Pagoda Tree
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Pagoda Tree
Japanese pagoda tree
Sophora japonica JPG2Aa.jpg
habit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Sophoreae
Genus: Styphnolobium
Species: S. japonicum
Binomial name
Styphnolobium japonicum
(L.) Schott[1][2]
Synonyms

Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the Japanese pagoda tree[3] (Chinese scholar tree, pagoda tree; syn. Sophora japonica) is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.

It was formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. The species of Styphnolobium differ from Sophora in lacking the ability to form symbioses with rhizobia (nitrogen fixing bacteria) on their roots. It also differs from the related genus Calia (mescalbeans) in having deciduous leaves and flowers in axillary, not terminal, racemes. The leaves are alternate, pinnate, with 9-21 leaflets, and the flowers in pendulous racemes similar to those of the Black locust.

Distribution

foliage and inflorescence
close-up of flowers

Styphnolobium japonicum is native to China; despite the name, it was introduced in Japan. It is a popular ornamental tree in Europe, North America and South Africa, grown for its white flowers, borne in late summer after most other flowering trees have long finished flowering. It grows into a lofty tree 10-20 m tall with an equal spread, and produces a fine, dark brown timber.

Uses

Gardening

The Guilty Chinese Scholartree was a historic pagoda tree in Beijing, from which the last emperor of the Ming dynasty, Chongzhen, hanged himself.

Traditional medicine

the beans

S. japonicum (Chinese: ?; pinyin: huái; formerly Sophora japonica) is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Construction uses

Used to make the strong, springy curved "enju wood" handle used on the traditional Japanese woodworking adze, called the chouna.[4][5]

Medicinal properties

It is considered to have abortifacient, antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, emetic, emollient, febrifuge, hypotensive, purgative, styptic, and tonic properties.[dubious ][6][] Some components in the dried fruit showed antifertility action, haemostatic properties, anticancer, antitumor, antiobesity, antioxidation effects and had roles in the treatment of hypertension and haemorrhoids[7]. The fruit should not be taken during pregnancy. The dried flower buds are considered to have different medicinal properties from the dried ripe fruit. Toxic effects may include nausea, dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly with abnormal liver function, haematuria, albuminuria, somnolence, spasms and coma[8].

Chemistry

The dried flower buds may contain as much as 20% rutin with some quercetin[9]. S. japonicum dried fruit contain the flavonoid glycosides sophoricoside, genistin and rutin and the flavonoid aglycones genistein, quercetin and kaempferol[7]. Another analysis found genistein and genistein glycosides including sophorabioside, sophoricoside, genistein-7-diglucoside, genistein-7-diglucorhamnoside, and kaempferol and the kaempferol glycosides kaempferol-3-sophoroside and kaempferol-3-rhamnodiglucoside[9]. The fruit also contain the alkaloids cytisine, N-methylcytisine, sophocarpine, matrine and stizolamine[8].

Chinese etymology

The Chinese name for the tree (?) is composed of the word ? ("wood") and ? (representing a spirit in physical form, "ghost"). The tree is generally planted around village edges and in front of temple entrances.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Styphnolobium japonicum information from NPGS/GRIN". USDA. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ a b c d "Styphnolobium japonicum - ILDIS LegumeWeb". Retrieved . 
  3. ^ "Styphnolobium japonicum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2015. 
  4. ^ "Japanese axes and adzes". Robin Wood. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ "Beautiful axes, Japanese carpentry tools". 
  6. ^ "Sophora japonica - Plants For A Future database report". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ a b Chang, L.; Zhang, X.X.; Ren, Y.P.; Cao, L.; Zhi, X.R.; Zhang, L.T. (2013). "Simultaneous Quantification of Six Major Flavonoids From Fructus sophorae by LC-ESI-MS/MS and Statistical Analysis". Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 75 (3): 330-338. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.117437. Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Bensky, Dan; Clavey, Steven; Stöger, Erich; Lai Bensky, Lilian (2015). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica (Portable 3rd ed.). Seattle, USA: Eastland Press. pp. 575-578. ISBN 978-0-939616-82-4. 
  9. ^ a b Tang, Weici; Eisenbrand, Gerhard (1992). Sophora Japonica L. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 945-955. ISBN 978-3-642-73741-1. Retrieved 2017. 

General references

  • The relationship of Sophora sect. Edwardsia (Fabaceae) to Sophora tomentosa, the type species of the genus Sophora, observed from DNA sequence data and morphological characters. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146: 439-446 (2004). Available online.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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