A ballpoint pen dispenses an oil-based ink by rolling a small hard sphere, usually 0.5-1.2 mm and made of brass, steel, or tungsten carbide. The ink dries almost immediately on contact with paper. The ballpoint pen is usually reliable and comes in both inexpensive and expensive types. It has replaced the fountain pen as the most common tool for everyday writing. (There are certain ballpoint pens combining multiple colours in a single barrel; the writer or artist may depress the tip with the desired colour.)
A luxury ballpoint pen
A rollerball pen dispenses a water-based liquid or gel ink through a ball tip similar to that of a ballpoint pen. The less-viscous ink is more easily absorbed by paper than oil-based ink, and the pen moves more easily across a writing surface. The rollerball pen was initially designed to combine the convenience of a ballpoint pen with the smooth "wet ink" effect of a fountain pen. Gel inks are available in a range of colors, including metallic paint colors, glitter effects, neon, blurred effects, saturated colors, pastel tones, vibrant shades, shady colors, invisible ink, see-through effect, shiny colors, and glow-in-the-dark effects. Refillable rollerball pens have recently become available using cartridges of fountain pen ink.
A fountain pen uses water-based liquid ink delivered through a nib. The ink flows from a reservoir through a "feed" to the nib, then through the nib, due to capillary action and gravity. The nib has no moving parts and delivers ink through a thin slit to the writing surface. A fountain pen reservoir can be refillable or disposable; the disposable type is called an ink cartridge. A pen with a refillable reservoir may have a mechanism, such as a piston, to draw ink from a bottle through the nib, or it may require refilling with an eyedropper. Refill reservoirs, also known as cartridge converters, are available for some pens which use disposable cartridges. A fountain pen can be used with permanent or non-permanent inks.
A felt-tip pen, or marker, has a porous tip of fibrous material. The smallest, finest-tipped felt-tip pens are used for writing on paper. Medium-tipped felt-tips are often used by children for coloring and drawing. Larger types, often called "markers", are used for writing in larger sizes, often on other surfaces such as corrugated boxes, whiteboards and for chalkboards, often called "liquid chalk" or "chalkboard markers". Markers with wide tips and bright but transparent ink, called highlighters, are used to highlight text that has already been written or printed. Pens designed for children or for temporary writing (as with a whiteboard or overhead projector) typically use non-permanent inks. Large markers used to label shipping cases or other packages are usually permanent markers.
A gel pen uses ink in which pigment is suspended in a water-based gel. Because the ink is thick and opaque, it shows up more clearly on dark or slick surfaces than the typical inks used in ballpoint or felt tip pens. Gel pens can be used for many types of writing and illustration. Gel pens often come in bright or neon colors.
A stylus pen, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery. It can also be a computer accessory that is used to assist in navigating or providing more precision when using touchscreens. It usually refers to a narrow elongated staff, similar to a modern ballpoint pen. Pens exist which contain a ballpoint tip on one end and this sort of touchscreen stylus on the other.
These historic types of pens are no longer in common use as writing instruments, but may be used by calligraphers and other artists:
A dip pen
A dip pen (or nib pen) consists of a metal nib with capillary channels, like that of a fountain pen, mounted on a handle or holder, often made of wood. A dip pen usually has no ink reservoir and must be repeatedly recharged with ink while drawing or writing. The dip pen has certain advantages over a fountain pen. It can use waterproof pigmented (particle-and-binder-based) inks, such as India ink, drawing ink, or acrylic inks, which would destroy a fountain pen by clogging, as well as the traditional iron gall ink, which can cause corrosion in a fountain pen. Dip pens are now mainly used in illustration, calligraphy, and comics. A particularly fine-pointed type of dip pen known as a crowquill is a favorite instrument of artists, such as David Stone Martin and Jay Lynch, because its flexible metal point can create a variety of delicate lines, textures and tones with slight pressures while drawing.
The ink brush is the traditional writing implement in East Asian calligraphy. The body of the brush can be made from either bamboo, or rarer materials such as red sandalwood, glass, ivory, silver, and gold. The head of the brush can be made from the hair (or feathers) of a wide variety of animals, including the weasel, rabbit, deer, chicken, duck, goat, pig, tiger, etc. There is also a tradition in both China and Japan of making a brush using the hair of a newborn, as a once-in-a-lifetime souvenir for the child. This practice is associated with the legend of an ancient Chinese scholar who scored first in the Imperial examinations by using such a personalized brush. Calligraphy brushes are widely considered an extension of the calligrapher's arm. Today, calligraphy may also be done using a pen, but pen calligraphy does not enjoy the same prestige as traditional brush calligraphy.
A quill is a pen made from a flight feather of a large bird, most often a goose. Quills were used as instruments for writing with ink before the metal dip pen, the fountain pen, and eventually the ballpoint pen came into use. Quill pens were used in medieval times to write on parchment or paper. The quill eventually replaced the reed pen.
A reed pen is cut from a reed or bamboo, with a slit in a narrow tip. Its mechanism is essentially similar to that of a quill. The reed pen has almost disappeared but it is still used by young school students in some parts of India and Pakistan, who learn to write with them on small timber boards known as "Takhti".
M. Klein and Henry W. Wynne received US patent#68445 in 1867 for an ink chamber and delivery system in the handle of the fountain pen.
Ancient Egyptians had developed writing on papyrus scrolls when scribes used thin reed brushes or reed pens from the Juncus maritimus or sea rush. In his book A History of Writing, Steven Roger Fischer suggests that on the basis of finds at Saqqara, the reed pen might well have been used for writing on parchment as long ago as the First Dynasty or about 3000 BC. Reed pens continued to be used until the Middle Ages, but were slowly replaced by quills from about the 7th century. The reed pen, generally made from bamboo, is still used in some parts of Pakistan by young students and is used to write on small wooden boards.
The reed pen survived until papyrus was replaced as a writing surface by animal skins, vellum and parchment. The smoother surface of skin allowed finer, smaller writing with a quill pen, derived from the flight feather. The quill pen was used in Qumran, Judea to write some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which date back to around 100 BC. The scrolls were written in Hebrew dialects with bird feathers or quills. There is a specific reference to quills in the writings of St. Isidore of Seville in the 7th century. Quill pens were still widely used in the eighteenth century, and were used to write and sign the Constitution of the United States in 1787.
A copper nib was found in the ruins of Pompeii, showing that metal nibs were used in the year 79. There is also a reference to 'a silver pen to carry ink in', in Samuel Pepys' diary for August 1663. 'New invented' metal pens are advertised in The Times in 1792. A metal pen point was patented in 1803, but the patent was not commercially exploited. A patent for the manufacture of metal pens was advertised for sale by Bryan Donkin in 1811. John Mitchell of Birmingham started to mass-produce pens with metal nibs in 1822, and after that, the quality of steel nibs improved enough so that dip pens with metal nibs came into general use.
Deliciae physico-mathematicae, 1636
The earliest historical record of a pen with a reservoir dates back to the 10th century AD. In 953, Ma'?d al-Mu'izz, the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib. This pen may have been a fountain pen, but its mechanism remains unknown, and only one record mentioning it has been found. A later reservoir pen was developed in 1636. In his Deliciae Physico-Mathematicae (1636), German inventor Daniel Schwenter described a pen made from two quills. One quill served as a reservoir for ink inside the other quill. The ink was sealed inside the quill with cork. Ink was squeezed through a small hole to the writing point. In 1809, Bartholomew Folsch received a patent in England for a pen with an ink reservoir.
The first patent on a ballpoint pen was issued on October 30, 1888, to John J Loud. In 1938, László Bíró, a Hungarian newspaper editor, with the help of his brother George, a chemist, began to design new types of pens, including one with a tiny ball in its tip that was free to turn in a socket. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated, picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper. Bíró filed a British patent on June 15, 1938. In 1940 the Bíró brothers and a friend, Juan Jorge Meyne, moved to Argentina fleeing Nazi Germany. On June 10 they filed another patent, and formed "Bíró Pens of Argentina". By the summer of 1943 the first commercial models were available. Erasable ballpoint pens were introduced by Papermate in 1979 when the Erasermate was put on the market.
1915 advertisement for "Vulcan" Ink Pencils
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, a naturalized Croatian engineer and inventor of Polish-Dutch origin from the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in Austria-Hungary, became renowned for further development of the mechanical pencil (1906) - then called an "automatic pencil" - and the first solid-ink fountain pen (1907). Collaborating with an entrepreneur by the name of Edmund Moster, he started the Penkala-Moster Company and built a pen-and-pencil factory that was one of the biggest in the world at the time. This company, now called TOZ-Penkala, still exists today. "TOZ" stands for "Tvornica olovaka Zagreb", meaning "Zagreb Pencil Factory".
Rollerball pens were introduced in the early 1970s. They use a mobile ball and liquid ink to produce a smoother line. Technological advances during the late 1980s and early 1990s have improved the roller ball's overall performance. A porous point pen contains a point made of some porous material such as felt or ceramic. A high quality drafting pen will usually have a ceramic tip, since this wears well and does not broaden when pressure is applied while writing.
Although the invention of the typewriter and personal computer with the keyboard input method has offered another way to write, the pen is still the main means of writing. Many people like to use expensive types and brands of pens, including fountain pens, and these are sometimes regarded as a status symbol.
Another manufacturer emerged from the depths of marketing with "Bic pens" in 1953, named Michael Bich. He introduced new ballpoint pens to the American marketplace in the 1950s, and became successful in selling his Bic pens in the 1960s when he published his campaign slogan,"Writes The First Time, Every Time!". The era of the 1940s-1960s was a competitive era for every manufacture manufacturing [pens] at this period of time.
^The advertisement implies metal nibs had been in use for some years, but had not been generally accepted due to lack of flexibility and tendency to rust. It refers to 'Ivory Handles' with 'Gold Silver or Steel Pens to each', and says that 'new pens may be fitted in at pleasure', indicating that only the nibs were metal. It also claims the pens have 'well-tempered Elasticity' and that the 'Steel Points' are treated to be rustproof, rust being 'a circumstance that has been long and universally complained of in this article'."The Times". 8 June 1792: 4.
^He offered the patent, which had an unexpired term of 11 years, for sale together with the 'utensils peculiarly adapted to the manufacturing' of the metal pens:"The Times". 15 August 1811: 4.
^In 1832 a woman accused of stealing a silver pen from a London shop said in her defence that she had 'one of the common metal pens' with her:"The Times". 15 September 1832: 3.
The BIC Round Stic Xtra Life Ballpoint Pen is a dependable favorite that offers performance and value, making it the #1 selling Ballpoint Pen in the US*. Great for daily use at home, school, or the office, this pen writes 90% longer on average than Papermate InkJoy 100 Ball Stick Pen.** It features a versatile 1.0mm medium point that creates vivid lines and has a reliable tungsten carbide ball point that spreads the ink smoothly and evenly, making this pen ideal for a variety of writing applications from note-taking to doodling. The flexible round barrel rests comfortably in your hand, while the translucent barrel shows the remaining ink supply, so you know when you're running low. BIC Round Stic Xtra Life Ballpoint Pens are non-refillable. *Source: The NPD Group/ Retail Tracking Service/ U.S. Actual Unit Sales (Retail & Commercial Combined)/ Jul 2016-Jun 2017 ** Paper Mate and InkJoy are trademarks of Newell or an affiliate. Newell has not sponsored or approved and is not affiliated with this BIC branded product.
Slow down and appreciate the experience of expressing your thoughts and ideas on paper with the PARKER Jotter Stainless Steel ballpoint pen. A style icon for over 60 years, the Jotter has a fresh, streamlined design. It features a stainless steel barrel and cap, high-shine trims, and an arrowhead clip. The Jotterâs stunning details make it a refined gift for graduates, first-time job seekers, or anyone who appreciates the art of fine writing. This pen arrives packaged in an elegant gift box.
Chrome Plated Astronaut Space Pen. This is the original Fisher Space Pen that was used on the Apollo 7 space mission in 1968 after 2 years of testing by NASA and has been used on all manned space flights since then. The design and construction of this pen has not changed in 36 years. The pen you buy today is exactly the same as the one taken to the moon in 1969. It is a heavy pen and the weight rests reassuringly in your hand as you write. The AG7 is made from solid brass with an extremely hard Chrome plating. It has a very positive and substantial feeling click mechanism. You press down on the top to extend the refill and press the side button to retract the refill. It's special design assures you that you'll always retract the point before you slide it in your pocket. It's constructed of all brass and steel components of the highest quality and is made in the USA. All Astronaut Pens are attractively packaged in heavy duty gift boxs with flock lining and come with a pamphlet describing the history of the Fisher Space Pen. Used on all NASA Apollo and Shuttle missions, ISS International Space Station, Russian Soyuz and MIR space flights, French ARIANE Space Program, Everest North Face Ski Expedition. This item come in a original box from the manufacturer.
Pilot Precise V5 Rolling Ball Pens feature a unique liquid ink formula that maintains consistent flowing strokes. With patented precise needle point technology, each pen has a ringed ink feeder for a smooth and even ink flow, and a visible ink supply lets you see how much ink is left. These pens come with 0.5mm extra fine point tungsten carbide tips and are available in a variety of colors (sold separately) to emphasize, organize, and color-code information. An all-around quality pen - pick one up today!
Pilot Precise V5 RT Retractable Rolling Ball Pens feature a unique liquid ink formula that maintains consistent flowing strokes. With patented precise needle point technology, each pen has a ringed ink feeder for a smooth and even ink flow, and a visible ink supply lets you see how much ink is left. These pens come with 0.5mm extra fine point tungsten carbide tips and are available in a variety of colors (sold separately) to emphasize, organize, and color-code information. Pilot Precise V5 RT pens have a retractable, new-age design that is refillable and also safe for airplane use. An all-around quality retractable pen - pick one up today!
G2 refills are available in 15 vibrant colors. View larger
America's Go-2 Gel Ink Pen
Discover the smooth writing and comfortable G2, America's #1 Selling Gel Pen*. G2 gel ink writes 2X longer than the average of branded gel ink pens**. The G2 product line includes four point sizes, fifteen color options, and multiple barrel styles to suit every situation and personality. It is the only gel pen that offers this level of customization--because after all, pens aren't one size fits all.
G2 Offers Ultimate Customization
G2 is available in a variety of barrel designs, point sizes, and ink colors so you can leave a lasting impression. The original G2 features a translucent barrel and is available in four point sizes and 15 rich, vibrant ink colors for the ultimate in customization. The G2 Fashion Collection combines this top selling gel ink brand with a new fashion forward look. Fashion barrels feature a stylish floral design in a variety of colors. Black grips and clips feature black ink, while colored grips and clips feature coordinating colored ink. The G2 Breast Cancer Awareness pen allows you to show your support in the fight against breast cancer with every word you write. Each G2 Breast Cancer Awareness pen features a pink rubber grip, pink plastic clip, and a pink ribbon imprinted on the barrel. Available with either black or pink ink.
G2 Professional Styles
For occasions that call for a more professional look, G2 gel ink is available in two refined barrel designs: G2 Pro and G2 Limited. G2 Pro combines the light and effortless feel of the original G2 barrel with a refined design perfect for professional environments. Choose from four deep-toned barrel colors with sophisticated metal accents and a comfortable black rubber grip. G2 Limited is available in six barrel colors. A durable metal barrel and a premium matte finish give a pleasant feel in your hand. Stainless steel clip and accents with coordinating rubber grips complete G2 Limited's polished and professional design.
*AC Nielsen Reports on file, Pilot Corp. of America. **Independent third party ISO testing. Average of branded gel pens tested. Data on file with Pilot Pen Corporation of America.
America's Go-2 Gel Ink Pen
Pilot. Power To The Pen.
We believe in the power of the written word. We believe in the Power of the Pen. Pilot's spirit of innovation has always focused on serving consumers' unmet writing needs, making writing a pleasure with exceptionally-designed, smooth writing pens. In a digital age where we have gained immediacy but lost intimacy, Pilot helps you express yourself effortlessly and connect through the written word.
Energel Alloy Retractable Gel Pen offers a deluxe premium metal barrel and an ideal blend of liquid and gel for the best of both inks. The stainless steel tip delivers the ultimate writing experience as rich liquid gel ink glides across paper. Vivid, acid-free ink dries quickly without smearing or blotting and is great for left-handed writers. Pocket-proof system automatically retracts metal tip when pen is clipped to notebook or pocket. Refillable with Pentel LR7 metal tip refill cartridges.