|Native to||Iran; a few villages in eastern Iraq.|
over 4 millions|
circa 5 millions
Luri languages. (Note: Iraqi distribution corresponds to that of Southern Kurdish.)
Luri or Lurish (Luri) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.The Luri dialects are descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi). Luri forms five language groups known as Feyli, Central Luri, Bakhtiari,Laki and Southern Luri. This language is spoken mainly by the Feyli Lurs, Bakhtiari and Southern Lurs (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Mamasani, Sepidan, Bandar Ganaveh, Deylam) of Iran and beyond.
The Luri dialects are descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi). They belong to the Persid or Southern Zagros group, and are lexically similar to modern Persian, differing mainly in phonology.
According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, "All Lori dialects closely resemble standard Persian and probably developed from a stage of Persian similar to that represented in Early New Persian texts written in Perso-Arabic script. The sole typical Lori feature not known in early New Persian or derivable from it is the inchoative marker (see below), though even this is found in Judeo-Persian texts". The Bakhti?ri dialect may be closer to Persian. There are two distinct languages, Greater Luri (Lor-e bozorg), a.k.a. Southern Luri (including Bakhtiari dialect), and Lesser Luri (Lor-e ku?ek), a.k.a. Northern Luri.
Lur peoples of Iran are mainly in provinces of Lorestan, Ilam Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Fars province (especially Mamasani and Rostam), Khuzestan, Esfahan province and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and some of this people live in provinces as like as Hamadan province, Qom province, Qazvin province, Gilan province and Kerman province and Kermanshah Province. A Lur population, known locally as Feyli people, exists in eastern parts of Iraq.
The language is divided into five chief dialects, Feyli, Central Luri, Laki, Bakhtiari, and Southern Luri. Feyli is used by Feyli people in northern regions of Ilam, central regions of Kermanshah and significant parts of eastern Iraq in Diyala province (Khanaqin, Mendeli and Muqdadiyah cities) and Baghdad;. Central Luri is spoken in northern parts of Luri communities including eastern, central and northern parts of Luristan province, southern parts of Hamadan province mainly in Malayer, Nahavand and Tuyserkan counties, southern regions of Ilam province and southeastern parts of Markazi province. Laki is used in central and northwestern regions of Luristan, central and southern regions of Ilam and southern parts of Kermanshah. Bakhtiari is used by Bakhtiari people in South Luristan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, significant regions in north and east of Khouzestan and western regions of Isfahan province. Finally, Southern Luri is spoken throughout Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, and in western and central regions in Fars province, northern and western parts of Bushehr province and southeastern regions of Khouzestan. Several Luri communities are inhabited sporadically across the Iranian Plateau e.g. Khorasan (Beyranvand and Bakhtiari Luri descendants), Kerman, Guilan and Tehran provinces.
In comparison with other Iranian languages, Luri has been less affected by foreign languages such as Arabic and Turkic. Nowadays, many ancient Iranian language characteristics are preserved and can be observed in Luri grammar and vocabulary. According to diverse regional and socio-ecological conditions and due to longtime social interrelations with adjacent ethnic groups especially Kurds and Persian people, different dialects of Luri, despite mainly common characteristics, have significant differences. The northern dialect tends to have more Kurdish loanwords inside and southern dialects (Bakhtiari and Southern Luri) have been more exposed to Persian loanwords.
|Laki||Southern Luri||Minjai||Bakhtiari||English||Persian||Persian transcription|
|bìlam||b?lum||bílam||b?lom||let me||be man ejaze bedeh / bezâr|
Luri is an Indo-Iranian language cluster with over four million speakers.
In 2003, the Lori-speaking population in Iran was estimated at 4.2 million speakers, or about 6 percent of the national figure (Anonby, 2003b, p. 173). Given the nationwide growth in population since then, the number of Lori speakers in 2012 is likely closer to 5 million.