The Mul Mantar (Punjabi: ?, M?l Ma?tar, pronounced Mool Mantar) is the first composition in the Sikh holy text and Great Living Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib, written in Punjabi. It is a series of affirmations and is the basis of Sikh theology, as well as the fundamental prayer. The Mul Mantar is the first composition of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar and it occurs more than one hundred times throughout the text where it is placed at the beginning of the particular Shabad. Bhai Mani Singh explains that the reason for placing the Mul Mantar at the beginning of a Shabad is that a Gursikh (Guru's Sikh) should remember that everything else will eventually be annihilated
only the Satnam (All-pervading Supreme Reality) will remain. It can be considered as the moral or the sole truth of the universe. The Mul Mantar is the most widely known part of Sikh scripture but it has posed a challenge to translators.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Ik Onkar Satnam Karta Purakh Nirbhao Nirvair Akaal Moorat Ajooni Saibhang Gurprasad ? Jap ? Aadh sach Jugaadh sach Hai bhee sach Nanak hosee bhee sach ?1?
The Mul Mantar consists of nouns and adjectives but no verbs or pronouns. In addition, the nouns in the Mul Mantar do not have exact counterparts in European languages and the Gurmukhi script does not distinguish between upper and lower case letters. Thus, it poses a challenge to translators.
The first affirmation, for example, Ik Onkar has been rendered multiple ways. It has been translated as "'There is one god', as 'One reality is', and 'This being is one'" and the varying capitalization of "God", "Reality", or "Being" affects the meaning in English.
A number of translations erroneously change the Mul Mantar from a list of qualities to a statement of facts and Possessive adjectives. For example, they may change Satnam from "truth by name" to "His name is truth", which adds a masculine quality to God which does not appear in the original Gurmukhi.
The traditional Gurmat school traces back directly to the Sikh Gurus they state that the Mul Mantar ends with "Nanak Hosi bhi sach". Other groups of the 2o th century believe that it ends by Gurprasad as in "provided by the Guru's grace." After this is the name of the Bani "Jap", and the first line of the Jap Bani. Such groups claim this can be corroborated by the number of times that the mantar appears at the beginning of every Raag. Others point out that in Gurbani it is also written "ek ong kar sat gur prasad" and that this does not represent an even more abbreviated form of Mul Mantar.