The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization. This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (time periods in the origin and mass evolution of the universe), geological (time periods in the origin and evolution of the Earth), anthropological (time periods in the origin and evolution of humans) and historical (written history).
Human Time Periods
These can be divided broadly into prehistorical (before history began to be recorded) and historical periods (when written records began to be kept).
In archaeology and anthropology, prehistory is subdivided around the three-age system. This list includes the use of the three-age system as well as a number of various designation used in reference to sub-ages within the traditional three.
The dates for each age can vary by region. On the geologic time scale, the Holocene epoch starts at the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age (c.10,000 BC) and continues to the present. The beginning of Mesolithic is usually considered to correspond to the beginning of the Holocene epoch.
- Pre-History - Period between the appearance of Homo ("humans"; first stone tools c. three million years ago) and the invention of writing systems (for the Ancient Near East: c. five thousand years ago).
- Stone Age
- Paleolithic - is the earliest period of the Stone Age
- Mesolithic (Epipaleolithic) - was a period in the development of human technology between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods.
- Neolithic - a period of primitive technological and social development, beginning about 10,200 BC in parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world.
- Chalcolithic (or "Eneolithic", "Copper Age") - this period was still largely Neolithic in character, where early copper metallurgy appeared alongside the use of stone tools.
- Bronze Age - is not part of prehistory for all regions and civilizations who had adopted or developed a writing system.
- Iron Age - is not part of prehistory for all civilizations who had introduced written records during the Bronze Age.
- Protohistory - Period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings; the absolute time scale of "protohistory" varies widely depending on the region, from the late 4th millennium BCE in the Ancient Near East to the present in the case of uncontacted peoples.
- Ancient History - Aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly less than five thousand years, beginning with the earliest linguistic records in the third millennium BC in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
- Classical Antiquity - Broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
- Post-Classical History - Period of time that immediately followed ancient history. Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years CE 200-600 and CE 1200-1500. The major classical civilizations the era follows are Han China (ending in 220), the Western Roman Empire (in 476), the Gupta Empire (in the 550s), and the Sasanian Empire (in 651).
- Modern History - After the post-classical era
- Classic and Postclassic eras, Central America (200-1519)
- Early Intermediate, Middle Horizon, Late Intermediate, Late Horizon (Peru, 200-1534)
- Baroque (New World, 1600-1750)
- Spanish hegemony (Americas, 16th century - 1820s)
- Reconstruction era (United States, 1865-1877)
- Gilded Age (United States, 1875-1900)
- Progressive Era (United States, 1890s-1920s)
- Jazz Age (United States, 1920s-1930s)
- Information Age (United States, 1970-present)
Southeast Asian Periods
- Srivijaya (Indonesia, 3rd - 14th centuries), Tarumanagara (358-723), Sailendra (8th and 9th centuries), Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579), Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045), Kediri (1045-1221), Singhasari (1222-1292), Majapahit (1293-1500)
- Chenla (Cambodia, 630 - 802) and Khmer Empire (Cambodia, 802-1432)
- Anterior Lý Dynasty and Tri?u Vi?t Vng, Third Chinese domination, Khúc Family, Dng ?ình Ngh?, Ki?u Công Ti?n, Ngô Dynasty, The 12 Lords Rebellion, ?inh Dynasty, Prior Lê Dynasty, Lý Dynasty, Tr?n Dynasty, H? Dynasty, Fourth Chinese domination (Vietnam, 544-1427)
Central Asian Periods
- Xiongnu (Mongolia, 220 BC - AD 200)
- Rouran Khaganate (Mongolia, Manchuria, Xianbei, AD 330 - 555)
- Uyghur Khaganate (Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, 744 - 848)
- Liao Dynasty (Khitan people, 907 - 1125)
- Mongol Empire (Mongolia, 1206 - 1380)
- Qing dynasty (Manchu China, 1692 - 1911)
- Bronze Age (c.3000 BC - c.1050 BC)
- Iron Age (c.1050 BC - c.500 AD)
- Greek expansion and colonisation (c.1050 BC - 776 BC)
- Archaic Greece (776 BC - 480 BC) - begins with the First Olympiad, traditionally dated 776 BC
- Archaic period (776 BC - 612 BC) - establishment of city states in Greece
- Pre-classical period (612 BC - 480 BC) - the fall of Nineveh to the second Persian invasion of Greece
- Classical antiquity (480 BC - 476 AD)
- Migration Period (Europe, 300 AD - 700 AD)
- Middle Ages (Europe, 476 - 1453)
- Early modern period (Europe, 1453 - 1789)
- Age of Discovery (or Exploration) (Europe, c.1400 - 1770)
- Polish Golden Age (Poland, 1507 - 1572)
- Golden Age of Piracy 1650 - 1730
- Elizabethan era (United Kingdom, 1558 - 1603)
- Protestant Reformation (Europe, 16th century)
- Classicism (Europe, 16th - 18th centuries)
- Industrious Revolution, (Europe, 16th - 18th centuries)
- Jacobean era (United Kingdom, 1603 - 1625)
- Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)
- Age of Enlightenment (or Reason) (Europe, 18th century)
- Long nineteenth century (1789-1914)
- First and Second World Wars (1914-1945)
- Cold War (1945-1991)
- Post-Cold War / Postmodernity (1991 - present)
Middle Eastern Periods
Mythological and Astrological Time Periods
- Astrological Ages
- Greek Mythology (See also: Ages of Man)
- Aztec Mythology
- Nahui-Ocelotl, Destroyed by Jaguars
- Nahui-Ehécatl, Destroyed by Hurricane
- Nahuiquiahuitl, Destroyed by Flaming Rain
- Nahui-Atl, Destroyed by Flood
- Nahui-Ollin, the one we are in now, Destroyed by Earthquakes (the end was said to be in 2012, but that did not occur)
Marxian Stages of History
The Marxian theory of history identifies five major distinct periods of history:
The First Stage: is usually called primitive communism. It has the following characteristics.
- Shared Property: there is no concept of ownership beyond individual possessions. All is shared by the tribe to ensure its survival.
- Hunter / Gatherer: tribal societies have yet to develop large scale agriculture and so their survival is a daily struggle.
- Proto-Democracy: there is usually no concept of "leadership" yet. So tribes are led by the best warrior if there is war, the best diplomat if they have steady contact with other tribes and so forth.
The Second Stage: may be called slave society, considered to be the beginning of "class society" where private property appears.
- Class: here the idea of class appears. There is always a slave-owning ruling class and the slaves themselves.
- Statism: the state develops during this stage as a tool for the slave-owners to use and control the slaves.
- Agriculture: people learn to cultivate plants and animals on a large enough scale to support large populations.
- Democracy & Authoritarianism: these opposites develop at the same stage. Democracy arises first with the development of the republican city-state, followed by the totalitarian empire.
- Private Property: citizens now own more than personal property. Land ownership is especially important during a time of agricultural development.
The Third Stage: may be called feudalism; it appears after slave society collapses. This was most obvious during the European Middle Ages when society went from slavery to feudalism.
- Aristocracy: the state is ruled by monarchs who inherit their positions, or at times marry or conquer their ways into leadership.
- Theocracy: this is a time of largely religious rule. When there is only one religion in the land and its organizations affect all parts of daily life.
- Hereditary Classes: castes can sometimes form and one's class is determined at birth with no form of advancement. This was the case with India.
- Nation-state: nations are formed from the remnants of the fallen empires. Sometimes, they rebuild themselves into empires once more; this was the case with England's transition from a province to an empire.
Capitalism may be considered The Fourth Stage in the sequence. Marx pays special attention to this stage in human development. The bulk of his work is devoted to analysing the mechanisms of capitalism, which in western society classically arose "red in tooth and claw" from feudal society in a revolutionary movement. In capitalism, the profit motive rules and people, freed from serfdom, work for the capitalists for wages. The capitalist class are free to spread their laissez faire practices around the world. In the capitalist-controlled parliament, laws are made to protect wealth.
Capitalism appears after the bourgeois revolution when the capitalists (or their merchant predecessors) overthrow the feudal system, and it is categorized by the following:
- Market Economy: In capitalism, the entire economy is guided by market forces. Supporters of laissez-faire economics argue that there should be little or no intervention from the government under capitalism. Marxists, however, such as Lenin in his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, argue that the capitalist government is a powerful instrument for the furtherance of capitalism and the capitalist nation-state, particularly in the conquest of markets abroad.
- Private Property: The means of production are no longer in the hands of the monarchy and its nobles, but rather they are controlled by the capitalists. The capitalists control the means of production through commercial enterprises (such as corporations) which aim to maximise profit.
- Parliamentary Democracy: The capitalists tend to govern through an elected centralised parliament or congress, rather than under an autocracy. Capitalist (bourgeois) democracy, although it may be extended to the whole population, does not necessarily lead to universal suffrage. Historically it has excluded (by force, segregation, legislation or other means) sections of the population such as women, slaves, ex-slaves, people of colour or those on low income. The government acts on behalf of, and is controlled by, the capitalists through various methods.
- Wages: In capitalism, workers are rewarded according to their contract with their employer. Power elites propagate the illusion that market forces mean wages converge to an equilibrium at which workers are paid for precisely the value of their services. In reality workers are paid less than the value of their productivity -- the difference forming profit for the employer. In this sense all paid employment is exploitation and the worker is "alienated" from their work. Insofar as the profit-motive drives the market, it is impossible for workers to be paid for the full value of their labour, as all employers will act in the same manner.
- Imperialism: Wealthy countries seek to dominate poorer countries in order to gain access to raw materials and to provide captive markets for finished products. This is done directly through war, the threat of war, or the export of capital. The capitalist's control over the state can play an essential part in the development of capitalism, to the extent the state directs warfare and other foreign intervention.
- Financial Institutions: Banks and capital markets such as stock exchanges direct unused capital to where it is needed. They reduce barriers to entry in all markets, especially to the poor; it is in this way that banks dramatically improve class mobility.
- Monopolistic Tendencies: The natural, unrestrained market forces will create monopolies from the most successful commercial entities.
But according to Marx, capitalism, like slave society and feudalism, also has critical failings -- inner contradictions which will lead to its downfall. The working class, to which the capitalist class gave birth in order to produce commodities and profits, is the "grave digger" of capitalism. The worker is not paid the full value of what he or she produces. The rest is surplus value -- the capitalist's profit, which Marx calls the "unpaid labour of the working class." The capitalists are forced by competition to attempt to drive down the wages of the working class to increase their profits, and this creates conflict between the classes, and gives rise to the development of class consciousness in the working class. The working class, through trade union and other struggles, becomes conscious of itself as an exploited class. In the view of classical Marxism, the struggles of the working class against the attacks of the capitalist class will eventually lead the working class to establish its own collective control over production
After the working class gains class consciousness and mounts a revolution against the capitalists, socialism, which may be considered The Fifth Stage, will be attained, if the workers are successful. Marxist Socialism may be characterised as follows:
- Common Property: the means of production are taken from the hands of a few capitalists and put in the hands of the workers. This translates into the democratic communes controlling the means of production.
- Council Democracy: Marx, basing himself on a thorough study of Paris Commune, believed that the workers would govern themselves through system of communes. He called this the dictatorship of the proletariat, which, overthrowing the dictatorship (governance) of capital, would democratically plan production and the resources of the planet.
Marx explained that, since socialism, the first stage of communism, would be "in every respect, economically, morally, and intellectually, still stamped with the birthmarks of the old society from whose womb it emerges", each worker would naturally expect to be awarded according to the amount of labor he contributes, despite the fact that each worker's ability and family circumstances would differ, so that the results would still be unequal at this stage, although fully supported by social provision.
Geologic Time Periods
The geologic time scale covers the extent of the existence of Earth, from about 4600 million years ago to the present day. It is marked by Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points. Geologic time units are (in order of descending specificity) eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages; and the corresponding chronostratigraphic units, which measure "rock-time", are eonothems, erathems, systems, series, and stages.
The second and third timelines are each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks. The Cenozoic is sometimes divided into the Quaternary and Tertiary periods, although the latter is no longer used officially.
Cosmological Time Periods
13.8 billion years ago: The Big Bang Theory
- ^ Adam Rabinowitz. It's about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data. Study of the Ancient World Papers, 2014.
- ^ Iles, Dr Louise (2016-12-30). "Big digs: The year 2016 in archaeology". BBC News. Retrieved .
- ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/big-datas-impact-in-the-world.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
- ^ The area had settlements as far back as 9000 BC; see Timeline of ancient Greece
- ^ a b c The Venture of Islam, Volume 2: The Expansion of Islam in the Middle Periods (1974), p. 3.
- ^ A Concise History of the Middle East (2015), p. 53.
- ^ Marx, Early writings, Penguin, 1975, p. 426.
- ^ Charles Taylor, "Critical Notice", Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1980), p. 330.
- ^ Marx and Engels, The Critique of the Gotha Programme
- ^ Marx and Engels, The Civil War in France
Gewirth, Alan (1998). The Community of Rights (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780226288819. Retrieved .
Marxists sometimes distinguish between 'personal property' and 'private property,' the former consisting in consumer goods directly used by the owner, while the latter is private ownership of the major means of production.
- Works Cited