Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming in general features practices that strive to cycle resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers in farming. In general, organic foods are also usually not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents or synthetic food additives.
Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by regional organizations, national governments and international organizations. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) or European Commission (EC).
There is not sufficient evidence in medical literature to support claims that organic food is safer or healthier than conventionally grown food. While there may be some differences in the nutrient and antinutrient contents of organically- and conventionally-produced food, the variable nature of food production and handling makes it difficult to generalize results. Claims that organic food tastes better are generally not supported by evidence.
Meaning and origin of the term
For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; only during the 20th century was a large supply of new products, generally deemed not organic, introduced into food production. The organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture.
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the Land (1940), out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming--in contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on "imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole." Early soil scientists also described the differences in soil composition when animal manures were used as "organic", because they contain carbon compounds where superphosphates and haber process nitrogen do not. Their respective use affects humus content of soil. This is different from the scientific use of the term "organic" in chemistry, which refers to a class of molecules that contain carbon, especially those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything likely to be considered edible, and include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term "organic" and, especially, the term "inorganic" (sometimes wrongly used as a contrast by the popular press) as they apply to organic chemistry is an equivocation fallacy when applied to farming, the production of food, and to foodstuffs themselves. Properly used in this agricultural science context, "organic" refers to the methods grown and processed, not necessarily the chemical composition of the food.
Ideas that organic food could be healthier and better for the environment originated in the early days of the organic movement as a result of publications like the 1943 book The Living Soil and Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease (1945).
In the industrial era, organic gardening reached a modest level of popularity in the United States in the 1950s. In the 1960s, environmentalists and the counterculture championed organic food, but it was only in the 1970s that a national marketplace for organic foods developed.
Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food. They mostly had to buy directly from growers. Later, "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative instituted by the USDA in September 2009. Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, and farming activities. Small farms grew vegetables (and raised livestock) using organic farming practices, with or without certification, and the individual consumer monitored. Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food to a wider audience. As demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales through mass outlets such as supermarkets rapidly replaced the direct farmer connection. Today, many large corporate farms have an organic division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not easily observable, and product labeling, like "certified organic," is relied upon. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance.
In the 1970s, interest in organic food grew with the publication of Silent Spring and the rise of the environmental movement, and was also spurred by food-related health scares like the concerns about Alar that arose in the mid-1980s.
Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Japan, and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based on government-defined standards in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, foods marketed as organic are produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organic industry trade organizations.
In the United States, organic production is managed in accordance with the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) and regulations in Title 7, Part 205 of the Code of Federal Regulations to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. If livestock are involved, the livestock must be reared with regular access to pasture and without the routine use of antibiotics or growth hormones.
Processed organic food usually contains only organic ingredients. If non-organic ingredients are present, at least a certain percentage of the food's total plant and animal ingredients must be organic (95% in the United States, Canada, and Australia). Foods claiming to be organic must be free of artificial food additives, and are often processed with fewer artificial methods, materials and conditions, such as chemical ripening, food irradiation, and genetically modified ingredients. Pesticides are allowed as long as they are not synthetic. However, under US federal organic standards, if pests and weeds are not controllable through management practices, nor via organic pesticides and herbicides, "a substance included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases." Several groups have called for organic standards to prohibit nanotechnology on the basis of the precautionary principle in light of unknown risks of nanotechnology.:5-6 The use of nanotechnology-based products in the production of organic food is prohibited in some jurisdictions (Canada, the UK, and Australia) and is unregulated in others.:2, section 1.4.1(l)
To be certified organic, products must be grown and manufactured in a manner that adheres to standards set by the country they are sold in:
- Australia: NASAA Organic Standard
- European Union: EU-Eco-regulation
- Sweden: KRAV
- United Kingdom: DEFRA
- Poland: Association of Polish Ecology
- Norway: Debio Organic certification
- India: National Program for Organic Production (NPOP)
- Indonesia: BIOCert, run by Agricultural Ministry of Indonesia.
- Japan: JAS Standards
- Mexico: Consejo Nacional de Producción Orgánica, department of Sagarpa
- New Zealand: there are three bodies; BioGro, AsureQuality, and OFNZ
- United States: National Organic Program (NOP) Standards
In the United States, there are four different levels or categories for organic labeling. 1)'100%' Organic: This means that all ingredients are produced organically. It also may have the USDA seal. 2)'Organic': At least 95% or more of the ingredients are organic. 3)'Made With Organic Ingredients': Contains at least 70% organic ingredients. 4)'Less Than 70% Organic Ingredients': Three of the organic ingredients must be listed under the ingredient section of the label. In the U.S., the food label "natural" or "all natural" does not mean that the food was produced and processed organically.
There is widespread public belief that organic food is safer, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food, which has largely contributed to the development of an organic food culture. Consumers purchase organic foods for different reasons, including concerns about the effects of conventional farming practices on the environment, human health, and animal welfare.
The most important reason for purchasing organic foods seems to be beliefs about the products' health-giving properties and higher nutritional value. These beliefs are promoted by the organic food industry, and have fueled increased demand for organic food despite higher prices and difficulty in confirming these claimed benefits scientifically. Organic labels also stimulate the consumer to view the product as having more positive nutritional value.
Psychological effects such as the "halo" effect, which are related to the choice and consumption of organic food, are also important motivating factors in the purchase of organic food. The perception that organic food is low-calorie food or health food appears to be common.
In China the increasing demand for organic products of all kinds, and in particular milk, baby food and infant formula, has been "spurred by a series of food scares, the worst being the death of six children who had consumed baby formula laced with melamine" in 2009 and the 2008 Chinese milk scandal, making the Chinese market for organic milk the largest in the world as of 2014. A Pew Research Centre survey in 2012 indicated that 41% of Chinese consumers thought of food safety as a very big problem, up by three times from 12% in 2008.
There is no good evidence that organic food tastes better than its non-organic counterparts. There is evidence that some organic fruit is drier than conventionally grown fruit; a slightly drier fruit may also have a more intense flavor due to the higher concentration of flavoring substances.
Some foods, such as bananas, are picked when unripe, are cooled to prevent ripening while they are shipped to market, and then are induced to ripen quickly by exposing them to propylene or ethylene, chemicals produced by plants to induce their own ripening; as flavor and texture changes during ripening, this process may affect those qualities of the treated fruit.
Organic vegetables at a farmers' market
With respect to chemical differences in the composition of organically grown food compared with conventionally grown food, studies have examined differences in nutrients, antinutrients, and pesticide residues. These studies generally suffer from confounding variables, and are difficult to generalize due to differences in the tests that were done, the methods of testing, and because the vagaries of agriculture affect the chemical composition of food; these variables include variations in weather (season to season as well as place to place); crop treatments (fertilizer, pesticide, etc.); soil composition; the cultivar used, and in the case of meat and dairy products, the parallel variables in animal production. Treatment of the foodstuffs after initial gathering (whether milk is pasteurized or raw), the length of time between harvest and analysis, as well as conditions of transport and storage, also affect the chemical composition of a given item of food. Additionally, there is evidence that organic produce is drier than conventionally grown produce; a higher content in any chemical category may be explained by higher concentration rather than in absolute amounts.
Many people believe that organic foods have higher content of nutrients and thus are healthier than conventionally produced foods. However, scientists have not been equally convinced that this is the case as the research conducted in the field has not shown consistent results.
A 2009 systematic review found that organically produced foodstuffs are not richer in vitamins and minerals than conventionally produced foodstuffs. The results of the systematic review only showed a lower nitrogen and higher phosphorus content in organic produced compared to conventionally grown foodstuffs. Content of vitamin C, calcium, potassium, total soluble solids, copper, iron, nitrates, manganese, and sodium did not differ between the two categories.
A 2012 survey of the scientific literature did not find significant differences in the vitamin content of organic and conventional plant or animal products, and found that results varied from study to study. Produce studies reported on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (31 studies), beta-carotene (a precursor for vitamin A) (12 studies), and alpha-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) (5 studies) content; milk studies reported on beta-carotene (4 studies) and alpha-tocopherol levels (4 studies). Few studies examined vitamin content in meats, but these found no difference in beta-carotene in beef, alpha-tocopherol in pork or beef, or vitamin A (retinol) in beef. The authors analyzed 11 other nutrients reported in studies of produce. A 2011 literature review found that organic foods had a higher micronutrient content overall than conventionally produced foods.
Similarly, organic chicken contained higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than conventional chicken. The authors found no difference in the protein or fat content of organic and conventional raw milk.
A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that organic meat had comparable or slightly lower levels of saturated fat and monounsaturated fat as conventional meat, but higher levels of both overall and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Another meta-analysis published the same year found no significant differences in levels of saturated and monounsaturated fat between organic and conventional milk, but significantly higher levels of overall and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in organic milk than in conventional milk.
The amount of nitrogen content in certain vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and tubers, has been found to be lower when grown organically as compared to conventionally. When evaluating environmental toxins such as heavy metals, the USDA has noted that organically raised chicken may have lower arsenic levels. Early literature reviews found no significant evidence that levels of arsenic, cadmium or other heavy metals differed significantly between organic and conventional food products. However, a 2014 review found lower concentrations of cadmium, particularly in organically grown grains.
A 2014 meta-analysis of 343 studies on phytochemical composition found that organically grown crops had lower cadmium and pesticide residues, and 17% higher concentrations of polyphenols than conventionally grown crops. Concentrations of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols, and anthocyanins were elevated, with flavanones being 69% higher. Studies on phytochemical composition of organic crops have numerous deficiencies, including absence of standardized measurements and poor reporting on measures of variability, duplicate or selective reporting of data, publication bias, lack of rigor in studies comparing pesticide residue levels in organic and conventional crops, the geographical origin of samples, and inconsistency of farming and post-harvest methods.
The amount of pesticides that remain in or on food is called pesticide residue. In the United States, before a pesticide can be used on a food crop, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must determine whether that pesticide can be used without posing a risk to human health.
A 2012 meta-analysis determined that detectable pesticide residues were found in 7% of organic produce samples and 38% of conventional produce samples. This result was statistically heterogeneous, potentially because of the variable level of detection used among these studies. Only three studies reported the prevalence of contamination exceeding maximum allowed limits; all were from the European Union. A 2014 meta-analysis found that conventionally grown produce was four times more likely to have pesticide residue than organically grown crops.
The American Cancer Society has stated that no evidence exists that the small amount of pesticide residue found on conventional foods will increase the risk of cancer, although it recommends thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables. They have also stated that there is no research to show that organic food reduces cancer risk compared to foods grown with conventional farming methods.
The Environmental Protection Agency maintains strict guidelines on the regulation of pesticides by setting a tolerance on the amount of pesticide residue allowed to be in or on any particular food.
Although some residue may remain at the time of harvest, residue tend to decline as the pesticide breaks down over time. In addition, as the commodities are washed and processed prior to sale, the residues often diminish further.
A 2012 meta-analysis determined that prevalence of E. coli contamination was not statistically significant (7% in organic produce and 6% in conventional produce). While bacterial contamination is common among both organic and conventional animal products, differences in the prevalence of bacterial contamination between organic and conventional animal products were also statistically insignificant.
Organic meat production requirements
Organic meat certification in the United States requires farm animals to be raised according to USDA organic regulations throughout their lives. These regulations require that livestock are fed certified organic food that contains no animal byproducts. Further, organic farm animals can receive no growth hormones or antibiotics, and they must be raised using techniques that protect native species and other natural resources. Irradiation and genetic engineering are not allowed with organic animal production. One of the major differences in organic animal husbandry protocol is the "pasture rule": minimum requirements for time on pasture do vary somewhat by species and between the certifying agencies, but the common theme is to require as much time on pasture as possible and reasonable.
Health and safety
There is little scientific evidence of benefit or harm to human health from a diet high in organic food, and conducting any sort of rigorous experiment on the subject is very difficult. A 2012 meta-analysis noted that "there have been no long-term studies of health outcomes of populations consuming predominantly organic versus conventionally produced food controlling for socioeconomic factors; such studies would be expensive to conduct." A 2009 meta-analysis noted that "most of the included articles did not study direct human health outcomes. In ten of the included studies (83%), a primary outcome was the change in antioxidant activity. Antioxidant status and activity are useful biomarkers but do not directly equate to a health outcome. Of the remaining two articles, one recorded proxy-reported measures of atopic manifestations as its primary health outcome, whereas the other article examined the fatty acid composition of breast milk and implied possible health benefits for infants from the consumption of different amounts of conjugated linoleic acids from breast milk." In addition, as discussed above, difficulties in accurately and meaningfully measuring chemical differences between organic and conventional food make it difficult to extrapolate health recommendations based solely on chemical analysis.
As of 2012, the scientific consensus is that while "consumers may choose to buy organic fruit, vegetables and meat because they believe them to be more nutritious than other food.... the balance of current scientific evidence does not support this view." The evidence of beneficial health effects of organic food consumption is scarce, which has led researchers to call for more long-term studies. In addition, studies that suggest that organic foods may be healthier than conventional foods face significant methodological challenges, such as the correlation between organic food consumption and factors known to promote a healthy lifestyle. When the American Academy of Pediatrics reviewed the literature on organic foods in 2012, they found that "current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet."
The main difference between organic and conventional food products are the chemicals involved during production and processing. The residues of those chemicals in food products have dubious effects on the human health. All food products on the market including those that contain residues of pesticides, antibiotics, growth hormones and other types of chemicals that are used during production and processing are said to be safe.
Claims of improved safety of organic food has largely focused on pesticide residues. These concerns are driven by the facts that "(1) acute, massive exposure to pesticides can cause significant adverse health effects;
(2) food products have occasionally been contaminated with pesticides, which can result in acute toxicity; and (3) most, if not all, commercially purchased food contains trace amounts of agricultural pesticides." However, as is frequently noted in the scientific literature: "What does not follow from this, however, is that chronic exposure to the trace amounts of pesticides found in food results in demonstrable toxicity. This possibility is practically impossible to study and quantify;" therefore firm conclusions about the relative safety of organic foods have been hampered by the difficulty in proper study design and relatively small number of studies directly comparing organic food to conventional food.
Additionally, the Carcinogenic Potency Project, which is a part of the US EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network, has been systemically testing the carcinogenicity of chemicals, both natural and synthetic, and building a publicly available database of the results for the past ~30 years. Their work attempts to fill in the gaps in our scientific knowledge of the carcinogenicity of all chemicals, both natural and synthetic, as the scientists conducting the Project described in the journal, Science, in 1992:
Toxicological examination of synthetic chemicals, without similar examination of chemicals that occur naturally, has resulted in an imbalance in both the data on and the perception of chemical carcinogens. Three points that we have discussed indicate that comparisons should be made with natural as well as synthetic chemicals.
1) The vast proportion of chemicals that humans are exposed to occur naturally. Nevertheless, the public tends to view chemicals as only synthetic and to think of synthetic chemicals as toxic despite the fact that every natural chemical is also toxic at some dose. The daily average exposure of Americans to burnt material in the diet is ~2000 mg, and exposure to natural pesticides (the chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves) is ~1500 mg. In comparison, the total daily exposure to all synthetic pesticide residues combined is ~0.09 mg. Thus, we estimate that 99.99% of the pesticides humans ingest are natural. Despite this enormously greater exposure to natural chemicals, 79% (378 out of 479) of the chemicals tested for carcinogenicity in both rats and mice are synthetic (that is, do not occur naturally).
2) It has often been wrongly assumed that humans have evolved defenses against the natural chemicals in our diet but not against the synthetic chemicals. However, defenses that animals have evolved are mostly general rather than specific for particular chemicals; moreover, defenses are generally inducible and therefore protect well from low doses of both synthetic and natural chemicals.
3) Because the toxicology of natural and synthetic chemicals is similar, one expects (and finds) a similar positivity rate for carcinogenicity among synthetic and natural chemicals. The positivity rate among chemicals tested in rats and mice is ~50%. Therefore, because humans are exposed to so many more natural than synthetic chemicals (by weight and by number), humans are exposed to an enormous background of rodent carcinogens, as defined by high-dose tests on rodents. We have shown that even though only a tiny proportion of natural pesticides in plant foods have been tested, the 29 that are rodent carcinogens among the 57 tested, occur in more than 50 common plant foods. It is probable that almost every fruit and vegetable in the supermarket contains natural pesticides that are rodent carcinogens.
While studies have shown via chemical analysis, as discussed above, that organically grown fruits and vegetables have significantly lower pesticide residue levels, the significance of this finding on actual health risk reduction is debatable as both conventional foods and organic foods generally have pesticide levels well below government established guidelines for what is considered safe. This view has been echoed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the UK Food Standards Agency.
A study published by the National Research Council in 1993 determined that for infants and children, the major source of exposure to pesticides is through diet. A study published in 2006 by Lu et al. measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 school children before and after replacing their diet with organic food. In this study it was found that levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped from negligible levels to undetectable levels when the children switched to an organic diet, the authors presented this reduction as a significant reduction in risk. The conclusions presented in Lu et al. were criticized in the literature as a case of bad scientific communication.
More specifically, claims related to pesticide residue of increased risk of infertility or lower sperm counts have not been supported by the evidence in the medical literature. Likewise the American Cancer Society (ACS) has stated their official position that "whether organic foods carry a lower risk of cancer because they are less likely to be contaminated by compounds that might cause cancer is largely unknown." Reviews have noted that the risks from microbiological sources or natural toxins are likely to be much more significant than short term or chronic risks from pesticide residues.
In looking at possible increased risk to safety from organic food consumption, reviews have found that although there may be increased risk from microbiological contamination due to increased manure use as fertilizer from organisms like E. coli O157:H7 during organic produce production, there is little evidence of actual incidence of outbreaks which can be positively blamed on organic food production. The 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak was blamed on organic farming of bean sprouts.
Demand for organic foods is primarily driven by concerns for personal health and for the environment. Global sales for organic foods climbed by more than 170 percent since 2002 reaching more than $63 billion in 2011 while certified organic farmland remained relatively small at less than 2 percent of total farmland under production, increasing in OECD and EU countries (which account for the majority of organic production) by 35 percent for the same time period. Organic products typically cost 10 to 40% more than similar conventionally produced products, to several times the price. Processed organic foods vary in price when compared to their conventional counterparts.
While organic food accounts for 1-2% of total food production worldwide, the organic food sales market is growing rapidly with between 5 and 10 percent of the food market share in the United States according to the Organic Trade Association, significantly outpacing sales growth volume in dollars of conventional food products. World organic food sales jumped from US $23 billion in 2002 to $63 billion in 2011.
Production and consumption of organic products is rising rapidly in Asia, and both China and India are becoming global producers of organic crops and a number of countries, particularly China and Japan, also becoming large consumers of organic food and drink. The disparity between production and demand, is leading to a two-tier organic food industry, typified by significant and growing imports of primary organic products such as dairy and beef from Australia, Europe, New Zealand and the United States.
- China's domestic organic market is the fourth largest in the world. The Chinese Organic Food Development Center estimated domestic sales of organic food products to be around US$500 million per annum as of 2013. This is predicted to increase by 30 percent to 50 percent in 2014. As of 2015, organic foods made up about 1% of the total Chinese food market.
- China is the world's biggest infant formula market with $12.4 billion in sales annually; of this, organic infant formula and baby food accounted for approximately 5.5 per cent of sales in 2011. Australian organic infant formula and baby food producer Bellamy's Organic have reported that their sales in this market grew 70 per cent annually over the period 2008-2013, while Organic Dairy Farmers of Australia, reported that exports of long-life organic milk to China had grown by 20 to 30 per cent per year over the same period.
- In 2010, the Japanese organic market was estimated to be around $1.3 billion.
- United States
As of October 2014, Trader Joe's
is a market leader of organic grocery stores in the United States.
- In 2012 the total size of the organic food market in the United States was about $30 billion (out of the total market for organic and natural consumer products being about $81 billion)
- Organic food sales have grown by 17 to 20 percent a year in the early 2000s while sales of conventional food have grown only about 2 to 3 percent a year. The US organic market grew 9.5% in 2011, breaking the $30bn barrier for the first time, and continued to outpace sales of non-organic food.
- In 2003 organic products were available in nearly 20,000 natural food stores and 73% of conventional grocery stores.
- Organic products accounted for 3.7% of total food and beverage sales, and 11.4% of all fruit and vegetable sales in the year 2009.
- As of 2003, two thirds of organic milk and cream and half of organic cheese and yogurt are sold through conventional supermarkets.
- As of 2012, most independent organic food processors in the USA had been acquired by multinational firms.
- In order for a product to become USDA organic certified, the farmer cannot plant genetically modified seeds and livestock cannot eat genetically modified plants. Farmers must provide substantial evidence showing there was no genetic modification involved in the operation.
- Organic food sales surpassed $1 billion in 2006, accounting for 0.9% of food sales in Canada. By 2012, Canadian organic food sales reached $3 billion.
- Organic food sales by grocery stores were 28% higher in 2006 than in 2005.
- British Columbians account for 13% of the Canadian population, but purchased 26% of the organic food sold in Canada in 2006.
- In 2012, organic products accounted for 7.8% of the total retail consumption market in Denmark, the highest national market share in the world. Many public institutions have voluntarily committed themselves to buy some organic food and in Copenhagen 75 % of all food served in public institutions is organic. A governmental action plan initiated in 2012-2014 aims at 60 % organic food in all public institutions across the country before 2020.:4
- In 1987, the first Danish Action Plan was implemented which was meant to support and stimulate farmers to switch from conventional food production systems to organic ones . Since then Denmark has constantly worked on further developing the market by promoting organic food and keeping prices low in comparison to conventional food products by offering farmers subvention and extra support if they choose to produce organic food. Then and even today is the bench mark for organic food policy and certification of organic food in the whole world. The new European Organic food label and organic food policy was developed based on the 1987 Danish Model.
- In 2011, 7.4% of all food products sold in Austrian supermarkets (including discount stores) were organic. In 2007, 8,000 different organic products were available.
- Since 2000, the use of some organic food is compulsory in Italian schools and hospitals. A 2002 law of the Emilia Romagna region implemented in 2005, explicitly requires that the food in nursery and primary schools (from 3 months to 10 years) must be 100% organic, and the food in meals at schools, universities and hospitals must be at least 35% organic.
- In 2005 7 percent of Polish consumers buy food that was produced according to the EU-Eco-regulation. The value of the organic market is estimated at 50 million euros (2006).
- 70%-80% of the local organic production, amounting to 100 million euros in 2010, is exported. The organic products market grew to 50 million euros in 2010.
- As of 2012Bio Suisse, the Swiss organic producers' association, provides guidelines for organic farmers., 11 per cent of Swiss farms are organic.
- In 2009 Ukraine was in 21st place in the world by area under cultivation of organic food. Much of its production of organic food is exported and not enough organic food is available on the national market to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand. The size of the internal market demand for organic products in Ukraine was estimated at over 5 billion euros in 2011, with rapid growth projected for this segment in the future. Multiple surveys show that the majority of the population of Ukraine is willing to pay more to buy organic food. On the other hand, many Ukrainians have traditionally maintained their own garden plots, and this may result in underestimation of how much organically produced food is actually consumed in Ukraine.
- The Law on Organic Production was passed by Ukraine's parliament in April 2011, which in addition to traditional demands for certified organic food also banned the use of GMOs or any products containing GMOs. However, the law was not signed by the President of Ukraine and in September 2011 it was repealed by the Verkhovna Rada itself. Attempts to pass a new law on organic food production took place throughout 2012.
- United Kingdom
- Organic food sales increased from just over £100 million in 1993/94 to £1.21 billion in 2004 (an 11% increase on 2003). In 2010, the UK sales of organic products fell 5.9% to £1.73 billion. 86% of households buy organic products, the most popular categories being dairies (30.5% of sales) and fresh fruits and vegetables (23.2% of sales). 4.2% of UK farmland is organically managed.
- After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, agricultural inputs that had previously been purchased from Eastern bloc countries were no longer available in Cuba, and many Cuban farms converted to organic methods out of necessity. Consequently, organic agriculture is a mainstream practice in Cuba, while it remains an alternative practice in most other countries. Although some products called organic in Cuba would not satisfy certification requirements in other countries (crops may be genetically modified, for example), Cuba exports organic citrus and citrus juices to EU markets that meet EU organic standards. Cuba's forced conversion to organic methods may position the country to be a global supplier of organic products.
- ^ "Pesticides in Organic Farming". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved .
Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. Organic foods are produced using only certain pesticides with specific ingredients. Organic pesticides tend to have substances like soaps, lime sulfur and hydrogen peroxide as ingredients. Not all natural substances are allowed in organic agriculture; some chemicals like arsenic, strychnine, and tobacco dust (nicotine sulfate) are prohibited.
- ^ "Organic certification". European Commission: Agriculture and Rural Development. 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Bara?ski, M; Srednicka-Tober, D; Volakakis, N; Seal, C; Sanderson, R; Stewart, GB; Benbrook, C; Biavati, B; Markellou, E; Giotis, C; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J; Rembia?kowska, E; Skwar?o-So?ta, K; Tahvonen, R; Janovská, D; Niggli, U; Nicot, P; Leifert, C (2014). "Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses". The British journal of nutrition. 112 (5): 1-18. doi:10.1017/S0007114514001366. PMC 4141693 . PMID 24968103.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Blair, Robert. (2012). Organic Production and Food Quality: A Down to Earth Analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. Pages 72, 223. ISBN 978-0-8138-1217-5
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith-Spangler, C; Brandeau, ML; Hunter, GE; Bavinger, JC; Pearson, M; Eschbach, PJ; Sundaram, V; Liu, H; Schirmer, P; Stave, C; Olkin, I; Bravata, DM (September 4, 2012). "Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review". Annals of Internal Medicine. 157 (5): 348-366. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007. PMID 22944875.
- ^ a b "Organic food". UK Food Standards Agency. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
- ^ a b c Bara?ski, M; Rempelos, L; Iversen, PO; Leifert, C (2017). "Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!". Food & Nutrition Research. 61 (1): 1287333. doi:10.1080/16546628.2017.1287333. PMC 5345585 . PMID 28326003.
- ^ a b c d Bourn D, Prescott J (January 2002). "A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 42 (1): 1-34. doi:10.1080/10408690290825439. PMID 11833635.
- ^ History of food, p. 3
- ^ Drinkwater, Laurie E. (2009). "Ecological Knowledge: Foundation for Sustainable Organic Agriculture". In Francis, Charles. Organic farming: the ecological system. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-89118-173-6.
- ^ John, Paull (2006). "The Farm as Organism: The Foundational Idea of Organic Agriculture" (PDF). Elementals: Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania. 80: 14-18.
- ^ Paull, John (2011) "The Betteshanger Summer School: Missing link between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming", Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(2):13-26.
- ^ Howard, Sir Albert. "Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease (The Soil and Health)". Journey to forever online library. Faber and Faber Limited. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Balfour, Lady Eve. "Towards a Sustainable Agriculture--The Living Soil". IFOAM. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Lady Balfour". IFOAM. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Howard, Sir Albert. "Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease (The Soil and Health)". Journey to forever online library. Faber and Faber Limited. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Davis, Joshua Clark (2017-08-08). From Head Shops to Whole Foods: The Rise and Fall of Activist Entrepreneurs. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231543088.
- ^ Philpott, Tom. "Quick thoughts on the USDA's 'Know Your Farmer' program". Grist * A Beacon in the Smog. Grist Magazine, Inc. Retrieved .
- ^ Paull, John. "The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring" (PDF). SAGE. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Pollan, Michael (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: The Penguin Press.
- ^ "Agricultural Marketing Service - National Organic Program". Ams.usda.gov. 2008-10-31. Retrieved .
- ^ "Access to Pasture Rule for Organic Livestock". Ams.usda.gov. Retrieved .
- ^ "Labeling: Preamble". Retrieved .
- ^ Allen, Gary J. & Albala, Ken, eds. (2007). The Business of Food: Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3.
- ^ Staff, National Pesticide Information Center Organic Pesticide Ingredients
- ^ Code of Federal Regulations 7 CRF § 205.206(2e)
- ^ Paull, J. & Lyons, K. (2008) Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics, Journal of Organic Systems, 3(1) 3-22
- ^ National Research Council. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials National Academies Press: Washington DC. 2012
- ^ Staff, The Organic & Non-GMO Report, May 2010. Canada bans nanotechnology in organics
- ^ Canada General Standards Board Organic Production Systems General Principles And Management Standards (CAN/CGSB-32.310-2006)
- ^ "Steps to Certification - Within Australia". NASAA. Retrieved .
- ^ "Organic Products Regulations". Canada Gazette, Government of Canada. December 21, 2006. Retrieved .
- ^ "KRAV". Krav.se. Retrieved .
- ^ "Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs". DEFRA. Retrieved .
- ^ "About Us". (Google translated into English). Stowarzyszenie "Polska Ekologia". Retrieved .
- ^ "Debio Organic certification". Debio.no. Retrieved .
- ^ National Program for Organic Production (NPOP)
- ^ "BIOCert". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ JAS Standards
- ^ "Ley de Productos Orgánicos". www.cnpo.org.mx. Consejo Nacional de Producción Orgánica. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ "USDA organic: what qualifies as organic?" Massage Therapy Journal Spring 2011: 36+. Academic OneFile.
- ^ Interpreting Food Labels: Natural versus Organic
- ^ Decoding Food Labels
- ^ White, Kim Kennedy; Duram, Leslie A (2013). America Goes Green: An Encyclopedia of Eco-friendly Culture in the United States. California: ABC-CLIO. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-59884-657-7.
- ^ "Deciphering Organic Foods: A Comprehensive Guide to Organic Food Production, Consumption, and Promotion". novapublishers.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Deciphering Organic Foods: A Comprehensive Guide to Organic Food Production, Consumption, and Promotion". novapublishers.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Joanna Schroeder for Academics Review. Organic Marketing Report
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Magkos F et al (2006) Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46(1) 23-56 PMID 16403682
- ^ a b Dangour AD et al (2009) Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(1) 203-210
- ^ a b Canavari, M., Asioli, D., Bendini, A., Cantore, N., Gallina Toschi, T., Spiller, A., Obermowe, T., Buchecker, K. and Lohmann, M. (2009). Summary report on sensory-related socio-economic and sensory science literature about organic food products
- ^ "Organic labels- A consumers satisfaction for health". watershedpedia.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Schuldt J.P.; Schwarz N. (2010). "The "organic" path to obesity? Organic claims influence calorie judgments and exercise recommendations". Judgment and Decision Making. 5: 144-150.
- ^ a b Chen, Jue (February 2014). "Food safety in China opens doors for Australia's agri sector". Australia China Connections. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Stewart, Emily. "Chinese babies looking for more Aussie organic milk". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Organic exports to China on the rise". Dynamic Export. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Wikes, Richard. "What Chinese are worried about". Pew Research Global Attitudes Project. Pew Research. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Washington State University Extension Office. Ethylene: The Ripening Hormone Ethylene: The Ripening Hormone
- ^ Fresh Air, National Public Radio. August 30, 2011 Transcript: Bananas: The Uncertain Future Of A Favorite Fruit
- ^ a b Genevra Pittman (4 September 2012). "Organic Food No More Nutritious than Non-organic: Study". Reuters Health.
- ^ a b Smith-Spangler, C; Brandeau, M. L.; Hunter, G. E.; Bavinger, J. C.; Pearson, M; Eschbach, P. J.; Sundaram, V; Liu, H; Schirmer, P; Stave, C; Olkin, I; Bravata, D. M. (2012). "Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: A systematic review". Annals of Internal Medicine. 157 (5): 348-66. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007. PMID 22944875.
- ^ Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O.; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir (July 2011). "Evaluation of the Micronutrient Composition of Plant Foods Produced by Organic and Conventional Agricultural Methods". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 51 (6): 571-582. doi:10.1080/10408391003721701. PMID 21929333.
- ^ Magkos, F; Arvaniti, F; Zampelas, A (2003). "Organic food: Nutritious food or food for thought? A review of the evidence". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 54 (5): 357-71. doi:10.1080/09637480120092071. PMID 12907407.
- ^ Pretty, J.N.; Ball, A.S.; Lang, T.; Morison, J.I.L. (2005). "Farm costs and food miles: An assessment of the full cost of the UK weekly food basket". Food Policy. 30 (1): 1-19. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2005.02.001.
- ^ ?rednicka-Tober, D; Bara?ski, M; Seal, C; Sanderson, R; Benbrook, C; Steinshamn, H; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J; Rembia?kowska, E; Skwar?o-So?ta, K; Eyre, M; Cozzi, G; Krogh Larsen, M; Jordon, T; Niggli, U; Sakowski, T; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Yolcu, H; Stergiadis, S; Chatzidimitriou, E; Butler, G; Stewart, G; Leifert, C (March 2016). "Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis". The British journal of nutrition. 115 (6): 994-1011. doi:10.1017/S0007114515005073. PMC 4838835 . PMID 26878675.
- ^ ?rednicka-Tober, D; Bara?ski, M; Seal, CJ; Sanderson, R; Benbrook, C; Steinshamn, H; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J; Rembia?kowska, E; Skwar?o-So?ta, K; Eyre, M; Cozzi, G; Larsen, MK; Jordon, T; Niggli, U; Sakowski, T; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Stergiadis, S; Yolcu, H; Chatzidimitriou, E; Butler, G; Stewart, G; Leifert, C (March 2016). "Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, ?-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses". British Journal of Nutrition. 115 (6): 1043-60. doi:10.1017/S0007114516000349. PMC 4838834 . PMID 26878105.
- ^ a b Gold, Mary. "Should I Purchase Organic Foods?". USDA. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Pesticides Health and Safety Information." National Pesticides Information Center. National Pesticides Information Center, 1 Apr.2014.Web.9 Nov.2015.
- ^ "Common questions about diet and cancer". Cancer.org. Retrieved .
- ^ 2013 November, "The ruling on organic foods: are they worth the extra price?" "Healthy Years" ISSN 1551-4617, 11/2013, Volume 10, Issue 11, p. 1
- ^ "Pesticides and Food: What the Pesticide Residue Limits are on Food". US Environmental Protection Agency. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b c "Organic Livestock Requirements". United States Department of Agriculture. July 2013. Retrieved .
- ^ "How does USDA define the term organic? | USDA". Usda.gov. 2004-06-24. Retrieved .
- ^ "Issues | Sewage Sludge | How Do I Know if My Food was Grown in Sewage Sludge?". Center for Food Safety. Retrieved .
- ^ "All differences in one table by EU regulation". ICROFS. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Access to pasture". USDA. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "The Food Standards Agency's Current Stance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2010.
- ^ Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María (2017-11-30). "Organic food and the impact on human health". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition: 1-11. doi:10.1080/10408398.2017.1394815. ISSN 1549-7852. PMID 29190113.
- ^ Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Ydersbond, Trond A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete (2017-03-20). "Organic Food in the Diet: Exposure and Health Implications". Annual Review of Public Health. 38: 295-313. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044437. ISSN 1545-2093. PMID 27992727.
- ^ Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Rembia?kowska, Ewa; Quaglio, Gianluca; Grandjean, Philippe (2017-10-27). "Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review". Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 16 (1): 111. doi:10.1186/s12940-017-0315-4. ISSN 1476-069X. PMC 5658984 . PMID 29073935.
- ^ Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet; Committee on Nutrition; Council on Environmental Health; American Academy of Pediatrics (November 2012). "Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages". Pediatrics. 130 (5): e1406-1415. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2579. ISSN 1098-4275. PMID 23090335.
- ^ "Organic Food No More Nutritious than Non-organic: Study. Organic Food No More Nutritious than Non-organic: Study, 4 Sept.2012.Web.9 Nov.2015
- ^ Rosen, Joseph D. (May 2010). "A Review of the Nutrition Claims Made by Proponents of Organic Food". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 9 (3): 270-277. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00108.x.
- ^ Carcinogenic Potency Project Official Website
- ^ National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) DSSTox Official Website
- ^ Publicly available Toxnet database from US NLM Archived 2013-02-18 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Gold L.S.; et al. (1992). "Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities" (PDF). Science. 258: 261-265. doi:10.1126/science.1411524.
- ^ National Research Council. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. National Academies Press; 1993. ISBN 0-309-04875-3. Retrieved 10-Apr-2006.
- ^ Lu, C; Toepel, K; Irish, R; Fenske, RA; Barr, DB; Bravo, R (February 2006). "Organic diets significantly lower children's dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides". Environ. Health Perspect. 114: 260-3. doi:10.1289/ehp.8418. PMC 1367841 . PMID 16451864.
- ^ Krieger RI; et al. (2006). "OP Pesticides, Organic Diets, and Children's Health". Environ Health Perspect. 114 (10): A572. doi:10.1289/ehp.114-a572a. PMC 1626419 . PMID 17035114.
- ^ Alex Avery (2006) Organic Diets and Children's Health Environ Health Perspect.114(4) A210-A211.
- ^ "Food additives, safety, and organic foods". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "Analysis: E.coli outbreak poses questions for organic farming". Reuters. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "Tracing seeds, in particular fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, in relation to the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 Outbreaks in Germany and France". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Conflicting demands of agricultural production and environmental conservation: consumers' perception of the quality and safety of food (2004). Filho, Walter Leal, ed. Ecological agriculture and rural development in Central and Eastern European countries. IOS Press. pp. 147-148. ISBN 978-1-58603-439-9.
- ^ Global organic sales reach $63 billion, U.S. is largest market, Ag Professional, June 25, 2013.
- ^ OECD Compendium of Agri-Environmental Indicators, OECD, June 25, 2013.
- ^ Winter, Carl K.; Davis, Sarah F. (November 2006). "Organic Foods". Journal of Food Science. 71 (9): R117-R124. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00196.x.
- ^ Organic Food Facts Archived June 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Organic Trade Association, 2010.
- ^ "The Global Market for Organic Food & Drink". Organic Monitor. 2002. Retrieved .
- ^ Global organic sales reach $63 billion, Ag Professional
- ^ "Food Scandals Driving Organic Food Sales". The Asian Market for organic Food & Drink. 2nd Edition (#5002-40). February 2011: 56. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b "Industry Statistics and Projected Growth". Organic Trade Association. June 2010. Retrieved .
- ^ Paull, John. "The Uptake of Organic Agriculture: A Decade of Worldwide Development" (PDF). Journal of Social and Development Sciences. Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford. 2 (3): 111-120. ISSN 2221-1152. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b c Chen, Jue. "Australia's Share of China's organic pie". Australia China Connections. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Chandran, Nyshka; Eunice Yoon (2 January 2015). "China goes organic amid food scandals". CNBC. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Harney, Alexandra. "Special Report - How Big Formula bought China". EuroMonitor. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Han, Esther (November 17, 2013). "Organic food: Companies pay $50,000 for Chinese certification". Good Food. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Motomura, Chika (20 June 2013). "Japanese Organic Market Report" (PDF). Osaka: Agricultural Trade Office of Japan. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Lutz, Ashley (7 October 2014). "How Trader Joe's Sells Twice As Much As Whole Foods". Business Insider. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Daniells, Stephen. "US organic food market to grow 14% from 2013-18". Retrieved 2014.
Carl Edstrom of IRI and Kathryn Peters of SPINS October 2013 Natural / Organic Consumer Segmentation, A Total Market Perspective Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b Caroline Scott-Thomas for FoodNavigator-USA.com, April 24, 2012. US organic market continues to outpace conventional food sales growth Recent Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organic Foods Market
- ^ Hansen, Nanette (2004). "Organic food sales see healthy growth". MSNBC. Retrieved .
- ^ Warner, Melanie. "What Is Organic? Powerful Players Want a Say". New York Times: Nov. 1, 2005.
- ^ Greene, Catherine; Dimitri, Carolyn (2003). "Organic Agriculture: Gaining Ground". USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved .
- ^ Dryer, Jerry (2003). "Market Trends: Organic Lessons". Prepared Foods. Retrieved .
- ^ Strom, Stephanie (July 7, 2012). "Has 'Organic' Been Oversized?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ McEvoy, Miles (May 20, 2013). Can GMOs be used in organic products. Clarksdale: Penton Media.
- ^ a b Macey, Anne (2007). "Retail Sales of Certified Organic Food Products in Canada in 2006" (PDF). Organic Agriculture Center of Canada. Retrieved .
- ^ Cooper, Carolyn (21 November 2013). "Canada's organic market now fourth largest in the world". Food In Canada. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Macey, Anne (2007). "Retail Sales of Certified Organic Food Products in Canada in 2006. Organic food is not all organic. only food labeled with a 100% organic sticker are pesticide-free/" (PDF). Organic Agriculture Center of Canada. Retrieved .
- ^ Danish Agriculture & Food Council Organic Farming Archived January 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed January 3, 2015
- ^ Soil Association. Organic food and farming: A driver for sustainable development in Scotland with learning from Denmark Archived January 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Aschemann, J., U. Hamm, S. Naspetti, and R Zanoli"The Organic Market." In Organic Farming: An international History, by W. Lockeretz, 123-151. Wallingford, Oxfordshire:CABI, 2007
- ^ Typisch.at (RollAMA survey). "Bio-Aufwärtstrend in Österreich". Retrieved .
- ^ BIO AUSTRIA. "Wirtschaftlicher Durchbruch für Bio-Fachhandel im Jubiläumsjahr". Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. Retrieved .
- ^ SwissInfo. "Rich or poor, Swiss are big fans of organic food". Retrieved .
- ^ ? ? , 16.10.2009 (in Ukrainian)
- ^ ? // ? ? (in Ukrainian)
- ^ ? ? ? // -?, 13.09.2010(in Ukrainian)
- ^ ?: ? // ? INRISE Development, 2010 ?.(in Ukrainian) Archived May 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ www.organic.com.ua, 21.04.2011 (in Ukrainian)
- ^ ? « » // www.organic.com.ua (in Ukrainian)
- ^ // www.organic.ua (in Ukrainian)
- ^ ? ? ? 2012 // www.organic.com.ua (in Ukrainian)
- ^ Organic Centre Wales. "Organic statistics - the shape of organic food and farming". Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved .
- ^ Soil Association. "Organic market report 2011". Retrieved .
- ^ Auld, Alison. "Farming with Fidel". Retrieved .
- ^ Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. "Cuban GMO Vision" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 5, 2013. Retrieved .
- ^ Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología de Cuba. "DirecciÓn de Investigaciones Agropecuarias". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved .
- ^ Office of Global Analysis, FAS, USDA. "Cuba's Food & Agriculture Situation Report" (PDF). p. 33. Retrieved .
- Canavari, Maurizio & Olson, Kent D., eds. (2007). Organic food: consumers' choices and farmers' opportunities. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-39581-4.
- Duram, Leslie A. (2010). Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35963-7.
- Givens, D. Ian; et al. (2008). Health Benefits of Organic Food: Effects of the Environment. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-459-0.
- Gussow, Joan Dye (2002). This Organic Life: Confessions of a Suburban Homesteader. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 1-931498-24-5.
- Guthman, Julie (2004). Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24095-2.
- Hamilton, Denis; Crossley, Stephen (editors) (2004). Pesticide residues in food and drinking water. J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-48991-3.
- Hond, Frank; et al. (2003). Pesticides: problems, improvements, alternatives. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-05659-2.
- Nestle, Marion (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25403-9.
- PAN-UK (2008). Pesticides on a Plate. PAN-UK (UK). ISBN 978-0-9549542-6-0.
- Pretty, J. N.; et al. (2006). "Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries". Environmental Science and Technology. 40 (4): 1114-1119. doi:10.1021/es051670d. PMID 16572763.
- Scialabba, Nadia && Hattam, Caroline, eds. (2002). Organic agriculture, environment and food security. FAO, United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-104819-1.
- Stokstad, Erik (May 2002). "Organic Farms Reap Many Benefits". Science. 296 (5573): 1589. doi:10.1126/science.296.5573.1589a. PMID 12040154.
- Wargo, John (1998). Our Children's Toxic Legacy: How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us from Pesticides. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07446-8.
- Watson, David H. (editor) (2004). Pesticide, veterinary and other residues in food. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 1-85573-734-5.
- Williams, Christine (2002). "Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green?". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. pp. 19-24.