolutionary and national hero
- Bidhan Chandra Roy - Indian politician
- Hélio de Oliveira Santos - Brazilian politician, mayor of Campinas
- Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) - founder of the Republic of China
- Tabaré Vázquez - former Uruguayan President
- Ali Akbar Velayati (born 1945) - Iranian Foreign Minister, 1981-1997
- William Walker (1824-1860) - ruler of Nicaragua
- Ram Baran Yadav (2008- ) - first elected president of the republic of Nepal
- Yeoh Eng-kiong - former Secretary for Health and Welfare of Hong Kong
Physicians famous as sportspeople
Physicians famous for their role in television and the media
Physicians famous as beauty queens
Physicians famous for other activities
- Anderson Ruffin Abbott
- Jane Addams — social activist
- David Alter — inventor
- Rosalind Ambrose (1953) introduced CAT scan, fluoroscopy, mammography, teleradiology and ultrasound technologies to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Oswald Avery (1877-1955) — molecular biologist who discovered DNA carried genetic information
- Ali Bacher — cricketer
- Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi — traveller
- Roger Bannister -- runner, first sub-four-minute miler
- Josiah Bartlett — American statesman and chief justice of New Hampshire
- T. Romeyn Beck (1791-1855) — American forensic medicine pioneer
- Ramon Betances — surgeon, PR nationalist
- Maximilian Bircher-Benner (1867-1939) — nutritionist
- Oscar Biscet — human rights advocate
- Herman Boerhaave — humanist
- Alexander Borodin — composer, chemist
- Thomas Bowdler — censor
- Lafayette Bunnell — explorer of Yosemite Valley
- John Caius (1510-1573) — physician and educator
- Roberto Canessa — survivor of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, which crashed in the Andes Mountains in 1972
- Gerolamo Cardano — mathematician
- Alexis Carrell — transplant surgeon, eugenicist, Vichy sympathizer
- Ben Carson — African-American neurosurgeon
- Laurel B. Clark (1961-2003) — American astronaut, killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
- Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) — mathematician and astronomer
- Merv Cross
- Ted Eisenberg, the Guinness World Record holder for most breast augmentation surgeries performed.
- Steven Eisenberg, known as "The Singing Cancer Doctor."
- Sextus Empiricus (2nd–3rd century C.E.) — philosopher
- Ken Evoy
- Giovanni Fontana -- Venetian physician, engineer, and encyclopedist
- Galileo Galilei -- astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician
- Luigi Galvani — physicist
- Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) — philosopher
- William Gilbert (1544-1603) — physicist
- Carl Goresky — physician and scientist
- W. G. Grace — cricketer
- John Franklin Gray (1804-1881) — American educator, first practitioner of homeopathy in the US
- Nehemiah Grew — botanist
- Samuel Hahnemann — founder of homeopathy
- Armand Hammer — entrepreneur
- Daniel Harris
- Karin M. Hehenberger — diabetes expert
- Hermann von Helmholtz — physicist
- Jan Baptist van Helmont (1577-1655) — physiologist
- Harry Hill — British comedian
- Samuel Gridley Howe — abolitionist
- Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt (1810-1889) — President of the Connecticut State Medical Society; director of the Retreat for the Insane
- Mae Jemison (born 1956) — astronaut
- David Johnson — American swimmer
- Stuart Kauffman (born 1939) — biologist
- John Keats -- poet and author
- John Harvey Kellogg — cereal manufacturer
- Charles Krauthammer (born 1950) — columnist and political commentator
- Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) — based his system of criminology on physiognomy
- John McAndrew (born 1927) — All-Ireland Gaelic Footballer
- June McCarroll — inventor of lane markings
- Pat McGeer — Canadian basketball player
- James McHenry (1753-1816) — signer of the United States Constitution
- Archibald Menzies — naturalist
- Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) — proponent of mesmerism and the idea of animal magnetism
- Jonathan Miller — television presenter and stage director
- Paul Möhring (1710-1792) — zoologist, botanist
- Maria Montessori — educator
- Boris V. Morukov — cosmonaut
- Lee "Final Table" Nelson — professional poker player
- Haing S. Ngor — Oscar-winning film actor
- Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers (1758-1840) — astronomer
- Dinesh Palipana — physician with disability and advocate
- Roza Papo — army general
- James Parkinson — physician, geologist, political activist
- Claude Perrault — architect
- Christian Hendrik Persoon — South African botanist
- Pope John XXI — pope
- Scott Powell — co-founder of the nostalgia group Sha Na Na
- Weston A. Price — traveler, educator
- Syed Ziaur Rahman — physician and medical scientist
- John Ray — plant taxonomer
- Prathap C. Reddy
- Bradbury Robinson — threw the first legal forward pass in American football history while a medical student at St. Louis University
- Peter Mark Roget — English lexicographer
- Jacques Rogge — sports official
- Mowaffak al-Rubaie — human rights advocate, member of the Interim Iraqi Governing Council
- Benjamin Rush — signer of the United States Constitution
- Daniel Rutherford (1749-1819) — chemist
- Bendapudi Venkata Satyanarayana
- Félix Savart — physicist
- Albert Schweitzer — humanist
- Michael Servetus (1511-1553) — burnt at the stake by Calvinists for heresy
- Paul Sinha — British comedian
- Rob Sitch — Australian comedian
- Sócrates (born 1954, Sócrates Brasileiro Sampaio de Souza Vieira de Oliveira) — Brazilian football (soccer) player
- James Hudson Taylor (1832-1905) — British missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission
- Norman Earl Thagard — astronaut
- Debi Thomas (born 1967) — Olympic figure skater
- William E. Thornton — astronaut
- John Tidwell — American basketball player
- Nasiruddin al-Tusi — astronomer
- Andrew Wakefield — conducted studies on disputed link between vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders, which had many serious consequences
- William Walker — Latin American adventurer
- Moshe Wallach (1866-1957) — founder and director of Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem, for 45 years
- John Clarence Webster — Canadian historian
- Wilhelm Weinberg — with G.H. Hardy, developed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model of population genetics
- JPR Williams — rugby union player
- Hugh Williamson — American patriot, statesman, Surgeon General of SC
- Thomas Young — scientist
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