The May 1995 Louisiana flood, also known as the May 1995 Southeast Louisiana and Southern Mississippi Flood, was a heavy rainfall event which occurred across an area stretching from the New Orleans metropolitan area into southern Mississippi. A storm total rainfall maximum of 27.5 inches (70 cm) was recorded near Necaise, Mississippi. Considerable flooding was caused by the rainfall including several record flood crests along impacted river systems.
The flooding caused six fatalities and more than $3.1 billion in damage.
The entire 40-hour event from the evening of Monday, May 8, through the morning of Wednesday, May 10, consisted of two distinct heavy rainfalls. By Wednesday morning, storm total rainfall amounts of 10 to 20 inches (25 to 51 cm) were common across portions of southeast Louisiana and south Mississippi.
A cold front approached the region from the west, preceded by a squall line. The airmass that entered western Louisiana on May 8 exhibited considerably lower dewpoints than the tropical airmass across east Louisiana and southeast Mississippi. By the evening of May 9, the cold front dissipated in the vicinity of Baton Rouge. The remains of the front served as a focusing axis for heavy precipitation that continued into the late morning hours of May 10. An upper-level trough helped to provide upper-level support to the system. At the surface, warm and moist air moved in from the Gulf of Mexico continually during the event. The swath of highest rainfall totals was closely tied to a theta-e ridge at the 850mb pressure surface, which stretched from the central Gulf of Mexico into the Mississippi River Delta area.
During each wave of rainfall, heavy, "training" thunderstorms continued to form over the same areas for multiple hours. In the New Orleans area, pumping stations were overwhelmed and could not pump rainfall into Lake Pontchartrain as quickly as it was falling. At the time, pumping stations were only rated to pump 1 inch (2.5 cm) per hour maximum.
The heaviest rainfall from the first wave of rainfall occurred on the southshore of Lake Pontchartrain in the New Orleans metropolitan area, with a secondary maxima on the northshore. Heaviest rainfall from the second wave occurred across the northshore of Lake Pontchartrain and coastal Mississippi. By May 10th, rainfall totals of 10-20 inches were common. Some notable two-day totals from the National Weather Service archives and post-event surveys:
For both waves of rainfall, several locations neared or exceeded 24-hour rainfall amounts estimated as having a 1% chance of being exceeded in a given year, (100 year average recurrence interval) as determined by both the NOAA Atlas 14 and reports by the Southern Regional Climate Center. The rainfall maximum near Necaise of 27.5 inches (70 cm) was estimated as having only a 0.1% chance of being exceeded in a given year (1000 year average recurrence interval).
Similar floods occurred in November 1979 Louisiana flood and November 7-8, 1989 Louisiana flood, although the May 1995 event was more extensive and costlier than both combined. It was the worst flooding the city had experienced between hurricanes Betsy in 1965 and Katrina in 2005. There has been no comparable recorded flood in New Orleans caused by rain alone.
Six people died as a result of the flooding. The city of New Orleans suffered $360 million in damages, and the damage of the surrounding areas put that total above $3 billion. Some 56,000 homes were damaged in 12 Parishes. Thousands of cars were flooded. 14,600 homes and apartments were flooded in Jefferson Parish alone.
New pumping stations were built and canals were expanded to prevent further catastrophic rainfall floods. Some politicians began to push for pumping rain waters directly into the Mississippi River, but environmental groups argued against this plan. The flood prompted expansions and improvements of the city's drainage and pumping system, especially in the worst hit portions of the city, including improvements to the underground canals under Napoleon and Claiborne Avenues in Broadmoor and other SELA projects to improve drainage in Hollygrove connected to the 17th St. Canal.