NCAA
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NCAA

NCAA logo.svg
Abbreviation NCAA
Founded March 31, 1906 (1906-03-31) (IAAUS)[1]
1910 (NCAA)
Legal status Association
Headquarters Indianapolis, Indiana
Region served
United States and Canada[2]
Membership
1,281 schools/institutions, conferences, or other associations
President
Mark Emmert
Main organ
Board of Governors
Website NCAA official website
NCAA administrative website

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)[a] is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

In its 2016-17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of which was generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.

In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer officially used by the NCAA.[3] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).

Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[4]

History

Formation and early years

Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of crew.[5] As rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and often had to be adapted for each contest.

The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport."[1] Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules; at a follow-on meeting on December 28, 1905 in New York, 62 higher-education institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).[1] The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.[1]

For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.[6]

In the late 1940s, there were only two colleges in the country, Notre Dame and Pennsylvania, with a national TV contract, a considerable source of revenue. In 1951, the NCAA voted to prohibit any live TV broadcast of college football games during the season. No sooner had the NCAA voted to ban television than public outcry forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to restrict the number of televised games for each team to stop the slide in gate attendance. University of Pennsylvania president Harold Stassen defied the monopoly and renewed its contract with ABC. Eventually Penn was forced to back down when the NCAA, refusing Penn's request that the U.S. Attorney General rule on the legality of the NCAA's restrictive plan,[7][8] threatened to expel the Quakers from the association. Notre Dame continued televising its games through 1953, working around the ban by filming its games, then broadcasting them the next evening.

A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The "Sanity Code" - adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid - failed to curb abuses. Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance.[6]

The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, and a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952.[6]

Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, and legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games.[6]

1970s-present

As college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions - I, II, and III.[9] Five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision in 2006) in football.[6]

Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. The AIAW was in a vulnerable position that precipitated conflicts with the NCAA in the early 1980s. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, and most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA.[10] By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year later in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program.[6]

By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan - protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions, and the creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment - combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract. The NCAA appealed all the way to the United States Supreme Court, but lost in 1984 in the 7-2 ruling NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.[11] (If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated some $73.6 million for the Association and its members.)

In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim.[12]

Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations.[13]

In 2009, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, became the NCAA's first non-US member institution.[14][15]

In 2014, the NCAA set a record high of a $989 Million in net revenue. Being just shy of $1 Billion is among the highest of all large sports organizations.

Headquarters

The NCAA's current National Office in Indianapolis

The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1955 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri native Walter Byers, moved the organization's headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago (where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairmount Building at 101 West 11th Street in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from the direct influence of any individual conference and keep it centrally located.

The Fairmount was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted Final Four games in 1940, 1941, and 1942. After Byers moved to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, and 1964.

The Fairmount office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers' staff consisted of four people: an assistant, two secretaries, and a bookkeeper.[16]

In 1964, it moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre. In 1973, it moved to 6299 Nall at Shawnee Mission Parkway in suburban Mission, Kansas in a $1.2 million building on 3.4 acres (14,000 m2). In 1989, it moved 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south to 6201 College Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres (45,900 m2) and had 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of space.[17]

The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas suburban location noting that its location on the south edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors' center.[18]

In 1997, it asked for bids for a new headquarters. Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis. Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center complex and would locate the visitors' center in Union Station. However Kansas City's main sports venue Kemper Arena was nearly 30 years old.[18] Indianapolis argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two-thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.[18] The 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed the 17,000-seat Kemper Arena. In 1999, the NCAA moved its 300-member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[19]

Structure

The NCAA's Board of Governors (formerly known as the Executive Committee) is the main body within the NCAA. This body elects the NCAA's President.[20]

The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.[] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. The legislation is then passed on, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff provides support, acting as guides, liaisons, researchers, and public and media relations.

The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA's stated objective for the venture is to help improve the fairness, quality, and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[21][22]

Presidents of the NCAA

The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.[1] In 1988, the title was changed to President.[23]

Division history

Years Division
1906-1956 None
1956-1972 University Division (Major College) College Division
Division I Division II Division III
1978-2006 Division I-A (football only) Division I-AA (football only) Division I-AAA Division II Division III
2006-present Division I FBS (football only) Division I FCS (football only) Division I Division II Division III

Player eligibility

To participate in college athletics in their freshman year, the NCAA requires that students meet three criteria: having graduated from high school, be completing the minimum required academic courses, and having qualifying grade-point average (GPA) and SAT or ACT scores.[26]

The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math, natural or physical science, or another academic course such as a foreign language.[27]

To meet the requirements for grade point average and SAT scores, the lowest possible GPA a student may be eligible with is a 1.70, as long as they have an SAT score of 1400. The lowest SAT scores a student may be eligible with is 700 as long as they have a GPA of 2.500.[26]

As of the 2017-18 school year, a high school student may sign a letter of intent to enter and play football for a college in either of two periods. The first, introduced in 2017-18, is a three-day period in mid-December, coinciding with the first three days of the previously existing signing period for junior college players.[28] The second period, which before 2017 was the only one allowed for signings of high school players, starts on the first Wednesday in February.[29] In August 2011, the NCAA announced plans to raise academic requirements for postseason competition, including its two most prominent competitions, football's now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (replaced in 2014 by the College Football Playoff) and the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament; the new requirement, which are based on an "Academic Progress Rate" (APR) that measures retention and graduation rates, and is calculated on a four-year, rolling basis.[30] The changes raise the rate from 900 to 930, which represents a 50% graduation rate.[30]

Students are generally allowed to compete athletically for four years. Athletes are allowed to sit out a year while still attending school but not lose a year of eligibility by redshirting.

NCAA sponsored sports

The NCAA currently awards 90 national championships yearly - 46 women's, 41 men's, and coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following: basketball, baseball (men), beach volleyball (women), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men). The newest sport to be officially sanctioned is beach volleyball, which held its first championship in the 2015-16 school year.

The Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I determines its own champion separately from the NCAA via the "College Football Playoff"; this is not an official NCAA championship (see below). The most recently added championship is a single all-divisions championship in women's beach volleyball, which was approved by leaders of all three divisions in late 2014 and early 2015. The first championship was held in spring 2016.[31] The NCAA had called the sport "sand volleyball" until June 23, 2015, when it announced that it would use the internationally recognized name of "beach volleyball".[32]

The NCAA awards championships in the following sports:

NCAA sports
Division I (M) Division II (M) Division III (M) Sport Division I (W) Division II (W) Division III (W)
1947- 1968- 1976- Baseball
1939- 1957- 1975- Basketball 1982- 1982- 1982-
Bowling 2004-
1938- 1958- 1973- Cross country 1981- 1981- 1981-
1941- Fencing 1941-
Field hockey 1981- 1981- 1981-
1978- (FBS)
1978- (FCS)
1973- 1973- Football
1939- 1963- 1975- Golf 1982- 1996-99; 2000- 1996-99; 2000-
1938- 1968-84 Gymnastics 1982- 1982-86
1948- 1978-84; 1993-99 1984- Ice hockey 2001- 2002-
1971- 1974-79; 1980-81; 1993- 1974-79; 1980- Lacrosse 1982- 2001- 1985-
1980- Rifle 1980-
Rowing 1997- 2002- 2002-
1954- Skiing 1954-
1954- 1972- 1974- Soccer 1982- 1988- 1986-
Softball 1982- 1982- 1982-
1924- 1964- 1975- Swimming & Diving 1982- 1982- 1982-
1946- 1963- 1976- Tennis 1982- 1982- 1982-
1965- 1985- 1985- Track & field (indoor) 1983- 1985; 1987- 1985; 1987-
1921- 1963- 1974- Track & field (outdoor) 1982- 1982- 1982-
1970- 2012- Volleyball (indoor) 1981- 1981- 1981-
Volleyball (beach) 2016-
1969- Water polo 2001-
1928- 1963- 1974- Wrestling
  • In addition to the sports above, the NCAA sanctioned a boxing championship from 1948 to 1960. The NCAA discontinued boxing following declines in the sport during the 1950s and following the death of a boxer at the 1960 NCAA tournament.

The number of teams (school programs) that compete in each sport in their respective division as of 2017 are as follows:[33]

Women's "emerging sports"

In addition to the above sports, the NCAA recognizes "emerging sports" for women. These sports have scholarship limitations for each sport, but do not currently have officially sanctioned NCAA championships. A member institution may use these sports to meet the required level of sports sponsorship for its division. An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list.[34] Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA.

The three sports currently designated as women's "emerging sports" are:

Equestrian has been recommended for elimination as an "emerging sport" due to lack of growth in the number of participating institutions.[35]

Sports added and dropped

The popularity of each of these sports programs has changed over time. Between 1988-89 and 2010-11, NCAA schools had net additions of 510 men's teams and 2,703 women's teams.[36]

The following tables show the changes over time in the number of NCAA schools across all three divisions combined sponsoring each of the men's and women's team sports.

Men's sports

The men's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988/89 to 2010/11 period were indoor track and field, lacrosse, and cross-country running (each with more than 100 net gains). The men's sports with the biggest losses were wrestling (-104 teams), tennis, and rifle; the men's team sport with the most net losses was water polo.[36] Other reports show that 355 college wrestling programs have been eliminated since 2000; 212 men's gymnastics programs have been eliminated since 1969 with only 17 programs remaining as of 2013.[37]

Men's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring[38]
No. Sport 1981-82 2011-12 Change Percent
1 Basketball 741 1,060 +259 +43%
2 Baseball 642 927 +285 +44%
3 Soccer 521 803 +282 +54%
4 Football 497 651 +154 +31%
5 Lacrosse 138 295 +157 +116%
6 Ice hockey 130 135 +5 +4%
7 Volleyball 63 98 +35 +56%
8 Water polo 49 43 -6 -12%

The following table lists the men's individual DI sports with at least 5,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Men's individual sports
No. Sport Teams (2015)[39] Teams (1982)[39] Change Athletes[39] Season
1 Track (outdoor) 780 577 +203 28,177 Spring
2 Track (indoor) 681 422 +259 25,087 Winter
3 Cross country 989 650 +339 14,330 Fall
4 Swimming & diving 427 377 +50 9,715 Winter
5 Golf 831 590 +241 8,654 Spring
6 Tennis 765 690 +75 8,211 Spring
7 Wrestling 229 363 -134 7,049 Winter

Women's sports

The women's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988-89 to 2010-11 period were soccer (+599 teams), golf, and indoor track and field; no women's sports programs experienced double-digit net losses.[36]

Women's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring
Sport 1981-82 2011-12 Change Percent
Basketball 705 1,084 +379 +54%
Volleyball 603 1,047 +444 +74%
Soccer 80 996 +916 +1245%
Softball 348 976 +628 +180%
Lacrosse 105 376 +271 +258%
Field hockey 268 266 -2 -1%
Ice hockey 17 86 +69 +406%
Water polo -- 64 +64 ----

Source: NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report o 2012-13[permanent dead link]

The following table lists the women's individual NCAA sports with at least 1,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Women's individual sports[40]
No. Sport Teams (2015)[39] Teams (1982)[40] Change Athletes[39] Season
1 Track (outdoor) 861 427 +434 28,797 Spring
2 Track (indoor) 772 239 +533 26,620 Winter
3 Cross country 1,072 417 +655 16,150 Fall
4 Swimming & diving 548 348 +200 12,428 Winter
5 Tennis 930 610 +320 8,960 Spring
6 Golf 651 125 +526 5,221 Spring
7 Equestrian 47 41* +6* 1,496
8 Gymnastics 82 179 -97 1,492 Winter
  • Equestrian was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Equestrian is first listed in the NCAA report in 1988-89 with 41 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.

Championships

2006 NCAA championship banners hang from the ceiling of the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis
NCAA National Championship trophies, rings, and watches won by UCLA teams

Trophies

For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first, second, and third place teams respectively.[] In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place).[] Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations.

Starting with the 2001-02 season, and again in the 2007-08 season, the trophies were changed.[] Starting in the 2006 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold-plated for the winner and silver-plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive an elaborate trophy with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

As of May 23, 2018,[41]Stanford, UCLA, and Southern California (USC) have the most NCAA championships. Stanford has won 117 and UCLA 116 of their combined NCAA team championships in men's and women's sports, while USC is third with 105.

Football Bowl Subdivision

The NCAA has never sanctioned an official championship for its highest level of football, now known as Division I FBS. Instead, several outside bodies award their own titles. The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament or game for Division I FBS football. In the past, teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll, were said to have won the "national championship".

Starting in 2014, the College Football Playoff - a consortium of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games - has arranged to place the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that selects and seeds the teams) into two semifinal games, with the winners advancing to compete in the College Football Playoff National Championship, which is not officially sanctioned or recognized by the NCAA. The winner of the game receives a trophy; since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not denote NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do.

Conferences

The NCAA is divided into three levels of conference, Division I, Division II, and Division III, organized in declining program size, as well as numerous sub-divisions.

Division I

Notes
  • FBS conferences in football are denoted with an asterisk (*)
  • FCS conferences in football are denoted with two asterisks (**)
  • Conferences that do not sponsor football or basketball are in italics

Division I FCS football-only conferences

Map of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Championship Division I-AA schools

Division I hockey-only conferences

Division II

Division III

Division III football-only conferences

Other Division III single-sport conferences

Media

The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS Sports Network, ESPN, ESPN Plus, and Turner Sports for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[42] ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships, CBS to 67, and Turner Sports to one. The followings are the most prominent championships and rightsholders:

  • CBS: Men's basketball (NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, with Turner Sports, and NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I)
  • ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's Division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (Division I for both sexes)
  • Turner Sports: NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament with CBS

WestwoodOne has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours to the men's College World Series (baseball). DirecTV has an exclusive package expanding CBS' coverage of the men's basketball tournament.

From 1998 to 2013, Electronic Arts had a license to develop college sports video games with the NCAA's branding, which included its NCAA Football and NCAA Basketball (formerly NCAA March Madness) series. The NCAA's licensing was not required to produce the games, as rights to use teams are not licensed through the NCAA, but through entities such as individual schools and the Collegiate Licensing Company. EA only acquired the license so that it could officially incorporate the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament into its college basketball game series. The NCAA withdrew EA's license due to uncertainties surrounding a series of lawsuits, most notably O'Bannon v. NCAA, involving the use of player likenesses in college sports video games.[43][44]

LGBT inclusion policy

In 2010, the NCAA Executive Committee announced its support and commitment to diversity, inclusion, and gender equality among its student-athletes, coaches, and administrators. The statement included the NCAA's commitment to ensuring that all students have equal opportunities to achieve their academic goals, and coaches and administrators have equal opportunities for career development in a climate of respect.[45] In 2012, the LGBTQ Subcommittee of the NCAA association-wide Committee on Women's Athletics and the Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee commissioned Champions of Respect, a document that provides resources and advocacy that promotes inclusion and equality for LGBTQ student-athletes, coaches, administrators and all others associated with intercollegiate athletics. This resource uses guides from the Women's Sports Foundation It Takes a Team! project for addressing issues related to LGBTQ equality in intercollegiate athletics.[45] The document provides information on specific issues LGBTQ sportspeople face, similarities and differences of these issues on women's and men's teams, policy recommendations and best practices, and legal resources and court cases.[46]

The NCAA has kept these core values central to its decisions regarding the allocation of championship bids. In April 2016, the Board of Governors announced new requirements for host cities that includes protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity for all people involved in the event. This decision was prompted by several states passing laws that permit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in accordance with religious beliefs.[47]

The NCAA expressed concern over Indiana's Religious Freedom Restoration Act that allows businesses to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. This bill was proposed just before Indianapolis was set to host the 2015 Men's Basketball Final Four tournament.[48] The bill clashed with the NCAA core values of inclusion and equality, and forced the NCAA to consider moving events out of Indiana. Under pressure from across the nation and fearing the economic loss of being banned from hosting NCAA events, the governor of Indiana, Mike Pence, revised the bill so that businesses could not discriminate based on sexual orientation, race, religion, or disability. The NCAA accepted the revised bill and continues to host events in Indiana.[49] The bill was enacted into law on July 1, 2015.[50]

On September 12, 2016, the NCAA announced that it would pull all seven planned championship events out of North Carolina for the 2016-2017 academic year.[51] This decision was a response to the state passing the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act (H.B. 2) on March 23, 2016. This law requires people to use public restrooms that correspond with their sex assigned at birth and stops cities from passing laws that protect against discrimination towards gay and transgender people.[52] The NCAA Board of Governors determined that this law would make ensuring an inclusive atmosphere in the host communities challenging, and relocating these championship events best reflects the association's commitment to maintaining an environment that is consistent with its core values.[51] North Carolina has lost the opportunity to host the 2018 Final Four Tournament which was scheduled to be in Charlotte, but is relocated to San Antonio. If H.B. 2 is not repealed, North Carolina could be barred from bidding for events from 2019 to 2022.[53]

Historically, the NCAA has used its authority in deciding on host cities to promote its core values. The Association also prohibits championship events in states that display the Confederate flag, and at member schools that have abusive or offensive nicknames or mascots based on Native American imagery. Board members wish to ensure that anyone associated with an NCAA championship event will be treated with fairness and respect.[47]

Rules violations

Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership.

Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions.

Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty.

In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty is known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it did not do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered; it has only four winning seasons and four bowl appearance since then (mostly under June Jones, the team's head coach from 2008 until his resignation during the 2014 season). The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005. In addition to these cases, the most recent Division I school to be considered was Penn State. This was because of the Jerry Sandusky Incident that consequently almost landed Penn State on the hook for the death penalty. They received a $60 million fine, in addition to forfeited seasons and other sanctions as well. The NCAA later reversed itself by restoring all forfeited seasons and overturning the remaining sanctions.

Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors, and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause penalty" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[54] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order essentially has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order.

Sponsors

The NCAA has a two-tier sponsorship division. AT&T, Coca-Cola, and CapitalOne are NCAA Corporate Champions, all others are NCAA Corporate Partners.[55]

Company Category Since
Buffalo Wild Wings Bar and restaurant 2015
AT&T Telecommunications 2001
Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages 2002
Northwestern Mutual Insurance and financial services 2004
Enterprise Rent-A-Car Car rental 2005
Lowe's Home improvement 2005
CapitalOne Banking and credit cards 2008
Nabisco (Ritz and Oreo) Snack foods 2017
Hershey's (Reese's) Confections 2009
Google Cloud Computing 2017
UPS Package delivery and logistics 2009
Nissan (Infiniti) Car & parts 2010
Wendy's Fast-food restaurant 2016
Pizza Hut Restaurant 2016
Intel Computing 2017
General Motors (Buick) Car and parts 2013
Marriott Hotels and hospitality 2017

Finances

As a governing body for amateur sports the NCAA is classified as a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization.[56] As such, it is not required to pay most taxes on income that for-profit private and public corporations are subject to. While this business model has been challenged during court cases, the NCAA, has ultimately emerged victorious.[57] As of 2014 the NCAA reported that it had over $600 million in unrestricted net assets in its annual report.[58] During 2014 the NCAA also reported almost a billion dollars of revenue, contributing to a "budget surplus" - revenues in excess of disbursements for that year - of over $80 million.[58] Over $700 million of that revenue total was from licensing TV rights to its sporting events.[58] In addition, the NCAA also earns money through investment growth of its endowment fund. Established in 2004 with $45 million, the fund has grown to over $380 million in 2014.[59]

NCAA expenditures

What is often misunderstood in criticisms of the volume of revenue the NCAA generates, including calls for cash player payments, is that the vast majority of it is passed through to both its member schools and their student-athletes.

According to the NCAA it receives most of its annual revenue from two sources: Division I Men's Basketball television and marketing rights, and championships ticket sales. "That money is distributed in more than a dozen ways - almost all of which directly support NCAA schools, conferences and nearly half a million student-athletes."[60]

In 2017 total NCAA revenues were in excess of $1.06 billion.[61] Division I basketball television and marketing rights generated $821.4 million, and "championships ticket sales" totaled $129.4 million. Other "smaller streams of revenue, such as membership dues" contributed an unspecified amount.[60]

In return, some 95% of these revenues were expended on supporting NCAA schools and athletic programs, as well as operations of the NCAA itself (comprising some 12% of expenditures).

Expenses by category

The NCAA provided a breakdown of how those revenues were in turn spent, organizing pay-outs and expenses into some 14 basic categories. By far the largest went to Sports Scholarship and Sponsorship Funds, funding for sports and student scholarships under the Division I Basketball Performance Fund, expenses incurred in producing Division I Championshps (including team food, travel, and lodging), the Student Assistance Fund, and Student Athlete Services. Together these top five recipients accounted for 65% of all NCAA expenditures. General and Administrative expenses for running the NCAA day-to-day operations totaled approximately 4% of monies paid out, and other association-wide expenses, including legal services, communications, and business insurance totaled 8%.[60]

The categories:

  • $210.8M Sport Sponsorship and Scholarship Funds
Distributed to Division I schools to help fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $160.5M Division I Basketball Performance Fund
Distributed to Division I conferences and independent schools based on their performance in the men's basketball tournament over a six-year rolling period. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $96.7M Division I Championships
Provides college athletes the opportunity to compete for a championship and includes support for team travel, food and lodging.
  • $82.2M Student Assistance Fund
Distributed to Division I student-athletes for essential needs that arise during their time in college.
  • $71.8M Student-Athlete Services
Includes funding for catastrophic injury insurance, drug testing, student-athlete leadership programs, postgraduate scholarships and additional Association-wide championships support.
  • $50.3M Division I Equal Conference Fund
Distributed equally among Division I basketball-playing conferences that meet athletic and academic standards to play in the men's basketball tournament. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $46.7M Academic Enhancement Fund
Distributed to Division I schools to assist with academic programs and services.
  • $42.3M Division II Allocation
Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division II college athletes.
  • $39.6M Membership Support Services
Covers costs related to NCAA governance committees and the annual NCAA Convention.
  • $28.2M Division III Allocation
Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division III college athletes.
  • $9.5M Division I Conference Grants
Distributed to Division I conferences for programs that enhance officiating, compliance, minority opportunities and more.
  • $3.3M Educational Programs
Supports various educational services for members to help prepare student-athletes for life, including the Women Coaches Academy, the Emerging Leaders Seminars and the Pathway Program.
  • $74.3M Other Association-Wide Expenses
Includes support for Association-wide legal services, communications and business insurance.
  • $39.7M General and Administrative Expenses
Funds the day-to-day operations of the NCAA national office, including administrative and financial services, information technology and facilities management.

According to the NCAA, the 2017 fiscal year was the first in which its revenues topped $1.0 billion. The increase in revenue from 2016 came from hikes in television and marketing fees, plus greater monies generated from championship events and investment income.[61]

An ESPN critique of the organization's 2017 financials indicated some $560.3 million of the total $956 million paid out went back to its roughly 1,100 member institutions in 24 sports in all three divisions, as well as $200 million for a one-time payment the NCAA made to schools to fund additional programs.[62]

The Division I basketball tournament alone generated some $761 million, with another $60 million in 2016-17 marketing rights. With increases in rights fees it is estimated the basketball tournament will generate some $869 million for the 2018 championship.[62]

Player compensation proposals

The NCAA limits the amount of compensation that individual players can receive to scholarships equal to school tuition and related expenses. This rule has generated controversy, in light of the large amounts of revenues that schools earn from sports from TV contracts, ticket sales, and licensing and merchandise. Several commentators have discussed whether the NCAA limit on player compensation violates antitrust laws. There is a consensus among economists that the NCAA's compensation caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[4] Research shows that opposition to paying athletes is in part driven by racial resentment: whites oppose paying athletes, while blacks favor it, especially when the issue is framed in the context of race.[63][64]

Pro-rating payouts to Division I basketball players in proportion to the size of revenues its championship tournament generates relative to the NCAA's total annual revenues would be one possible approach, but will open the door to litigation by students and schools adversely affected by such a formula.

  • After losing the 1953 case The University of Denver v. Nemeth, where it was found that a student and athlete was owed workers' compensation, it has been argued[by whom?] that the NCAA created the term "student-athlete." Andrew Zimbalist, in his book Unpaid Professionals (1999), claims the term was invented to prevent similar future litigation losses.
  • In 2007, the case of White et al. v. NCAA was brought by former NCAA student-athletes Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris, and Chris Craig as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or Grant in Aid was a violation of federal antitrust laws. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA member schools would be free to offer any financial aid packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for receipt of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit."[65]
  • In 2013, Jay Bilas revealed that the NCAA was taking advantage of individual players through jersey sales in its store. Specifically, he typed the names of several top college football players, among them Tajh Boyd, Teddy Bridgewater, Jadeveon Clowney, Johnny Manziel, and AJ McCarron, into the search engine of the NCAA's official online store, and received the players' jerseys as primary search results.[66] The NCAA took down player jersey sales immediately following the incident.[67]
  • Former NCAA President Walter Byers, in his book Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting College Athletes, summarizes his criticisms of the NCAA's operation by stating that "Today the NCAA Presidents Commission is . . . firmly committed to the neo-plantation belief that the enormous proceeds from college games belong to the overseers (administrators) and supervisors (coaches). The plantation workers performing in the arena may only receive those benefits authorized by the overseers."
  • The National Collegiate Players Association (NCPA) is a group started by former UCLA football players with the purpose of organizing student-athletes. Their goal is to change NCAA rules they view as unjust. Two of the rules they focus on include raising the scholarship amount and holding schools responsible for their players' sports-related medical injuries.[68]
  • In March 2014, four players filed a class action antitrust lawsuit, alleging that the NCAA and its five dominant conferences are an "unlawful cartel". The suit charges that NCAA caps on the value of athletic scholarships have "illegally restricted the earning power of football and men's basketball players while making billions off their labor".[69] Tulane University Sports Law Program Director Gabe Feldman called the suit "an instantly credible threat to the NCAA."[70] On September 30, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that limiting compensation to the cost of an athlete's attendance at a university was sufficient. It simultaneously ruled against a federal judge's proposal to pay student athletes $5,000 per year in deferred compensation.[57]
  • Northwestern University's Division One Football team was the first NCAA team to unionize in 2014.[71]
  • South Park, in the episode "Crack Baby Athletic Association" (s15e05), made oblique reference to the NCAA and compared its rules to slavery.[72]

Criticisms

Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include, but are not limited to:

  • In 1998, the NCAA settled a $2.5 million lawsuit filed by former UNLV basketball coach, Jerry Tarkanian. Tarkanian sued the NCAA after he was forced to resign from UNLV, where he had been head coach from 1975 to 1992. The suit claimed the agency singled him out, penalizing the university's basketball program three times in that span. Tarkanian said "They can never, ever, make up for all the pain and agony they caused me. All I can say is that for 25 years they beat the hell out of me". The NCAA said that it regretted the long battle and it now has more understanding of Tarkanian's position and that the case has changed the enforcement process for the better. In the 1970s a Nevada judge stated that the NCAA's evidence against Tarkanian was "total 100 percent hearsay without a scrap of documentation in substantiation. The evidence shows that every fundamental principle pertaining to the plaintiff's due process rights was violated".[73]Don Yaeger wrote "Public records suggest (Tarkanian's) case was the worst investigation ever conducted by the NCAA, rife with intimidation of athletes, bigotry ... slipshod work, creative note-taking and untruth by an investigator and vindictiveness by a disgruntled former coach".[74]
  • In 1977, prompted partly by the Tarkanian case, the US Congress initiated an investigation into the NCAA.[73] It, combined with Tarkanian's case, forced the NCAA's internal files into the public record.[75]
  • In 2013, the NCAA was criticized for denying Georgia offensive lineman Kolton Houston his eligibility for violating the drug policy. Houston tested positive for the anabolic steroid norandrolone that was given without his knowledge[by whom?] to recover from shoulder surgery during high school, but the banned substance remain trapped in the fatty tissues in his body. Despite a huge decline in the substance level to the point where Houston does not gain a significant advantage for using the drug and proof that he had not been reusing it, he remained ineligible. Houston would then undergo dangerous operational procedures to get under the threshold to regain his eligibility, which goes against the mission for the NCAA to help out students. The NCAA is being heavily criticized for maintaining their rigid standards and not making an exception for Houston.[76]

Individual awards

See also: Academic All-America, Best Female College Athlete ESPY Award,[77]Best Male College Athlete ESPY Award,[77]Senior CLASS Award, Honda Sports Award, College baseball awards, and Sports Illustrated 2009 all-decade honors (college basketball & football)
See footnote[78]

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards, including:

  • NCAA Award of Valor (not given every year); selection is based on the heroic action occurring during the academic year.
  • NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honoring an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics.
  • NCAA Inspiration Award (not given every year); selection is based on inspirational action.
  • NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship.
  • NCAA Theodore Roosevelt Award, the highest honor that the NCAA can confer on an individual.
  • NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honoring a senior student-athlete who has distinguished herself throughout her collegiate career in academics, athletics, service, and leadership.
  • Elite 90 Award, honoring the student-athlete with the highest cumulative GPA who has reached the competition at the finals site for each of the NCAA's 90 men's and women's championships (in Divisions I, II, and III, plus "National Collegiate" championships open to schools from more than one division).
  • Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their college graduation.
  • The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA's highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA.
  • Today's Top 10 Award, honoring ten outstanding senior student-athletes.
  • Walter Byers Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.

In previous years, the NCAA has presented the following awards at its NCAA Honors event: Astronaut Salute, Business Leader Salute, Congressional Medal of Honor Salute, Governor Salute, Olympians Salute, Performing Arts Salute, Presidents Cabinet Salute, Prominent National Media Salute, Special Recognition Awards, U.S. House of Representatives Salute, and U.S. Senate Salute.[79]

Other collegiate athletic organizations

The NCAA is the dominant, but not the only, collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such collegiate athletic organizations exist.

In the United States

Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents

International governing body

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ NCAA is usually pronounced "N C double A."
References
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  2. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". Tsn.ca. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  3. ^ "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "The NCAA". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ Michael Whitmer (2015-06-06). "Harvard and Yale crews celebrate the 150th Boat Race". Boston Globe. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ a b c d e f NCAA History between 1910 and 1980 Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ NCAA Refuses to Put TV Issue Up to U.S., The Pittsburgh Press, June 13, 1951, p 31.
  8. ^ Smith, R. A. (2001). Play-by-play: Radio, television, and big-time college sport.
  9. ^ "National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) | American organization". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ Grundy, Pamela; Shackelford, Susan (2005). Shattering the Glass. The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-822-5. 
  11. ^ U.S. Supreme Court (1984). "NCAA v. BOARD OF REGENTS OF UNIV. OF OKLA., 468 U.S. 85 (1984) 468 U.S. 85 NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION v. BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA ET AL. CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE TENTH CIRCUIT No. 83-271." Findlaw.com. Retrieved 2010. 
  12. ^ Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (February 23, 1999). "NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSN. v. SMITH". Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved 2013. 
  13. ^ Benjamin Bendrich: Studentischer Spitzensport zwischen Resignation, Mythos und Aufbruch: eine Studie zur dualen Karriere in Deutschland und den USA.Göttingen: Optimus, 2015. ISBN 3-86376-164-2
  14. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (September 1, 2009). "NCAA welcomes Simon Fraser, first Canadian member school". USA Today. Retrieved 2011. 
  15. ^ Lemire, Joe (August 5, 2009). "Canadian school's admittance to NCAA may change rules up north". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  16. ^ "Growth of NCAA Apparent; But Optimism Stll Abounds" (PDF). NCAA News. June 15, 1973. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. Retrieved 2009. 
  17. ^ "NCAA will move in 1989 to Overland Park, Kansas - NCAA News - May 4, 1988" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "Final Four: Indianapolis competes with Dallas, Denver and Kansas City for the NCAA's new headquarters". Indiana Business Magazine. Allbusiness.com. March 1, 1997. Retrieved 2009. 
  19. ^ "NCAA headquarters in Indianapolis to open July 26". NCAA. July 15, 1999. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. 
  20. ^ "NCAA Elects Mark Emmert as New President", April 29, 2010.
  21. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". NCAA.org. September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved 2009. 
  22. ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ a b c Lapointe, Joe (October 11, 2002). "The N.C.A.A. Selects Brand As Its Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011. 
  24. ^ Wieberg, Steve (September 16, 2009). "NCAA president Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer". USA Today. Retrieved 2009. 
  25. ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand's focus Archived September 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., NCAA News, September 22, 2009
  26. ^ a b Hishinuma and Fremstad, 589-591[vague]
  27. ^ 2009-2010 Guide for the College-Bound Athletes
  28. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (May 8, 2017). "Collegiate Commissioners Association approves early signing period for football". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  29. ^ "Football recruiting now a 24/7/365 event". ESPN. October 22, 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Elkin, Ali (August 17, 2011). "NCAA's stricter academic rules: What does it mean for your team?". This Just In (blog). CNN. Retrieved 2011. 
  31. ^ "NCAA DII, DIII membership approves Sand Volleyball as 90th championship" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. January 17, 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  32. ^ "NCAA's newest championship will be called beach volleyball" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. June 30, 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  33. ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2017, https://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/2016-17NCAA-0472_ParticRatesReport-FINAL_20171120.pdf
  34. ^ "Emerging Sports for Women". www.ncaa.org. NCAA. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  35. ^ "Equestrian recommended for removal from emerging sports list". NCAA. October 27, 2014. Retrieved 2015. 
  36. ^ a b c NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2011, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2012.pdf
  37. ^ Karen Owoc, Title IX and Its Effect on Men's Collegiate Athletics, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved 2012. 
  38. ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report o 2012-13[permanent dead link]
  39. ^ a b c d e NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2014.pdf[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ a b NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2014.pdf
  41. ^ List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships
  42. ^ NCAA Broadcast Information - NCAA.com Archived March 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "EA Sports Didn't Need the NCAA's Logo, and Maybe It Didn't Want It". Kotaku. Retrieved 2013. 
  44. ^ Goldfarb, Andrew (July 17, 2013). "NCAA Will Not Renew WA Sports Contract". IGN. Retrieved 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Griffin, Pat, and Hudson Taylor. "Champions of Respect: Inclusion of LGBT Student-Athletes and Staff in NCAA Programs," April 2010.
  46. ^ Branch, John. "N.C.A.A. Advises on Sexual Orientation Issues." The Quad: The New York Times College Sports Blog, March 4, 2013. https://thequad.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/04/n-c-a-a-offers-guidance-on-l-g-b-t-matters/.
  47. ^ a b Hendrickson, Brian. "Board of Governors Approves Anti-Discrimination Process for Championships Bids." Text. NCAA.org - The Official Site of the NCAA, April 27, 2016.
  48. ^ Reports, Tribune wire. "NCAA Weighs Response to Indiana's Religious Freedom Law." Chicagotribune.com, March 26, 2015. http://www.chicagotribune.com/chi-ncaa-tournament-indiana-religious-freedom-spt-20150326-story.html.
  49. ^ Lowery, Wesley. "Gov. Pence Signs Revised Indiana Religious Freedom Bill into Law." Washington Post, April 2, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2015/04/02/gov-pence-signs-revised-indiana-religious-freedom-bill-into-law/.
  50. ^ "Indiana Gov. Pence defends religious objections law: 'This bill is not about discrimination'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  51. ^ a b NCAA to Relocate Championships from North Carolina for 2016-17." NCAA.com, September 12, 2016. https://www.ncaa.com/news/ncaa/article/2016-09-12/ncaa-relocate-championships-north-carolina-2016-17.
  52. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (April 5, 2016). "North Carolina transgender law: Is it discriminatory?". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  53. ^ Glier, Ray (2017-03-17). "N.C.A.A. Leader Mark Emmert Says Discrimination Policy Is Clear". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved . 
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  55. ^ "NCAA Corporate Champions and Corporate Partners". Ncaa.org. December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved 2009. 
  56. ^ root (2010-05-28). "Not For Profit Definition | Investopedia". Retrieved . 
  57. ^ a b Tracy, Marc; Strauss, Ben. "Court Strikes Down Payments to College Athletes". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 2015. 
  58. ^ a b c "NCAA has net assets of $627 million, say records". Retrieved . 
  59. ^ Eichelberger, Curtis; Condon, Christopher. "NCAA's Investments Hit $527 Million as Gains Reach 11%". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved . 
  60. ^ a b c NCAA: Where does the money go?
  61. ^ a b Sports Illustrated: NCAA Reports $1.1 Billion in Revenues
  62. ^ a b NCAA tops $1 billion in revenue
  63. ^ Nteta, Tatishe M.; Wallsten, Kevin; McCarthy, Lauren A. (2018-05-14). "Analysis | Whites oppose -- and blacks support -- paying NCAA athletes, especially when they're thinking about race". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved . 
  64. ^ "Prejudice or Principled Conservatism? Racial Resentment and White Opinion toward Paying College Athletes". Political Research Quarterly. 2017. doi:10.1177/1065912916685186. 
  65. ^ "White v NCAA". NCAA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  66. ^ Parrish, Gary (August 6, 2013). "ESPN's Jay Bilas spent Tuesday afternoon embarrassing the NCAA". College Basketball Insider. CBSSports.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  67. ^ Schlabach, Mark (August 9, 2013). "NCAA puts end to jersey sales". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  68. ^ "NCPA now homepage". Retrieved 2010. 
  69. ^ David Porter (March 17, 2014), Lawsuit seeks to end NCAA's 'unlawful cartel', Associated press 
  70. ^ Scott Soshnick (Mar 17, 2014), NCAA, Top Conferences Called a Cartel in Player Pay Suit, Bloomberg 
  71. ^ Jamieson, Dave (2014-03-26). "Northwestern Football Players Win First Round In Union Battle". Huff Post. Retrieved 2014. 
  72. ^ "Crack Baby Athletic Association (Season 15, Episode 5) - Full Episode Player". South Park Studios. Retrieved 2013. 
  73. ^ a b Gordon S. White, Investigator For N.C.A.A. Under Fire New York Times, Nov. 8 1977. [1]
  74. ^ Quoted in Michael J. Goodman, Throwing in the Towel, LA Times, February 16, 1992. [2]
  75. ^ Michael J. Goodman, Throwing in the Towel, LA Times, February 16, 1992. [3]
  76. ^ Georgia lineman Kolton Houston is still waiting to play after 2010 PED mistake. ESPN.com (May 31, 2013). Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  77. ^ a b The Best Female and Best Male College Basketball and Best College Football Player ESPY Awards - awarded from 1993 to 2001 - were absorbed in 2002 by the Best Female and Best Male College Athlete ESPY Awards.
  78. ^ "NCAA Awards". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  79. ^ "NCAA Honors Celebration". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 

Further reading

External links


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