List of Tallest Buildings in the World
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List of Tallest Buildings in the World
The 828-metre (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the world's tallest building since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]
Tallest buildings in the world.

This list of tallest buildings in the world ranks skyscrapers by height. Only buildings with continuously occupiable floors are included, thus non-building structures, including towers, are not included. (See List of tallest buildings and structures.)

Ranking criteria and alternatives

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] The CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, however, and some buildings listed within these list articles are not considered complete by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (100 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world (350 m+)

As of 2017, this list includes all 52 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,148 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 24 and 25 on the list (or 23 and 24 since it can be assumed One World Trade Center would have never been built).

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Building[A] City Country Height (m)[3] Height (ft) Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  United Arab Emirates 828 m 2,717 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m[9] 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[10] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Centre Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2017
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul  South Korea 554.5 m 1,819 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 541.3 m 1,776 ft 104 2014
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m[11] 1,739 ft 111 2016
Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin  China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2017
9 Taipei 101 Taipei  Republic of China 508 m[12] 1,667 ft 101 2004
10 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 492 m 1,614 ft 101 2008
11 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
12 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 452.1 m 1,483 ft 88 2017
13 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
15 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2010
Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 450 m 1,476 ft 92 2017
17 Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) Chicago  United States 442.1 m 1,450 ft  108 1974
18 KK100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
19 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 440 m 1,440 ft 103 2010
20 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2016[B]
21 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 88 2015
22 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2015[B]
23 Trump International Hotel and Tower[13] Chicago  United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 98 2009
24 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421 m 1,380 ft 88 1999
25 Princess Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft[14] 101 2012
26 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 413 m 1,354 ft 80 2011
27 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
28 China Resources Headquarters Shenzhen  China 392.5 m 1,288 ft 67 2017
29 23 Marina Dubai  United Arab Emirates 392.4 m 1,287 ft 89 2012
30 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou  China 390.2 m 1,280 ft 80 1996
31 Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 Shenzhen  China 388.1 m 1,273 ft 80 2017
32 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 385 m 1,263 ft 77 2016
33 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen  China 384 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
34 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian  China 383 m 1,257 ft 81 2015
35 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning  China 381.3 m 1,251 ft 82 2017
36 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,251 ft 88 2014
37 Empire State Building New York City  United States 381 m 1,250 ft 102 1931
38 Elite Residence Dubai  United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,248 ft 87 2012
39 Central Plaza Hong Kong  China 374 m 1,227 ft 78 1992
Federation Tower (East Tower)[15] Moscow  Russia 374 m 1,227 ft 95 2016
41 The Address the BLVD Dubai  United Arab Emirates 368 m 1,207 ft 72 2017
42 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong  China 367 m 1,205 ft 70 1990
43 Bank of America Tower New York City  United States 365.8 m 1,200 ft 54 2009
44 Almas Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 363 m 1,191 ft 68 2009
45 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
47 Emirates Office Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,163 ft 54 2000
48 OKO Tower - South Tower Moscow  Russia 354 m 1,160 ft 85 2015
49 The Marina Torch Dubai  United Arab Emirates 352 m 1,155 ft 86 2011
50 Forum 66 Tower 2 Shenyang  China 350.6 m 1,150 ft 68 2015
51 The Pinnacle Guangzhou  China 350.3 m 1,149 ft 60 2012
52 Hanking Center Shenzhen  China 350 m 1,148 ft 73 2017

Photo gallery

Alternative measurements

Height to pinnacle (highest point)

Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014.

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now called Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

bold +Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa+ Dubai  United Arab Emirates 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[10] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016
5 Lotte World Tower+ Seoul  South Korea 555.7 m 1,823 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center+ New York City  United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
7 CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m[11] 1,739 ft 111 2016
7 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin  China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2017
9 Willis Tower+ Chicago  United States 527 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
10 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 508 m 1,667 ft 101 2004
11 Shanghai World Financial Center+ Shanghai  China 494.3 m 1,622 ft 101 2008
12 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
13 John Hancock Center+ Chicago  United States 456.9 m 1,499 ft 100 1969
14 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 452 m 1,483 ft 94 2017
15 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
15 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
17 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
17 Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 450 m 1,476 ft 98 2017
19 Empire State Building+ New York City  United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
20 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
21 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 438.6 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
22 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2017
23 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 85 2015
24 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2017
25 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago  United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 96 2009
26 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
27 Princess Tower+ Dubai  United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft[14] 101 2012
28 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
29 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003

Buildings under construction

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 metres that are currently under construction. More than half of the buildings are located in China.

Building Planned architectural height Floors Planned completion Country City Remarks
Jeddah Tower 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 167+ 2020  Saudi Arabia Jeddah Will become the tallest in the world upon completion.[16]
Wuhan Greenland Center 636 m (2,087 ft) 125 2018  China Wuhan
KL118 630 m (2,070 ft) 118 2019  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Will become the tallest building in Southeast Asia.
Rama IX Super Tower 615 m (2,018 ft) 118 2021  Thailand Bangkok [17]
Goldin Finance 117 597 m (1,959 ft) 128 2018  China Tianjin
Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center 568 m (1,864 ft) 114 2018  China Shenyang
China Zun 528 m (1,732 ft) 118 2018  China Beijing
Skyfame Center Landmark Tower 528 m (1,732 ft) 108 2021  China Nanning [18]
Evergrande IFC 1 518 m (1,699 ft) 112 2021  China Hefei [19]
The Exchange 106 492 m (1,614 ft) 106 2021  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [20]
Central Park Tower 478 m (1,568 ft) 131 2019  United States New York City Will become the second tallest building in New York. Also known as the Nordstrom Tower.
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2018  China Chengdu
Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018  Russia St. Petersburg Will become tallest building in Europe upon completion.[21]
Landmark 81 461.2 m (1,513 ft) 81 2018  Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City
China Resources Centre Block A 445 m (1,460 ft) 90 2018  China Nanning [22]
World One 442 m (1,450 ft) 117 2018  India Mumbai Will become tallest residential skyscraper in the world if completed before Pentominium.[23][24][25]
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2018  China Wuhan
111 West 57th Street 435.3 m (1,428 ft) 82 2018  United States New York City Scheduled to be world's skinniest skyscraper "with a slenderness ratio of about 1:24."[26]
Akhmat Tower 435 m (1,427 ft) 100 2020  Russia Grozny It will be the second tallest building in Europe upon completion.
Diamond Tower 432 m (1,417 ft) 93 2019  Saudi Arabia Jeddah [27]
Haikou Tower 428 m (1,404 ft) 94 2020  China Haikou
One Vanderbilt 427 m (1,401 ft) 58 2021  United States New York City [28]
Dongguan International Trade Center 1 427 m (1,401 ft) 88 2019  China Dongguan
Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower 411.6 m (1,350 ft) 101 2018  South Korea Busan
Hongshu Bay Metro Station Tower 1 400 m (1,300 ft) 87 2021  China Shenzhen [29]
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1 400 m (1,300 ft) 76 2021  China Guiyang [30]
Ningbo Center Tower 1 398 m (1,306 ft) 80 2021  China Ningbo [31]
30 Hudson Yards 387 m (1,270 ft) 73 2019  United States New York City
La Maison by HDS 386.5 m (1,268 ft) 105 2021  United Arab Emirates Dubai [32]
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 75 2019  Kazakhstan Astana
Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2019  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [33]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78  ?  Malaysia Johor Bahru [34]
Hai Tian Center Tower 2 369 m (1,211 ft) 72 2021  China Qingdao [35]
Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A 368 m (1,207 ft) 76 2018  China Nanjing
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 2 367 m (1,204 ft) 72 2021  China Guiyang [36]
VietinBank Business Center Office Tower 363.2 m (1,192 ft) 70 2018  Vietnam Hanoi
Wanda Vista 362.9 m (1,191 ft) 93 2020  United States Chicago
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft)[37] 90 2017  India Mumbai
Sino-Steel Tower 358 m (1,175 ft) 83  ?  China Guiyang [38]
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2018  China Suzhou [39]
Icon Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) 75 2018  Indonesia Jakarta

List by continent

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height:

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 160 2010  United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014  United States New York City
Europe Federation Tower 374 m (1,227 ft) 95 2015  Russia Moscow
Oceania Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005  Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[40] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012  Chile Santiago
Africa Carlton Centre 225.5 m (740 ft) 50 1973  South Africa Johannesburg
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[41] 15 m (49 ft) - 2005[42]  Antarctica McMurdo Station

See also

Notes

A. ^ Destroyed buildings not included
B. ^ Topped out but not completed.

References

  1. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  2. ^ "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012. 
  4. ^ Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  6. ^ Binders, George (August 2006). 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings. p. 102.
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved . 
  8. ^ "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ "China tallest building, Shanghai Tower, gets final beam". 3 August 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  12. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2017. 
  13. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". buildingdb.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "Princess Tower | Buildings". Dubai /: Emporis. Retrieved . 
  15. ^ [1][dead link]
  16. ^ "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "Rama IX Super Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  18. ^ "Skyfame Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  19. ^ "Evergrande IFC 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  20. ^ "TRX Signature Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  21. ^ "Lakhta Center : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  22. ^ "China Resources Centre Block A". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014. 
  23. ^ "Mumbai apartments in 'world's tallest residential building' on sale in UK". Times of India. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  24. ^ "Mumbai". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved . 
  25. ^ "World One, Mumbai". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved . 
  26. ^ "SHoP Architects Designs World's Skinniest Skyscraper for Midtown". Architectmagazine.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  27. ^ "Diamond Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  28. ^ "One Vanderbilt". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  29. ^ "Hongshu Bay Metro Station Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  30. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  31. ^ "Ningbo Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  32. ^ "La Maison by HDS". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  33. ^ "Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  34. ^ "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  35. ^ "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  36. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  37. ^ "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved . 
  38. ^ "Sino Steel International Plaza T2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  39. ^ "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014. 
  40. ^ "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14. 
  41. ^ Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 2017. 
  42. ^ Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program", NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External links


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