Ninety-nine Names of Allah
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Ninety-nine Names of Allah

According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the ?asmu ll?hi l-?usn? ( Beautiful Names of God). The names are also called 99 Attributes of Allah.

Origin

The 99 names of God on the ceiling of the Grand Mosque in Kuwait.

According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith[1]:

Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and Allah is witr (one) and loves 'the witr' (i.e., odd numbers).

-- Sahih Bukhari - Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 419

There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith[2]:

Allah's Messenger (?) said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one; and he who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." To count something means to know it by heart.

-- Sahih Bukhari - Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 489

The Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names (al-?asm al-?usná) in several Surahs.[3] Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 (17:110) as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59.[4] Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[5]

Lists of names

There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name of God, and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[5]

The following list is based on the one found in the Jami? at-Tirmidhi (9th century).[] Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ?As?kir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.[]

al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This (version of the) hadith is gharib [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Various early Muslim exegetes, including Ja?far al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.[6]

? = The wa?la (hamzatu l-wa?li ( "hamza of connection")) denoting of is "?al/ ?ul/ ?il" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure:

e.g. Suratu r-Ra?m?n [Surah ar-Rahman].

Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ah?dith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.

Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

(Variant with vowels/ without vowels)

Proper Transliteration

[IPA]

Romanization

[Various Spellings]

Translationa Reference grammatical typeb
About this sound 1 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

\

\*

?

[* = classical written form]

ar-Ra?m?n/ ar-Ra?m?n ar-Ra?m?n

[Ar-Rahmaan]

The Most Gracious Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
About this sound 2 \ ?

ar-Ra?iym/

ar-Ram

ar-Ram

[Ar-Raheem]

The Most Merciful Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
About this sound 3 \*

[* = classical written form]

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

al-M?lik/

al-M?lik

al-M?lik

[al-Maalik]

The King 59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
About this sound 4 \ ?

al-Qudd?s/

al-Qudd?s

al-Quddus

[al-Quddous,

al-Quddoos]

The Holy 59:23, 62:1 D
About this sound 5 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

\ ?

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

as-Sal?m/

as-Sal?m

As-Salam

[As-Salaam]

The Peace 59:23 D
About this sound 6 al-Mu?umin/

al-Mu?min

al-Mu?min The Granter of Security 59:23 D
About this sound 7 ? ? al-Muhaymin al-Muhaymin The Controller 59:23 D
About this sound 8 ? al-aziyz/ al-?Az?z

[al-Azeez]

The Powerful 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
About this sound 9 \ ?

al-Jabb?r/

al-Jabb?r

al-Jabbar

[al-Jabbaar]

The Strong 59:23 D
About this sound 10 \

?

al-Mutakabbir al-Mutakabbir The Supreme 59:23 D[clarification needed]
mutafail
About this sound 11 \*

?

[* = classical written form]

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

al-Kh?liq/

al-Kh?liq

al-Khaliq

[al-Khaaliq]

The Creator 6:102, 13:16,[7]36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
About this sound 12 ? al-B?ri?/

al-B?ri?

al-Bari?[al-Baari'/ al-Baarie] The Evolver, The Maker 59:24 D
About this sound 13 \ ?

al-Mu?awwir al-Musawwir

[al-Mussawwir/

al-Muswawwir]

The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer 59:24 D
About this sound 14 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

\ ?

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

al-Ghaff?r/

al-Ghaff?r

al-Ghaffar

[al-Ghaffaar]

The Repeatedly Forgiving 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
About this sound 15 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

\ ?

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

al-Qahh?r/

al-Qahh?r

al-Qahhar

[al-Qahhaar]

The Subduer 12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
About this sound 16 \ ?

al-Wahh?b/

al-Wahh?b

al-Wahhab

[al-Wahhaab]

The Bestower 38:9, 38:35 D
About this sound 17 \

ar-Razz?q/

ar-Razz?q

Ar-Razzaq

[Ar-Razzaaq]

The Provider, The Sustainer 51:58 D
About this sound 18 \ ?

al-Fatt/

al-Fatt

al-Fattah

[al-Fattaah]

The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26 D
About this sound 19 ? al-aliym/

al-al?m

al-Alim

[al-Aleem]

The Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
About this sound 20 ? al-Q?bi?/

al-Q?bi?

al-Qabid/ al-Qabidh

[al-Qaabid/

al-Qaabidh]

The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245 V
About this sound 21 ? al-B?si?/

al-B?si?

al-Basit/ al-Basitt

[al-Baasit/ al-Baasitt]

The Extender / Expander 2:245 V
About this sound 22 ? al-Kh?fi?/

al-Kh?fi?

al-Khafid/ al-Khafidh

[al-Khaafid/

al-Khaafidh]

The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader 56:3; al-Kaf?am? (1992:38) O
About this sound 23 \ ?

?

ar-R?fi?/

ar-R?fi?

Ar-Rafi?/ Ar-Rafee

[Ar-Raafi?/ Ar-Raafee]

The Exalter, The Upgrader 58:11, 6:83 V
About this sound 24 ? \

al-Mu?izz al-Mu?izz

[al-Mu?eizz]

The Giver of Honor 3:26 V
About this sound 25 ? \

al-Mu?ill/al-Mudhill al-Muzill

[al-Mudzhill]

The Giver of Dishonor 3:26 V
About this sound 26 \ ?

as-Samiy?/as-Sam As-Sami?/ As-Samie

[As-Samee?]

The Hearing 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
About this sound 27 ? al-Bar/al-Bar al-Basir/ al-Bassir/

al-Baswir [al-Baseer/ al-Basseer/ al-Basweer]

The All-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
About this sound 28 al-?akam al-Hakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69 V
About this sound 29 al-?Adl al-?Adl/ al-Edl The Just Not Quranic, see al-Kaf?am? (1992:40)
About this sound 30 \ ?

al-La?iyf/

al-Laf

al-Latif / al-Lattif/

al-Latwif [al-Lateef/ al-Latteef/ al-Latweef]

The Gentle, The Subtly Kind 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
About this sound 31 ? al-Khabiyr/

al-Khab?r

al-Khabir

[al-Khabeer]

The All-Aware 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
About this sound 32 ? al-?aliym/

al-?al?m

al-Halim

[al-Haleem]

The Forbearing, The Indulgent 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
About this sound 33 ? al-?A?iym/

al-?Am

al-?Azim, al-?Azzim, al-?Azwim/ al-Ezim,

al-Ezzim, al-Ezwim [al-?Azzeem, al-?Azweem/

al-Ezzeem,

al-Ezweem]

The Great, The Magnificent 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
About this sound 34 ? al-Ghaf?r/

al-Ghaf?r

al-Ghafur

[al-Ghafour, al-Ghafoor]

The Much-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
About this sound 35 \ ?

ash-Shak?r/

ash-Shak?r

Ash-Shakur

[Ash-Shakour, Ash-Shakoor]

The Grateful 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
About this sound 36 ? *\ ?

[* = classical written form]

\*

\

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-al? */

al-aliyy

[* = classical written form]

al-?Ali The Sublime 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
About this sound 37 ? al-Kabiyr/

al-Kab?r

al-Kabir

[al-Kabeer]

The Great 13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23 D
About this sound 38 ? al-?afiy?/

al-?af

al-Hafiz

[al-Hafeez]

The Preserver 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
About this sound 39 ? al-Muqiyt/

al-Muq?t

al-Muqit

[al-Muqeet]

The Nourisher 4:85 I
About this sound 40 ? al-?asiyb/

al-?as?b

al-Hasib

[al-Haseeb]

The Bringer of Judgment 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
About this sound 41 ? al-Jaliyl/

al-Jal?l

al-Jalil

[al-Jaleel]

The Majestic, The Exalted 55:27, 7:143 A, V
About this sound 42 ? al-Kariym/

al-Kar?m

al-Karim

[al-Kareem]

The Bountiful, The Generous 27:40, 82:6 D
About this sound 43 \ ?

ar-Raqiyb/

ar-Raq?b

Ar-Raqib

[Ar-Raqeeb]

The Watchful 4:1, 5:117 D
About this sound 44 ? al-Mujiyb/

al-Muj?b

al-Mujib

[al-Mujiyb]

The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61 A
About this sound 45 \* ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

'al-W?si'/

'al-W?si'

al-Wasi'/ al-Wasie

[al-Waasi'/ al-Waasie]

The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
About this sound 46 ? al-?akiym/

al-?ak?m

al-Hakim

[al-Hakeem]

The Wise 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
About this sound 47 ? al-Wad?d/

al-Wad?d

al-Wadud

[al-Wadoud/ al-Wadood]

The Affectionate 11:90, 85:14 D
About this sound 48 ? al-Majiyd/

al-Maj?d

al-Majid

[al-Majeed]

The All-Glorious, The Majestic 11:73 A
About this sound 49 ? al-Bith/

al-Bith

al-Ba?ith / al-Ba?eith

[al-Baa?ith/ al-Baa?eith]

The Resurrector 22:7 V
About this sound 50 \ ?

ash-Shahiyd/

ash-Shah?d

Ash-Shahid

[Ash-Shaheed]

The Witness 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
About this sound 51 \

?

?al-?aqq al-Haqq The Truth, The Reality 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
About this sound 52 ? al-Wakiyl/

al-Wak?l

al-Wakil

[al-Wakeel]

The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
About this sound 53 ? \

al-Qawiyy al-Qawi

[al-Qawee]

The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
About this sound 54 ? al-Matiyn/

al-Mat?n

al-Matin

[al-Mateen]

The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58 D
About this sound 55 ? \

al-Waliyy al-Wali

[al-Walee]

The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
About this sound 56 ? al-?amiyd/

al-?am?d

al-Hamid

[al-Hameed]

The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
About this sound 57 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-Muiy/

al-Mu

al-Muhsi

[al-Muhsee]

The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29 V
About this sound 58 'al-Mubdi'

['al-Mubdiy]

al-Mubdi?

[al-Mubdie]

The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 59 ? al-Mu?iyd/

al-Mud

al-Mu?id

[al-Mu?eid/ al-Mu?eyd]

The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 60 \*

\ ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\*

\

[* = classical written form]

al-Mu?·yi */

al-Mu?·yiy

[* = classical written form]

al-Muhyi

[al-Muhyee]

The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
About this sound 61 ? al-Mumiyt/

al-Mum?t

al-Mumit

[al-Mumeet]

The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
About this sound 62 \

?

al-?ayy al-Hayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
About this sound 63 \ ?

al-Qayy?m/

al-Qayy?m

al-Qayyum

[al-Qayyoum/

al-Qayyoom]

The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
About this sound 64 \* ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\

al-W?jid/

al-W?jid

al-Wajid

[al-Waajid]

The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44 V
About this sound 65 ? al-M?jid/

al-M?jid

al-Majid

[al-Maajid]

The Illustrious, The Magnificent 85:15, 11:73; al-Kaf?am? (1992:48) A
About this sound 66 \* ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\

al-Wid/

al-Wid

al-Wahid

[al-Waahid]

The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
About this sound 67 \

al-?A?ad al-Ahad The One, The Indivisible 112:1 A
About this sound 68 ? \

a?-?amad As-Samad

[As-Ssamad/ As-Swamad]

The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2 D
About this sound 69 \*

?

[* = classical written form]

\ ?

al-Q?dir/

al-Q?dir

al-Qadir

[al-Qaadir]

The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
About this sound 70 ? ? al-Muqtadir al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
About this sound 71 \ ?

al-Muqaddim al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61 V
About this sound 72 \ ?

al-Mu?akh·khir al-Mu?akhkhir

[al-Mo?akhkhir]

The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4 V
About this sound 73 \

al-?Awwal al-Awwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3 D
About this sound 74 *\

[* = classical written form]

\*\

[* = classical written form]

al-?Akhir */

al-khir [variant]

[* = classical written form]

al-Akhir */

al-Aakhir

[* = classical written form]

The Last, The Endless 57:3 D
About this sound 75 *\

[* = classical written form]

\* ?

[* = classical written form]

a?-hir/

a?-hir

Az-Zahir/ Az-ZZahir/ Az-Zwahir

[Az-Zaahir/

Az-Zzaahir/

Az-Zwaahir]

The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3 D
About this sound 76 ? al-Bin/

al-Bin

al-Batin/ al-Battin/ al-Batwin

[al-Baatin/ al-Baattin/ al-Baatwin]

The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3 D
About this sound 77 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-W?liy/

al-W?l?

al-Wali

[al-Waali]

The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11 I
About this sound 78 \* ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-Mutaliy/

al-Mutal?

al-Muta?ali

[al-Muta'aali]

The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9 D
About this sound 79 \

?

al-Barr al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28 D
About this sound 80 \

at-Taww?b/

at-Taww?b

At-Tawwab

[At-Tawwaab]

The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
About this sound 81 ? ? al-Muntaqim al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
About this sound 82 ? \

al-?Afuww/

al-?Af?w

al-?Afu

[al-?Afou]

The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
About this sound 83 \*

?

[* = classical written form]

\* ?

\

\*

[* = classical written form]

ar-Ra?w?f/

ar-Raf

Ar-Ra'uf

[Ar-Ra?ouf/ Ar-Raw?ouf]

The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
About this sound 84 \*

?

[* = classical written form]

\*

\ ?

\*

?

[* = classical written form]

M?liku 'l-Mulk/

M?liku 'l-Mulk

Malik ul-Mulk

[Maalik ul-Mulk]

The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26 D
About this sound 85 \*

?

[* = classical written form]

\* ? ?

?

[* = classical written form]

?u'l-Jal?li wa'l-'Ikr?m, Dhu'l-Jal?li wa'l-'Ikr?m/

?u'l-Jal?li wa'l-'Ikr?m, Dhu'l-Jal?li wa'l-'Ikr?m/

Zul-Jalali wal-Ikram/ Dzhul-Jalali wal-Ikram
[Zul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam/ Dzhul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam]
The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour 55:27, 55:78 D
About this sound 86 al-Muqsi? al-Muqsit

[al-Muqsitt]

The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kaf?am? (1992:58f) O
About this sound 87 ? al-J?mi?/

al-J?mi

al-Jami?/ al-Jamie

[al-Jaami?/ al-Jaamie]

The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9 I
About this sound 88 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

\

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-Gh?niyy/

al-Gh?n?

al-Ghani

[al-Ghaani]

The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
About this sound 89 \*

[* = classical written form]

\* ?

\ ?

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-Mugh·niyy/

al-Mugh·n?

al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28 V
About this sound 90 ? al-M?ni?/

al-M?n

al-Mani?/ al-Manie

[al-Maani?/ al-Maanie]

The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kaf?am? (1992:61)
About this sound 91 \

a?-rr/

a?-rr

Adh-Dharr

[Adh-Dhaarr]

The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kaf?am? (1992:58)
About this sound 92 \ ?

an-N?fi?/

an-N?f

An-Nafi'/ An-Nafie

[An-Naafi?/ al-Naafie]

The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
About this sound 93 \

an-N?r/

an-N?r

An-Nur

[An-Nour]

The Light 24:35 I
About this sound 94 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-H?diy/

al-H?d?

al-Hadi

[al-Haadi]

The Guide, The Way 22:54 I
About this sound 95 ? al-Badiy?/

al-Bad

al-Badi?[al-Badiy?/ al-Badiye] The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101 I
About this sound 96 \*

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-B?qiy/

al-B?q?

al-Baqi

[al-Baaqi]

The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kaf?am? (1992:64) V
About this sound 97 \* ?

?

[* = classical written form]

\*

[* = classical written form]

al-W?rith/

al-W?rith

al-Warith

[al-Waarith]

The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10 P
About this sound 98 \ ?

ar-Rashiyd/

ar-Rash?d

Ar-Rashid

[Ar-Rasheed]

The Guide to the Right Path 2:256, 72:10
About this sound 99 \ ?

a?-?ab?r/

a?-?ab?r

As-Sabur/ As-Ssabur/ As-Swabur

[As-Sabour/ As-Ssabour/ As-Swabour]

The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I
[* = classical calligraphic short written form]
a[by whom?]. b D = Direct;[clarification needed] V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun;

P = from Plural noun; O = Other

Islamic mysticism

There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-?Aam ( ?).[8] This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[9]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[10] More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir ( - literally "the Great Cuirass") invocations.

Theophoric given names

The Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names commonly used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies.

While the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names can however be formed by either removing the definite article al (), or prefixing the term ?abdu ( - "servant of") to the name. For example, a person may not be named Al-Kar?m (? - "the Generous") or Al-M?lik (? - "the King"), but may be named simply Kar?m (? - "Generous") or M?lik (? - "King"), as well as ?Abd ul-Kar?m ( ? - "servant of the Generous") or ?Abd ul-M?lik ( ? - "servant of the King").[11]

This distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes (of love, kindness, mercy, compassion, justice, power, etc.) that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity. The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God.

Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of M?lik ul-Mulk ( - "Lord of Power" or "Owner of all Sovereignty"):

"Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, and You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." [Qur'an 3:26]

The two parts of the name starting with ?abdu may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one in the transliterated form; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ?abdu is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah ( - "Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form.)

Examples of Muslim theophoric names include:

Use in Bahá'í

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá'" (Arabic: ?‎ "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[12][13] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 morphological derivation of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[12]

According to Bahá'í scholar 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bah al-d?n al-mil? adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bah" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duu l-Bah, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the ?A?mal ?am Daw?d.[12] In the first verse of the duu l-Bah, the name "Bah" appears four times.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Hadith - Book of Invocations - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ "Hadith - Book of Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ See the Surah "al-A'raf" (7:180 ), "Al-Isra" (17:110 ), "Ta-Ha" (20:8 ) and "al-Hashr" (59:24 ).
  4. ^ http://quran.com/59/22-24 (59:22–24)
  5. ^ a b Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1. 
  6. ^ Suhaib Hassan, Introduction to the Science of Hadith Classification (ahya[permanent dead link]), cited after Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net) Archived 2012-05-30 at WebCite[unreliable source?]
  7. ^ "al-Quran () :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. 
  8. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7. 
  9. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-85398-446-7.  The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 26. p. 7."
  10. ^ Taymiyyah, ibn, Taq? ad-D?n Ahmad. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-?ayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0. 
  11. ^ [1] Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review. 3 (1). Archived from the original on 2010-09-19. 
  13. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167-8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  14. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4-5. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20. 

External links


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Ninety-nine_names_of_Allah
 



 

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