Ninety-nine Names Of Allah

According to tradition (hadith), there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the ?asm??u 'll?hi 'l-?usn? "Beautiful Names of God" (also "Beautiful Names").[1][2]

According to 9th-century collections of hadith, the tradition of there being "99 names" is sahih (reliable), while the tradition of the actual list of 99 names as given by some collectors, in at least three different variants, is stated to be gharib (scarce, unreliable).[3] Most names in these lists are divine epithets taken from the text of the Quran, with a minority based in oral tradition or Sunnah. The lists of names vary because there are more than 99 such epithets to choose from.

Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[4]

Origin

The 99 names of God on the ceiling of the Grand Mosque in Kuwait.

In the hadith, Muhammad is said to have invoked God by a number of names.[5] The origin of the number 99 specifically is commonly attributed to a hadith considered weak, although there are less-commonly cited hadith that are considered authentic and also support the same point.[4] According to Sahih Muslim, 35:6475:

Abu Hurairah reported Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] (may peace be upon him) as saying: "There are ninety-nine names of Allah; he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Verily, Allah is Odd and He loves odd numbers. And in the narration of Ibn 'Umar [the words are]: 'He who enumerated them'."

The Quran refers to God's "most beautiful Names" (al-?asm?? al-?usná).[6] Gerhard Böwering refers to Sura 17:110 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in Quranic commentary. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Sura 22:22-24. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[4]

Most, though not all, of the traditionally listed 99 names are found somewhere in the Quran itself. The others are taken from the hadith.[4][7][8]

The list is not necessarily fixed, as more than 99 divine epithets can be adduced from Quran and hadith combined.[9]

Lists of names

There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name of God, and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[4]

The following list is based on the one found in the Jami? at-Tirmidhi (9th century).[] Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim or Ibn ?As?kir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.[]

Al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This (version of the) hadith is gharib [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Various early Muslim exegetes, including Ja?far al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.[10]

? = The wa?la (hamzatu l-wa?li (???????? ????????? "hamza of connection")) denoting of ??? is "?al/ ?ul/ ?il" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure:

e.g. ???????? ?????????????? Suratu ?r-Ra?ma?n [Surah ar-Rahman].

Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ah?dith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.

Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

(Variant with vowels/ without vowels)

Transliteration Romanization

[Various Spellings]

! Translationa Reference grammatical typeb
About this sound 1 ??????????????

(???????????????)

\ ??????????????

??????? ???????

?Ar-Ra?ma?n/ ?Ar-Ra?m?n Ar-Rahman

[Ar-Rahmaan]

The Most Gracious Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
About this sound 2 ????????????

(?????????????)

?????? ?Ar-Ra?iym/ ?Ar-Ra??m Ar-Rahim

[Ar-Raheem]

The Most Merciful Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
About this sound 3 ???????????

(????????????)

\ ???????????

?????? ??????

?Al-Ma?lik/ ?Al-M?lik Al-Malik

[Al-Maalik]

The King 59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
About this sound 4 ???????????

(????????????)

???????? ?????? ?Al-Quddu?s/

?Al-Qudd?s

Al-Quddus

[Al-Quddous, Al-Quddows]

The Holy 59:23, 62:1 D
About this sound 5 ???????????

(????????????)

?????? ?As-Sala?m/ ?As-Sal?m As-Salam [As-Salaam] The Peace 59:23 D
About this sound 6 ???????????

(????????????)

?????? ?Al-Mu?umin Al-Mu?min [Al-Mu'min] The Granter of Security 59:23 D
About this sound 7 ??????? Al-Muhaymin The Controller 59:23 D
About this sound 8 ?????? Al-Aziz The Powerful 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
About this sound 9 ?????? Al-Jabbar The Strong 59:23 D
About this sound 10 ??????? Al-Mutakabbir The Supreme 59:23 D[clarification needed]
mutafa??il
About this sound 11 ?????? Al-Khaliq The Creator 6:102, 13:16,[11]36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
About this sound 12 ?????? Al-Bari? The Evolver, The Maker 59:24 D
About this sound 13 ?????? Al-Musawwir The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer 59:24 D
About this sound 14 ?????? Al-Ghaffar The Repeatedly Forgiving 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
About this sound 15 ?????? Al-Qahhar The Subduer 12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
About this sound 16 ?????? Al-Wahhab The Bestower 3:18, 38:9, 38:35 D
About this sound 17 ?????? Ar-Razzaq The Provider, The Sustainer 51:58 D
About this sound 18 ?????? Al-Fattah The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26 D
About this sound 19 ?????? Al-?Alim The Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
About this sound 20 ?????? Al-Qabid The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245 V
About this sound 21 ?????? Al-Basit The Extender / Expander 2:245 V
About this sound 22 ???????? Al-Khafid The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader 56:3; al-Kaf?am? (1992:38) O
About this sound 23 ?????? Ar-Rafi? The Exalter, The Upgrader 58:11, 6:83 V
About this sound 24 ????? Al-Mu?izz The Giver of Honor 3:26 V
About this sound 25 ????? Al-Muzill The Giver of Dishonor 3:26 V
About this sound 26 ?????? As-Sami? The Hearing 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
About this sound 27 ?????? Al-Basir The All-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
About this sound 28 ????? Al-Hakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69 V
About this sound 29 ????? Al-?Adl The Just Not Quranic, see al-Kaf?am? (1992:40)
About this sound 30 ?????? Al-Latif The Gentle, The Subtly Kind 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
About this sound 31 ?????? Al-Khabir The All-Aware 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
About this sound 32 ?????? Al-Halim The Forbearing, The Indulgent 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
About this sound 33 ?????? Al-?Azim The Great, The Magnificent 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
About this sound 34 ?????? Al-Ghafur The Much-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
About this sound 35 ?????? Ash-Shakur The Grateful 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
About this sound 36 ????? Al-?Al? The Sublime 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
About this sound 37 ?????? Al-Kabir The Great 13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23 D
About this sound 38 ?????? Al-Hafiz The Preserver 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
About this sound 39 ?????? Al-Muqit The Nourisher 4:85 I
About this sound 40 ?????? Al-Hasib The Bringer of Judgment 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
About this sound 41 ?????? Al-Jalil The Majestic, The Exalted 55:27, 7:143 A, V
About this sound 42 ?????? Al-Karim The Bountiful, The Generous 27:40, 82:6 D
About this sound 43 ?????? Ar-Raqib The Watchful 4:1, 5:117 D
About this sound 44 ?????? Al-Mujib The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61 A
About this sound 45 ?????? Al-Wasi? The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
About this sound 46 ?????? Al-Hakim The Wise 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
About this sound 47 ?????? Al-Wadud The Affectionate 11:90, 85:14 D
About this sound 48 ?????? Al-Majid The All-Glorious, The Majestic 11:73 A
About this sound 49 ?????? Al-Ba?ith The Resurrector 22:7 V
About this sound 50 ?????? Ash-Shahid The Witness 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
About this sound 51 ????????

(?????????)

?????? ???? ?Al-?aqq Al-Haqq The Truth, The Reality 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
About this sound 52 ?????? Al-Wakil The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
About this sound 53 ????? Al-Qawiy The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
About this sound 54 ?????? Al-Matin The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58 D
About this sound 55 ????? Al-Wali The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
About this sound 56 ?????? Al-Hamid The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
About this sound 57 ?????? Al-Muhsi The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29 V
About this sound 58 ?????? Al-Mubdi? The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 59 ?????? Al-Mu?id The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 60 ?????? Al-Muhyi The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
About this sound 61 ?????? Al-Mumit The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
About this sound 62 ???? Al-Hayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
About this sound 63 ?????? Al-Qayyum The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
About this sound 64 ?????? Al-Wajid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44 V
About this sound 65 ?????? Al-Majid The Illustrious, The Magnificent 85:15, 11:73; al-Kaf?am? (1992:48) A
About this sound 66 ?????? Al-Wahid The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
About this sound 67 ????? Al-Ahad The One, The Indivisible 112:1 A
About this sound 68 ????? As-Samad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2 D
About this sound 69 ?????? Al-Qadir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
About this sound 70 ??????? Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
About this sound 71 ?????? Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61 V
About this sound 72 ?????? Al-Mu?akhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4 V
About this sound 73 ????? Al-Awwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3 D
About this sound 74 ????? Al-Aakhir The Last, The Endless 57:3 D
About this sound 75 ?????? Az-Zahir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3 D
About this sound 76 ?????? Al-Batin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3 D
About this sound 77 ?????? Al-Wali The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11 I
About this sound 78 ???????? Al-Muta?ali The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9 D
About this sound 79 ???? Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28 D
About this sound 80 ?????? At-Tawwab The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
About this sound 81 ??????? Al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
About this sound 82 ????? Al-?Afu The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
About this sound 83 ?????? Ar-Ra?uf The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
About this sound 84 ???? ????? Malik-ul-Mulk The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26 D
About this sound 85
?? ?????? ????????
Zul-Jalali
wal-Ikram
The Lord of Majesty and Generosity 55:27, 55:78 D
About this sound 86 ?????? Al-Muqsit The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kaf?am? (1992:58f) O
About this sound 87 ?????? Al-Jami? The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9 I
About this sound 88 ????? Al-Ghani The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
About this sound 89 ?????? Al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28 V
About this sound 90 ?????? Al-Mani? The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kaf?am? (1992:61)
About this sound 91 ????? Ad-Darr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kaf?am? (1992:58)
About this sound 92 ?????? An-Nafi? The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
About this sound 93 ????? An-Nur The Light 24:35 I
About this sound 94 ?????? Al-Hadi The Guide, The Way 22:54 I
About this sound 95 ?????? Al-Badi? The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101 I
About this sound 96 ?????? Al-Baqi The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kaf?am? (1992:64) V
About this sound 97 ?????? Al-Warith The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10 P
About this sound 98 ?????? Ar-Rashid The Guide to the Right Path 2:256, 72:10
About this sound 99 ?????? As-Sabur The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I

a[by whom?]. b D = Direct;[clarification needed] V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun; P = from Plural noun; O = Other

Islamic mysticism

There is a tradition in tasawwuf (Sufism) to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Greatest Name" (Ismul A'zam, ????? ??????).[12] This "Greatest Name of Allah" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[13]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud,[which?] some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[14] More than 1000 names are listed in the Jawshan Kabir invocations.

Theophoric given names

A Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in exactly the same form.[15] For example, nobody may be named al-Malik "the King", but may be named Malik "King". This is because of the belief that God is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of God, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of God. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of God for themselves but should not put 'Al' at the front of them.[15]

However the names of God can be combined with the word "'Abd-", which means "worshiper" or "slave" (of God) and are commonly used as Arabic name among Muslims, such as Abd al-Rahman. The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after "Abd" is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul Jabbar", or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ?abdu.)

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:

Use in Bahá'í

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá'" (Arabic: ?????? "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[16][17] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[16]

According to Bahá'í scholar 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bah?? al-d?n al-??mil? adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bah??" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Du???u l-Bah??, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the A?mal ?am Daw?d.[16] In the first verse of the du???u l-Bah??, the name "Bah??" appears four times.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4. 
  2. ^ Abdullah Saeed, The Quran: An Introduction, pg. 63. London: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 9781134102945
  3. ^ Al-Tirmidhi says in his Sunan, "This (version of the) hadith is [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net)[unreliable source?]
  4. ^ a b c d e Diane Morgan, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice, p. 10. Santa Barbara, California Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ISBN 9780313360251
  5. ^ Ibn Majah, Book of Du?a;[]Malik ibn Anas, Muwatta Imam Malik.
  6. ^ See the surahs "al-A'raf" (7:180), "al-Isra" (17:110), "Ta-Ha" (20:8) and "al-Hashr" (59:24).
  7. ^ Martin Parsons, Unveiling God, pg. 206. William Carey Library, 2005. ISBN 9780878084548
  8. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, pg. 515. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 9781438126968
  9. ^ Susanne Enderwitz, "The 99: Islamic Superheroes - A New Species." Taken from Transcultural Turbulences: Towards a Multi-Sited Reading of Image Flows, pgs. 84-85. Springer, 2011. ISBN 9783642183935. The 99 names of Allah; the 'Most Beautiful Names' at BBC Online. Accessed 8 April 2014.
  10. ^ Suhaib Hassan, Introduction to the Science of Hadith Classification (ahya), cited after Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net)[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ "Al-Quran (??????) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". 
  12. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7. 
  13. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 0-85398-446-8.  The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihár al-Anwár, vol. 26. p. 7."
  14. ^ Taymiyya, Ibn. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-?ayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0. 
  15. ^ a b [1] Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review. 3 (1). 
  17. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167-8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  18. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4-5. 

External links


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