Monterey Bay Aquarium
Get Monterey Bay Aquarium essential facts below. View Videos or join the Monterey Bay Aquarium discussion. Add Monterey Bay Aquarium to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Monterey Bay Aquarium
A strand of giant kelp formed into a circle
The aquarium's logo depicts giant kelp
Three smokestacks come out of a glass ceiling above the aquarium's main entrance with white, windowed façades on either side
Main entrance in 2016
Slogan To inspire conservation of the ocean
Date opened October 20, 1984
Location Cannery Row, Monterey, California
Coordinates 36°37?06?N 121°54?05?W / 36.618253°N 121.901481°W / 36.618253; -121.901481Coordinates: 36°37?06?N 121°54?05?W / 36.618253°N 121.901481°W / 36.618253; -121.901481
Floor space 322,000 square feet (29,900 square meters)[1]
No. of animals 35,000
No. of species more than 550
Volume of largest tank 1.2 million U.S. gallons (4.5 million liters)
Total volume of tanks 2.3 million U.S. gallons (8.7 million liters)
Annual visitors more than 2 million (2014,[2] 2015)[3]
Memberships Association of Zoos and Aquariums[4]
Major exhibits Kelp Forest, Sea Otters, Jellies, Open Sea
Public transit access Monterey-Salinas Transit
Website montereybayaquarium.org

Monterey Bay Aquarium is a nonprofit public aquarium in Monterey, California. The aquarium is known for its regional focus on the habitats of Monterey Bay, being the first institution to exhibit a living kelp forest. Its biologists have pioneered the animal husbandry of jellyfish, and as of 2016, it remains the only public aquarium to have successfully exhibited a great white shark for more than 16 days. The aquarium's seafood consumer awareness program has had an influential role among consumers and businesses in enhancing sustainable fishing practices.

As one of the largest public aquariums in North America, Monterey Bay Aquarium has an average annual attendance of 1.8 million visitors[5], and between 1984 and 2016, over 50 million people visited the aquarium.[1] The aquarium has been called "a definite leader"[5] by its accrediting organization, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. It has been the subject of multiple PBS Nature documentaries and has won numerous awards throughout its history for its exhibition of marine life, ocean conservation efforts, educational programs, and architecture.

The aquarium has also received multiple media and travel industry awards. Parents magazine listed the aquarium as the best public aquarium and third best overall United States animal attraction in 2015, and TripAdvisor ranked the aquarium as the number one public aquarium in the world in 2014.[6] Historically, it was reported in the Los Angeles Times that the aquarium was one of California's most popular visitor attractions within five years of its opening. By 1994, it was the most popular aquarium in the United States by number of visits.[7]

History

Three separate proposals for aquariums in Monterey County occurred in 1914, 1925, and 1944, but financial backing and public support for the ideas were not sufficient.[8] In the late 1970s, four marine biologists affiliated with San Jose State University and Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station discussed the concept of opening an aquarium on the 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) site of the former Hovden Cannery, the last sardine cannery to close on Cannery Row.[9][note 1]

David Packard commissioned a feasibility study for the potential aquarium as his daughter was one of the four collaborating biologists. The proposed aquarium was predicted to attract 350,000 paying visitors annually, so Packard donated US$7 million for the construction of the building. After seven years of construction and US$47 million more from Packard, totaling US$54 million, Monterey Bay Aquarium opened on October 20, 1984 as the largest public aquarium in the United States.[11] About 2.4 million people visited the aquarium within the following year.[12]

The aquarium is known for its regional focus on Monterey Bay and its display of marine life communities rather than individual species, an ecological approach unique to public aquariums at the time that was inspired by the work of marine biologist Ed Ricketts.[13]EHDD, the aquarium's architectural firm, was awarded a National Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1988 for the design of the aquarium's original facility.[14] The Institute's state chapter in California gave the aquarium its Twenty-five Year Award in 2011[15] and, in 2016, Monterey Bay Aquarium was awarded the Institute's national Twenty-five Year Award, described by the jury as "a benchmark and role model for aquariums everywhere."[1]

Panoramic view of the aquarium's public decks overlooking Monterey Bay, with building walls on either side consisting mostly of windows and stadium seating to the right overlooking a man-made tide pool
Public decks span the rear of the aquarium, which was designed to be half over land and half over Monterey Bay. According to the national Twenty-five Year Award jury, the inclusion of broad windows "blurs the line between museum and natural habitat".[16]

In 1996, the aquarium opened a second wing of aquarium exhibits called the Outer Bay that focuses on the pelagic habitat 60 miles (97 km) offshore of Monterey Bay. Costing US$57 million and taking seven years to develop, the wing almost doubled the aquarium's public exhibit space.[17][18] A US$19 million renovation in 2011 added components to the wing and its name was changed to the Open Sea.[19] Other lesser additions and modifications have been made to the aquarium's facility.[20][21] As of 2016, the aquarium has also developed numerous temporary exhibitions since the late-1980s.

Monterey Bay Aquarium developed a program in 1999 to allow consumers eating seafood to choose species based on the sustainability rating of each fishery. This program has continued to evolve and has led the aquarium to become influential in fisheries management and the public discussion related to sustainable seafood.[22] In partnership with Stanford University the aquarium also runs the Center for Ocean Solutions, which participates in ocean science, policy, and law for the public, private, and community sectors.[23]

Aquarium exhibits

Visitors of the aquarium gaze up through large windows into the 28-foot-tall Kelp Forest exhibit, containing giant kelp and a few schools of fishes
Main viewing area of the 320,000-US-gallon (1,200,000 L)[24] Kelp Forest exhibit, from ground level

Monterey Bay Aquarium displays 35,000 animals belonging to over 550 species in 2.3 million U.S. gallons (8,700,000 L) of water.[25] Filtered seawater from Monterey Bay is pumped into the Kelp Forest exhibit and the aquarium's other exhibits at 2,000 US gallons (7,600 L) per minute. This automated seawater system is controlled electronically via more than 10,000 data points.[5]Control systems that maintain life support components for the animals are mostly automated, tracking various chemical parameters and reducing the likelihood for human error during repetitive tasks such as filter media backwashing.[26]

In 2014, the aquarium stated that it takes no official position on the controversy of captive killer whales or other cetaceans. The aquarium was not constructed to house cetaceans, instead utilizing the 27 species of marine mammals that live in or travel through Monterey Bay as one of its exhibits by offering the opportunity to see wild marine mammals from decks that overlook the bay.[27]

Kelp Forest exhibit

At 28 feet (8.5 m) tall and 65 feet (20 m) long, the Kelp Forest exhibit is the focal point of Monterey Bay Aquarium's Ocean's Edge wing.[28] Nearly three stories high,[11] the exhibit is regarded as the first successful attempt to maintain a living kelp forest in an aquarium setting,[29] containing giant kelp alongside species of fish indigenous to Monterey Bay such as rockfishes and leopard sharks.[1] The exhibit's success at sustaining giant kelp is partly attributed to the surge machine (a large plunger) that was designed and constructed by David Packard, allowing the kelp in the exhibit to grow an average of 4 inches (10 cm) per day.[30]

Open Sea wing

Visitors look through a very large window into an aquarium containing a school of Pacific sardines and mahi mahi
The million-gallon Open Sea community exhibit contains a school of Pacific sardines that, in 2011, numbered 14,000 individuals[31]

Monterey Bay Aquarium's Open Sea wing consists of three separate galleries: various jellyfish and other plankton found in Monterey Bay; a pelagic, large community exhibit; and "ocean travelers", featuring tufted puffins and sea turtles.[32] When the exhibition opened in 1996, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that the aquarium had the most jellyfish on exhibit in the world.[33] In 1997, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums awarded the wing with its Exhibit Award.[34]

Holding 1.2 million US gallons (4,500,000 L), the wing's Open Sea community exhibit is the aquarium's largest tank.[5] Made out of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, it is 80 feet (24 m) long[35] and 35 feet (11 m) deep.[note 2] In 2011, fish species reported to be in the exhibit included green sea turtles, sardines, pelagic stingrays, scalloped hammerhead sharks, sandbar sharks, mahi mahi, mackerel, bluefin and yellowfin tunas, and ocean sunfishes.[36] Historically, the exhibit also included blue sharks and California barracuda.[17]Six great white sharks were displayed in the Open Sea exhibit between 2004-2011, an effort contested by some but generally described as having a positive scientific and educational impact. Prior to the display of the first white shark for six months before its release, the longest length of time that a white shark survived in an aquarium was 16 days.[37]

2011 renovation

A 10-month, US$19 million renovation of the wing concluded in July 2011 to refurbish the Open Sea exhibit, as the 300-pound (140 kg) tunas were dismantling structural glass tiles with their turbulent swimming patterns. Supplemental exhibits were added as part of this renovation featuring artwork that highlights current issues in ocean conservation, including overfishing and plastic pollution.[32]

Gallery of permanent exhibits

Temporary exhibitions

Monterey Bay Aquarium began creating temporary exhibitions (or "special exhibitions") in order to display animals that are found outside of Monterey Bay. The first of these, titled "Mexico's Secret Sea", focused on the Sea of Cortez in 1989.[38] Most exhibitions since then have focused on animal groups, including deep-sea animals (1999),[39] sharks (2004), otters (2007), seahorses (2009),[40]cephalopods (2014),[41] and jellyfish. In 2010, an exhibition titled "Hot Pink Flamingos" was one of the first aquarium exhibitions in the United States to explicitly discuss the effects of global warming on habitats and animals.[42] The aquarium displayed terrestrial animals for the first time--including a tarantula, a snake, and a scorpion--in a US$3.8 million exhibit on ecosystems of Baja California that opened in 2016.[43]

Jellyfish

In 1989, a second temporary exhibition titled "Living Treasures of the Pacific" included three jellyfish tanks following the successful display of one tank of moon jellies four years earlier in 1985. In 1992, the aquarium opened a temporary exhibition devoted to jellyfish called "Planet of the Jellies", the success of which prompted a permanent jellyfish gallery within the Open Sea wing in 1996. Within 20 years of opening Planet of the Jellies, the aquarium created two more temporary exhibitions centered on jellies; the most recent of which opened in 2012 and displayed around 16 species of jellyfish from around the world. Aquarium staff members attribute the organization's fascination with jellyfish to their visual appeal, primitive biology, and reputed calming effect on visitors.[44]

Research and conservation

A purple-striped jelly (Chrysaora colorata) in the Open Sea wing, which the aquarium has been recognized for breeding

Monterey Bay Aquarium helped create momentum for the establishment of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in 1992, one of the largest marine protected areas in the United States.[45] In 2015, the aquarium was a founding member of the Aquarium Conservation Partnership, a collaboration between 17 public aquariums in the United States for endeavors related to ocean conservation.[46]

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums has awarded the aquarium with two awards for its efforts in propagating captive animals--including one for purple-striped jellies in 1992--and also its general conservation award for the aquarium's Sea Otter Research and Conservation Program.[34] In October 2017, the aquarium received the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums' Conservation Award for its "commitment to ocean protection and public awareness".[47] Aquarium researchers have also authored many scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals of various disciplines involving sea otters, great white sharks, and tunas.[48]

Marine life

Two sea otters rest on their back in front of an aquarium window
Rehabilitated sea otters on exhibit at the aquarium

Monterey Bay Aquarium's Sea Otter Research and Conservation program began in 1984 to research and rehabilitate wild southern sea otters. As of October 2017, more than 800 individuals had completed the rehabilitation program and researchers have collected data on wild sea otter populations using electronic tags. An otter rescued in 2001 began the aquarium's surrogation program, in which adult female sea otters that are non-releasable act as surrogate mothers to sea otter pups being rehabilitated. The aquarium was the only sea otter rehabilitation site in California until The Marine Mammal Center began expanding a program for sea otters in 2017.[49] On October 16, 2013, PBS Nature aired a documentary about the aquarium's work with sea otters titled "Saving Otter 501".[50]

Shorebirds, such as the near-threatened snowy plover, are also rehabilitated and released.[51] Additionally, the aquarium's endangered African penguins are part of an Association of Zoos and Aquariums Species Survival Plan, which identifies genetically important birds and allows specific breeding activity to occur. Five chicks have hatched in the aquarium's penguin colony as of 2014 and some of those have been sent to other accredited institutions.[52] Beginning in June 2007, the aquarium offers a public presentation with its rehabilitated--but non-releasable--Laysan albatross that has a wingspan of 6 feet (1.8 m). The program's goal is to inform visitors of the dangers that ocean plastic pollution causes for animals, especially the 21 species of albatrosses.[53]

Three short walls each contain imagery, text, and video discussing the vulnerability of wild tuna populations
An interpretive exhibit teaches visitors about the conservation of tunas

Pacific bluefin and yellowfin tunas have been historically displayed in the aquarium's Open Sea community, some reaching more than 300 pounds (140 kg). In 2011, three dozen fish of the two species were on exhibit.[32] Prior to opening the Open Sea wing in 1996, the aquarium established the Tuna Research and Conservation Center in 1994 in partnership with Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station. Aquarium researchers and Barbara Block--professor of marine sciences at Stanford University--have tagged wild Pacific bluefin tunas to study predator-prey relationships, and have also investigated tuna endothermy with captive tunas at the center.[54] To improve international collaboration of bluefin tuna management, Monterey Bay Aquarium and Stanford University hosted a symposium in January 2016 in Monterey. Over 200 scientists, fisheries managers, and policy makers gathered to discuss solutions to the decline of Pacific bluefin tuna populations.[55]

Aquarists also propagate animals behind the scenes for the aquarium's exhibits. Since 1985, the aquarium has been deeply involved in jellyfish propagation, creating three temporary exhibitions and one permanent aquarium gallery within the Open Sea wing.[56] In August 2016, aquarists cultured comb jellies for the first time in a laboratory, which may allow them to become a model organism.[57] For the aquarium's temporary exhibition that opened in 2014, the aquarium cultured many cephalopods because of their short life cycles. A display in the exhibition showcased how aquarists rear different species of cephalopods, including the bigfin reef squid.[41][58] In partnership with Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, at least two deep-sea cephalopod species have been displayed in the exhibition, including flapjack octopuses and the vampire squid.[59]

Great white sharks

A captive juvenile great white shark swims in the aquarium's Open Sea exhibit in 2006

Six great white sharks were exhibited in the aquarium's Open Sea community exhibit between 2004 and 2011 through a program named Project White Shark.[45] The aquarium's success at exhibiting white sharks has been attributed to the use of an open-water pen (or sea pen) to acclimate the sharks to captivity before being transported from the ocean, and also the 3,000-US-gallon (11,000 L) portable tank used to house the fish for transport to the aquarium.[60]

Although at least one organization criticized the aquarium for attempting to keep white sharks in captivity, several independent shark researchers expressed approval for the logistical design and the educational impact of Project White Shark, and some scientific insights from it. On its educational impact, a white shark researcher from Australia stated in 2006 that "the fact people can come and see these animals and learn from them is of immeasurable value."[61] The first captive white shark--on exhibit in 2004 for more than six months--was seen by one million visitors, and another million visitors saw either the second or third white sharks on display.[62] As of 2016, Monterey Bay Aquarium is the only public aquarium in the world to have successfully exhibited a white shark for more than 16 days.[63]

The aquarium's attempts to display captive white sharks ended in 2011 due to the project's high resource intensity. Captive white sharks also incurred injuries and killed other animals in the exhibit after becoming increasingly aggressive,[64] and the final shark died due to unknown reasons following its release.[65] Although no longer on exhibit for the public, aquarium scientists have continued to conduct research on white sharks. Collaborating with Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in June 2016, aquarium scientists created cameras attached to harmless dorsal fin tags in an attempt to study the behavior of white sharks during their gathering known as the White Shark Café.[66][67]

Seafood program

Monterey Bay Aquarium's consumer-based Seafood Watch program encourages sustainable seafood purchasing from fisheries that are "well managed and caught or farmed in ways that cause little harm to habitats or other wildlife."[68] It began in 1999 as a result of a popular component of a temporary exhibition and grew to consist of a website, six regional pocket guides, and mobile apps that allow consumers to check the sustainability ratings of specific fisheries. In 2003, the program's website was awarded a MUSE Award from the American Alliance of Museums for use of media and technology in science. Bon Appétit magazine awarded its Tastemaker of the Year award to the Seafood Watch program in 2008 and, in 2013, Sunset magazine described it as one of "the most effective consumer-awareness programs".[69]

By 2015, the program's mobile apps had been downloaded more than one million times since 2009 and it had produced more than 52 million printed pocket guides. It was reported to be playing an influential role in the development of sustainable business practices in the global fishing industry.[70] The program has expanded to include business collaborations, local and national restaurant and grocer partnerships, and outreach partnerships--primarily other public aquariums and zoos. Large-scale business and grocer partnerships include Aramark, Compass Group, Target, and Whole Foods Market.[71]

In September 2016, the United States Agency for International Development announced that it is working with the aquarium to improve fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific.[72]

Political advocacy

A display with pictures and a video discussing California's 2016 plastic bag ban
An exhibit encouraging visitors to vote yes on California Proposition 67 in September 2016

Monterey Bay Aquarium plays an active role in federal and state politics, from sponsoring governmental legislation about the ocean[73] to persuading voter action from its visitors and online followers. The aquarium was a leading sponsor for the statewide shark fin ban in 2011.[32] After the ban's success the aquarium shifted its efforts to focus on ocean plastic pollution.[74] It produced advertisements, webpages, and podcasts in 2016 in support of California Proposition 67 for a statewide ban on single-use plastic grocery bags.[75] The aquarium hosted a plastic pollution symposium through the Aquarium Conservation Partnership in December 2016,[76]:36 and, in July 2017, the aquarium and other members of the partnership began eliminating their own plastic products.[77]

Educational efforts

Each year approximately 75,000 students, teachers, and chaperones from California access Monterey Bay Aquarium for free. An additional 1,500 low-income students, 350 teenagers, and 1,200 teachers participate in structured educational programs throughout the year. Between 1984 and 2014, the aquarium hosted more than 2 million students.[45] A 13,000-square-foot (1,200-square-meter), US$30 million education center is in development in order to double the number of students and teachers the aquarium is able to work with each year, and is expected to open in 2018.[78][79]

Monterey Bay Aquarium received a Webby Award in 2000 for "distributing information related to scientific exploration"[80] and has won four awards from the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for its programs in the categories of education and diversity.[34] In 2015, the Silicon Valley Business Journal awarded the aquarium with a Community Impact Award for its efforts to "shape a new generation of ocean conservation leaders."[79]

Community and economic influence

Tourist shops and historical remnants of the sardine industry line both sides of Cannery Row, which is busy even though it is raining
The aquarium revitalized Monterey's Cannery Row when it opened in 1984, following the decline of the sardine canning industry in the United States[10]

Monterey Bay Aquarium employed over 500 people and had 1,200 active volunteers in 2015.[2] Between 1984 and 2014, 8,500 volunteers donated 3.2 million community service hours to the aquarium.[45] The aquarium attracts around 2 million visitors each year and, in 2015, served 290,000 annual members.[79]

Free admission programs are offered for Monterey County residents including Shelf to Shore, with the county's free library system, and Free to Learn, with local nonprofit organizations and Monterey-Salinas Transit.[81][82] Additionally, the aquarium offers free admission to Monterey County residents during a weeklong event in December, which grew from almost 17,000 visitors in 1998 to 50,000 visitors in 2013. In 2014, the program was expanded to include neighboring Santa Cruz and San Benito counties.[83] An annual event called "Día del Niño" offers bilingual feeding presentations (in Spanish), activities, and free admission for children under the age of 13.[84]

In 2013, the aquarium's operational spending and its 2 million visitors generated US$263 million to the economy of Monterey County.[2] In August 2016, an evening event at Monterey Bay Aquarium raised over US$110,000 for the Community Foundation for Monterey County's drive to provide relief for the Soberanes Fire.[85]

In media and popular culture

Monterey Bay Aquarium has been featured in two documentaries on Nature; the aquarium allowed filmmakers behind-the-scenes access for "Oceans in Glass" in 2006, and "Saving Otter 501" followed the aquarium's sea otter rehabilitation program in 2013.[50] The aquarium also supported and was featured in BBC One's "Big Blue Live", a live presentation on Monterey Bay that won a BAFTA Television Award in 2016.[86]

The aquarium served as the filming location for the fictitious Cetacean Institute in the 1986 film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. In the 2016 film Finding Dory, the aquarium inspired the design of the fish hospital that the characters visit, and the aquarium's animals served as models for the film's animated characters.[87] A scene from the HBO miniseries Big Little Lies that aired in 2017 was filmed at the aquarium.[88]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ The Hovden Cannery closed in 1973, but a "large cannery exhibit"[10] in the aquarium displays the cannery's original boilers.
  2. ^ The Open Sea exhibit's 54-foot (16 m) long and 15-foot (4.6 m) tall viewing window was reportedly the largest aquarium window in the world when it was installed in 1996.[17]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Gerfen 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Beadle & Thompson 2015.
  3. ^ Abel, David (August 2, 2016). "Top aquariums in the US, in terms of visitors". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2017. 
  4. ^ "Currently Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Reynolds 2009.
  6. ^ Pfaff, Leslie Garisto (April 2015). "The FamilyFun Travel Awards". Parents. Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved 2016. ; Thompson, Chuck (August 13, 2014). "And the world's best zoo is .." CNN. Time Warner Inc. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  7. ^ McNulty, Jennifer (April 30, 1989). "Monterey Bay Aquarium Gives Visitors a Thrill". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017. ; Ortiz, Catalina (November 20, 1994). "A Beauty by the Bay : Science: 17 million visitors have made the Monterey Bay Aquarium the nation's most popular". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ Jaret 2011.
  9. ^ Brincks 2009.
  10. ^ a b Duggan, Tara (September 16, 2013). "Cannery Row offers hints of its history". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c Lokken 1985.
  12. ^ Brincks 2009; Perlman 2004
  13. ^ Thomas 2014; Cooper 2014 and Pridmore 1991; Ryce, Walter (June 2, 2016). "A Monterey Bay Aquarium founder asks, What would Steinbeck and Ricketts say?". Monterey County Weekly. Erik Cushman. Retrieved 2016. 
  14. ^ "2016 Twenty-five Year Award". The American Institute of Architects. 2016. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016. ; "Honor Awards 1980 - 1989". The American Institute of Architects. 2008. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved 2016. 
  15. ^ "The American Institute of Architects, California Council, Announces Monterey Bay Aquarium as the 2011 Twenty-Five Year Award Recipient". The American Institute of Architects, California Council. AIA. October 19, 2011. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  16. ^ "2016 Twenty-five Year Award" 2016.
  17. ^ a b c McCabe 1996.
  18. ^ Dornin, Rusty (January 28, 1996). "Aquarium's new exhibit offers rare glimpse into the ocean deep". CNN. Archived from the original on February 2, 1999. Retrieved 2017. 
  19. ^ Taylor, Dennis (June 24, 2011). "Monterey Bay Aquarium's $19M renovation unveiled". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Santa Cruz, California. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  20. ^ "Rudolph and Sletten Completes Renovation of Monterey Bay Aquarium, Adds Skywalk and 8,000 Square Feet of Space". Business Wire. July 13, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  21. ^ Yollin, Patricia (March 14, 2008). "New look for Monterey Aquarium Splash Zone". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on October 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  22. ^ Reynolds 2009: "with its advice on what seafoods consumers should eat and chefs should serve, the aquarium has taken an influential role in the debate over sustainable fishing practices."
  23. ^ "Center for Ocean Solutions". Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. Stanford University. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved 2017. ; Jordan, Rob (December 20, 2016). "Unexamined risks from tar sands oil may threaten oceans". Stanford University. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  24. ^ Watanabe & Phillips 1985.
  25. ^ Animal counts and water volume:
  26. ^ Mintchell, Gary A. (November 1, 2000). "Monterey Bay Aquarium reels in the perfect automation solution". Consulting-Specifying Engineer. Downers Grove, Illinois: CFE Media. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  27. ^ Thomas 2014; "Life on the Bay at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  28. ^ Thomas 2014; Watanabe & Phillips 1985
  29. ^ Lokken 1985; Pridmore 1991; Brincks 2009; Dickey, Gwyneth (September 29, 2009). "Kelp forest gets first-class stamp". The Monterey County Herald. Digital First Media. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  30. ^ Pridmore 1991; Watanabe & Phillips 1985
  31. ^ Cooper, Jeanne (June 21, 2011). "8 don't-miss creatures at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". SFGate. Hearst Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  32. ^ a b c d Rogers 2011a.
  33. ^ McCabe 1996: "The aquarium holds the largest permanent collection of jellyfish species in the United States and displays more of them than does any other facility in the world."
  34. ^ a b c AZA award pages:
  35. ^ Miller, Steven H. (October 2013). "Monterey Bay Aquarium: New Digitally-Fabricated Aquarium Tank Liner Can Stand the Test of the Giant Tuna" (PDF). WATERPROOF! Magazine. Summit Publishing, LLC. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  36. ^ Rogers 2011a; Lebourgeois, Benoit (July 28, 2011). "Monterey Bay Aquarium's 'Open Sea' focuses on migrations". Los Angeles Times. tronc, Inc. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved 2016. 
  37. ^ Rogers, Paul (September 1, 2011). "New great white shark goes on display at Monterey Bay Aquarium". The Mercury News. San Jose, California. Archived from the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved 2016. ; Squatriglia 2006; Reynolds 2009
  38. ^ McNulty 1989.
  39. ^ "Monterey Delves Into 'Mysteries of the Deep'". Los Angeles Times. March 14, 1999. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2017. 
  40. ^ Other temporary exhibitions:
  41. ^ a b Tentacles temporary exhibition:
  42. ^ Phillips, Ari (December 11, 2013). "Why Aquariums Are Obsessed With Climate Change". ThinkProgress. Center for American Progress Action Fund. Archived from the original on October 11, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  43. ^ Yollin, Patricia (April 11, 2016). "Monterey Bay Aquarium Takes a Deep Dive Into Baja California". KQED. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  44. ^ Yollin 2012.
  45. ^ a b c d Cooper 2014.
  46. ^ Aquarium Conservation Partnership:
  47. ^ "Monterey Bay Aquarium to receive Conservation Award". waza.org. World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. September 14, 2017. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  48. ^ Lists of aquarium research publications:
    • "Sea Otter Publications" (PDF). Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
    • "Shark Publications" (PDF). Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
    • "Tuna Publications" (PDF). Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  49. ^ Sea otter rehabilitation:
  50. ^ a b PBS Nature documentaries featuring the aquarium:
  51. ^ "Monterey Bay Aquarium Raises Snowy Plovers for Release". ZooBorns. April 18, 2014. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved 2016. 
  52. ^ "Penguin hatches at Monterey Bay Aquarium". The Salinas Californian. June 11, 2014. Archived from the original on October 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016. ; Cooper 2011
  53. ^ Yollin, Patricia (June 21, 2007). "MONTEREY / The teaching albatross / Aquarium visitors learn about the dangers of plastics to ocean birds". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved 2016. ; Cooper 2014
  54. ^ Bluefin tuna research:
  55. ^ Bluefin Futures Symposium, January 2016:
  56. ^ Yollin 2012; Reynolds 2009; Knowles, Thomas (2016). "The History of Jelly Husbandry at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". Der Zoologische Garten. 85 (1-2): 42-51. doi:10.1016/j.zoolgart.2015.09.008. Retrieved 2016. 
  57. ^ Yin 2016.
  58. ^ Forgione, Mary (March 25, 2014). "Monterey Bay: These cuttlefish, octopus star in aquarium's new show". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  59. ^ "Public gets first view of a live vampire squid and other deep-sea cephalopods". Phys.org. June 9, 2014. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  60. ^ Rogers 2011b.
  61. ^ Squatriglia 2006.
  62. ^ Stienstra, Tom (August 31, 2008). "Aquarium shark sighting lets fish lovers refocus their fears". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  63. ^ Fong & Lee 2016; Reynolds 2009; Squatriglia 2006; Squatriglia, Chuck (January 17, 2007). "MONTEREY / More room to grow / Aquarium lets young white shark go after 137 days in captivity". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 23, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  64. ^ Fong & Lee 2016; Squatriglia 2006
  65. ^ Forgione, Mary (November 3, 2011). "Great white shark dies after release from Monterey Bay Aquarium". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  66. ^ Becker, Rachel (July 2, 2016). "New Camera Tag to Help Solve Great White Mystery". Slate. Julia Turner. Archived from the original on August 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  67. ^ "Monterey researchers hope to solve great white shark mystery". KSBW. Hearst Television, Inc. June 29, 2016. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  68. ^ Hiolski, Emma (October 5, 2016). "Carmel woman to be honored by White House". Monterey Herald. Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  69. ^ Awards received by Seafood Watch:
  70. ^ Parsons, Russ (May 13, 2015). "Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch turns 15". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved 2017. ; Reynolds 2009
  71. ^ Seafood Watch business partnerships:
  72. ^ "USAID Partners with Monterey Bay Aquarium to Combat Illegal Fishing and Promote Sustainable Fisheries in Southeast Asia". usaid.gov. September 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 25, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  73. ^ "AB 2139 Assembly Bill - Bill Analysis". www.leginfo.ca.gov. June 20, 2016. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  74. ^ Fish 2013.
  75. ^ Support of California Proposition 67 (2016):
  76. ^ "2016 Global Ocean Science Education Workshop" (PDF). www.coexploration.org. June 13-15, 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved 2017. This December 5-7, 2016, the ACP is holding the first Aquarium Plastic Pollution Symposium at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. The symposium will include an overview of the science and policy of ocean plastic pollution, communications best practices, and sessions for four areas of action: institutional, policy, market, and community engagement. 
  77. ^ Rogers, Paul (July 10, 2017). "Plastic to be phased out at major American aquariums". The Mercury News. San Jose, California. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  78. ^ Mayberry 2016.
  79. ^ a b c Stock 2015.
  80. ^ "Monterey Bay Aquarium The Webby Awards". Webby Awards. International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. 2000. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  81. ^ "Shelf-to-Shore Aquarium Pass Program". Monterey County Free Libraries. April 28, 2017. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  82. ^ "MST-Aquarium program going swimmingly". The Salinas Californian. USA Today. April 5, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  83. ^ Villa, Juan (December 5, 2014). "Monterey Bay Aquarium: Making waves for 30 years". The Salinas Californian. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  84. ^ "Monterey Bay Aquarium sets Día del Niño for April 26". The Salinas Californian. April 6, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
  85. ^ Truskot, Joe (August 8, 2016). "Fire benefits on Sunday bring in nearly $180,000". The Salinas Californian. USA Today. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  86. ^ BBC One's Big Blue Live:
  87. ^ "A look at Pixar's real life inspiration for 'Finding Dory'". CBS News. CBS Corporation. June 18, 2016. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  88. ^ Fernandes, Marriska (July 31, 2017). "A tour of HBO's Big Little Lies filming locations in Monterey". Tribute. Toronto, Ontario: Tribute Entertainment Media Group. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 

Sources

Beadle, Philip; Thompson, Vicki (April 20, 2015). "Exclusive: Monterey Bay Aquarium topped 2M visitors in 2014 -- here's how the staff pulls it off (Photos)". Silicon Valley Business Journal. San Jose, California. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Brincks, Renee (2009). "An Ocean of Excellence: The Monterey Bay Aquarium Celebrates its Silver Anniversary". Carmel Magazine. Carmel-by-the-Sea, California: Steve Snider. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Cooper, Leigh (December 5, 2014). "Monterey Bay Aquarium's top 10 legacies, so far". The Salinas Californian. Archived from the original on September 21, 2015. Retrieved 2016. 
Fish, Peter (July 2013). "Monterey Bay's ecological renaissance". Sunset. Western United States: Time Inc. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
Fong, Joss; Lee, Dion (July 8, 2016). "Why there aren't any great white sharks in captivity". Vox. Ezra Klein. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Gerfen, Katie (January 15, 2016). "The Monterey Bay Aquarium Wins the 2016 AIA Twenty-Five Year Award". Architect. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Jaret, Peter (March 1, 2011). "Monterey Peninsula: Monterey Bay Aquarium an idea ahead of its time". Via. AAA Northern California, Nevada & Utah. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Lokken, Dean (August 25, 1985). "Monterey Bay Aquarium Awash in a Tide of Visitors". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved 2017. 
Mayberry, Carly (February 19, 2016). "Plans for Monterey Bay Aquarium's new $30 million education center underway". Monterey Herald. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
McCabe, Michael (February 18, 1996). "Monterey Aquarium Goes Really Deep / Vast new wing will display sea creatures never before held in captivity". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
Perlman, David (October 18, 2004). "A celebration of the ocean / Monterey Bay Aquarium's mission to 'inspire, engage, empower' marks 20th year". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Pridmore, Jay (August 4, 1991). "Living Museum: Monterey Aquarium Focuses On Its Nearby Waters". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved 2016. 
Reynolds, Christopher (October 18, 2009). "Holy mackerel, that's a great white!". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved 2016. 
Rogers, Paul (June 27, 2011). "Big tank at Monterey Bay Aquarium gets major face lift". The Mercury News. San Jose, California. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Squatriglia, Chuck (October 8, 2006). "Aquarium's habitat for a heavyweight / Monterey Bay creates a home for second voracious - but delicate - great white". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 23, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Stock, Lynn Peithman (November 6, 2015). "2015 Community Impact Award Winner: Monterey Bay Aquarium". Silicon Valley Business Journal. San Jose, California: American City Business Journals. Retrieved 2017. 
Thomas, Sandra (April 17, 2014). "Monterey Bay makes splash as captive-free model". Vancouver Courier. Archived from the original on April 20, 2014. Retrieved 2016. 
Watanabe, JM; Phillips, RE (1985). "Establishing a captive kelp forest: Developments during the first year at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". American Academy of Underwater Sciences: 11. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved 2013. 
Yin, Steph (August 11, 2016). "Growing Comb Jellies in the Lab Like Sea-Monkeys". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
Yollin, Patricia (April 1, 2012). "Monterey aquarium jellies jam to psychedelic beat". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Monterey_Bay_Aquarium
 



 

Top US Cities