These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.
A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current office holders.
Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2007 in politics, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.
Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet (government), chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), Secretary of State.
Heads of international organizations
Heads of state or government
Horn of Africa
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Greece: Rulers of Greece
- Italy: Rulers of Italy
- Presidents of Malta, 1974-present
- Prime Ministers of Malta, 1921-1933, 1947-1958, 1962-present
- Monarchs of Malta, 1091-1798, 1800-1974
- Grand Masters of Malta, 1530-1798
- Civil Commissioners of Malta, 1799-1813
- Governors of Malta, 1813-1964
- Governors-General of Malta, 1964-1974
- San Marino
- Vatican City
Ministers by portfolio