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N%C5%8Dnin
Dainichib? N?nin
?????
School Zen
Lineage Daruma School
Personal
Died ca. 1196
Senior posting
Title Zen Master
Predecessor Zhuó?n Dégu?ng
Successor Kakuan
Religious career
Teacher Zhuó?n Dégu?ng
Students Kakuan

Dainichib? N?nin () (fl. 1190s) was a Japanese Buddhist monk who started the first Zen school in Japan.[1]

Biography

While a monk with the Tendai school, he came across texts about Zen which had been brought from China. In 1189, he dispatched two of his disciples to China to meet with Zhuó?n Dégu?ng (?, 1121-1203), himself a student of the Rinzai master Dahui Zonggao. The disciples presented a letter Nonin had written describing his realization from practicing Zen on his own. Deguang apparently approved and sent a letter certifying Nonin's enlightenment. Nonin then started his own school, which he called the Darumash?, or "Bodhidharma school".

Daruma-school

The Daruma-school depended on two sources for their teachings: early Chán as "transmitted on Hiei-zan within the Tendai tradition",[2] with clear elements of teachings from the Northern School,[1] and the Chinese Rinzai-school.[2] The Chán-teaching of 'inherent awakening', or hongaku, influenced the Tendai-teachings.[2] It explains

[T]he principle of non-duality between Buddha and sentient beings, or between nirvana and samsara. This principle was expressed in many ways, the best known being the dictum, 'The mind itself is the Buddha.'[2]

Because of his nonstandard Dharma transmission and extensive blending of various teachings, his school was heavily criticized. Heinrich Dumoulin wrote of Nonin:

Nonin did not adopt Ta-hui's form of Zen. His own style came from the Zen meditation practiced in Tendai, which resonates with the early Zen of the Northern school first introduced from China by its founder Saich?. He drew copiously from the Sugyoroku, which was studied zealously on Mt. Hiei. In this way he fused Zen and the teachings of the sutras (zenkyo itchi). He also incorporated into his doctrine and practice elements of Tendai esotericism (taimitsu). He did not engage in the practice of koan. The Zen of the Daruma school, as its texts show, distinguished itself in this way from the Rinzai Zen of the Sung period in the line of Ta-hui.[1]

In opposition to this supposed diversity of teachings, Hee-Jin Kim states:

N?nin was the favorite among Japanese Buddhists to establish a "pure Zen" (junsui-zen) in the country over the traditional "mixed Zen"(kenju-zen).[3]

The Bodhidharma School apparently drew a number of followers, but in 1194 the Tendai establishment requested that the government have it shut down. They accepted the proposal for the school "being 'incomprehensible' and circulating nonsense."[4] His students continued the school for a brief time, but eventually they dispersed to study with D?gen or Eisai. In fact, Koun Ej? and Tetts? Gikai, both prominent students of D?gen to whom nearly all modern Soto Zen teachers trace their lineages, were originally students of Nonin's successors.[1] The transfer of Dogen to Echizen in 1243 may in part have been due "to the fact that the Daruma-shu had a strong following in that province".[5]

There may have been members of the Daruma-school until the ?nin War 1467-1477, which destroyed much of Zen monasticism.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Dumoulin & 2005-B.
  2. ^ a b c d Faure 1987.
  3. ^ Hee-Jin Kim 2004.
  4. ^ Matsunaga 1988.
  5. ^ Heine 2006, p. 17, quoting Faure.
  6. ^ Heine 2006, p. 17.

Sources

  • Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005-B), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan, World Wisdom Books, ISBN 9780941532907  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Faure, Bernard (Spring 1987), "The Daruma-sh?, D?gen, and S?t? Zen", Monumenta Nipponica, 42 (1): 25-55 
  • Heine, Steven (2006), Dogen and the precepts, revisited. In: Buddhist Studies From India To America: Essays In Honor Of Charles S. Prebish, Taylor & Francis 
  • Matsunaga, Alicia; Matsunaga, Daigan (1988), Foundation of Japanese Buddhism, Los Angeles: Buddhist Books International 
  • Kim, Hee-Jin (2004), Eihei Dogen Mystical Realist, Wisdom Publications p. 45

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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