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Ph? bò, C?u Gi?y, Hà N?i.jpg
Type Noodle soup
Course Main course
Place of origin Vietnam
Region or state Hanoi, Nam nh Province
Created by Unknown
Invented 1900-1907[1]
Serving temperature Warm
Main ingredients Rice noodles and beef or chicken
Variations Chicken pho (ph? gà), ph? tái (pho topped with sliced rare beef)

Ph? or pho[2] (;[3]Vietnamese: [f?:]) is a Vietnamese soup consisting of broth, rice noodles called bánh ph?, a few herbs, and meat, primarily made with either beef (ph? bò) or chicken (ph? gà).[4][5] Pho is a popular street food in Vietnam[6] and the specialty of a number of restaurant chains around the world. Pho originated in the early 20th century in northern Vietnam, and was popularized throughout the rest of the world by refugees after the Vietnam War. Because pho's origins are poorly documented,[7][8] there is significant disagreement over the cultural influences that led to its development in Vietnam, as well as the etymology of the word itself.[9] The Hanoi and Saigon styles of pho differ by noodle width, sweetness of broth, and choice of herbs. A related noodle soup, bún bò Hu?, which is a spicy beef noodle soup, is associated with Hu? in central Vietnam.


Pho likely evolved from similar dishes; for example, villagers in Vân Cù say they ate pho long before the French colonial period.[10] The modern form of the dish emerged between 1900 and 1907 in northern Vietnam,[7][1] southeast of Hanoi in Nam nh Province, then a substantial textile market. The traditional home of pho is reputed to be the villages of Vân Cù and Dao Cù (or Giao Cù) in ?ông Xuân commune, Nam Tr?c District, Nam nh Province.[10][11]

Cultural historian and researcher Tr?nh Quang D?ng believes that the popularization and origins of the modern pho stemmed from the intersection of several historical and cultural factors in the early 20th century.[12] These include the higher availability of beef due to French demand, which in turn produced beef bones that were purchased by Chinese workers to make into a dish similar to pho called ng?u nh?c ph?n.[12][13] The demand for this dish was initially the greatest with workers sourced from the provinces of Yunnan and Guangdong, who found affinity to the dish due to its similarities to that of their homeland, which eventually popularized and familiarized this dish with the general population.[13]

Pho was originally sold at dawn and dusk by roaming street vendors, who shouldered mobile kitchens on carrying poles (gánh ph?).[14] From the pole hung two wooden cabinets, one housing a cauldron over a wood fire, the other storing noodles, spices, cookware, and space to prepare a bowl of pho. The heavy gánh was always shouldered by men.[15] They kept their heads warm with distinctive, disheveled felt hats called m? ph?.[16]

Hanoi's first two fixed pho stands were a Vietnamese-owned Cát Tng on C?u G? Street and a Chinese-owned stand in front of B? H? tram stop. They were joined in 1918 by two more on Qu?t Row and ng Row.[17] Around 1925, a Vân Cù villager named V?n opened the first "Nam nh style" pho stand in Hanoi.[18]Gánh ph? declined in number around 1936-1946 in favor of stationary eateries.[16]


In the late 1920s, various vendors experimented with húng lìu, sesame oil, tofu, and even Lethocerus indicus extract (cà cu?ng). This "ph? c?i lng" failed to enter the mainstream.[17][19]

Ph? tái, served with rare beef, had been introduced by 1930. Chicken pho appeared in 1939, possibly because beef was not sold at the markets on Mondays and Fridays at the time.[17]

Southern-style pho served with basil and beansprouts

With the Partition of Vietnam in 1954, over a million people fled North Vietnam for South Vietnam. Pho, previously unpopular in the South, suddenly took off.[11] No longer confined to northern culinary traditions, variations in meat and broth appeared, and additional garnishes, such as lime, bean sprouts, culantro (ngò gai), cinnamon basil (húng qu?), Hoisin sauce (tng ?en), and hot chili sauce (tng ?t) became standard fare.[7][11][17][20]Ph? tái also began to rival fully cooked ph? chín in popularity. Migrants from the North similarly popularized bánh mì sandwiches.[21]

Meanwhile, in North Vietnam, private pho restaurants were nationalized (m?u d?ch qu?c doanh)[22] and began serving pho noodles made from old rice. Street vendors were forced to use noodles made of imported potato flour.[23][24] Officially banned as capitalism, these vendors prized portability, carrying their wares on gánh and setting out plastic stools for customers.[25]

Northern-style pho served with qu?y (fried bread)

During the so-called "subsidy period" following the Vietnam War, state-owned pho eateries served a meatless variety of the dish known as "pilotless pho" (ph? không ngi lái),[26] in reference to the U.S. Air Force's unmanned reconnaissance drones. The broth consisted of boiled water with MSG added for taste, as there were often shortages on various foodstuffs like meat and rice during that period.[27] Bread or cold rice was often served as a side dish, leading to the present-day practice of dipping qu?y in pho.[28]

Pho eateries were privatized as part of i M?i. However, many street vendors must still maintain a light footprint to evade police enforcing the street tidiness rules that replaced the ban on private ownership.[25]


A pho and bánh cu?n restaurant in Paris

In the aftermath of the Vietnam War, Vietnamese refugees brought pho to many countries. Restaurants specializing in pho appeared in numerous Asian enclaves and Little Saigons, such as in Paris and in major cities in the United States, Canada and Australia.[29][30] In 1980, the first of hundreds of pho restaurants opened in the Little Saigon in Orange County, California.[31]

In the United States, pho began to enter the mainstream during the 1990s, as relations between the U.S. and Vietnam improved.[30] At that time Vietnamese restaurants began opening quickly in Texas and California, spreading rapidly along the Gulf and West Coasts, as well as the East Coast and the rest of the country. During the 2000s, pho restaurants in the United States generated US$500 million in annual revenue, according to an unofficial estimate.[32] Pho can now be found in cafeterias at many college and corporate campuses, especially on the West Coast.[30]

The word "pho" was added to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary in 2007.[33] Pho is listed at number 28 on "World's 50 most delicious foods" compiled by CNN Go in 2011.[34] The Vietnamese Embassy in Mexico celebrated Pho Day on April 3, 2016, with Osaka Prefecture holding a similar commemoration the following day.[35] Pho has been adopted by other Southeast Asian cuisines, including Hmong cuisine.[5] It sometimes appears as "Phô" on menus in Australia.

Etymology and origins

Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet ph?
Ch? Nôm ? (?)[36]

Reviews of 19th and 20th century Indochinese literature have found that pho entered the mainstream sometime in the 1910s. Ph?m ?ình H?'s 1827 Hán-Nôm dictionary Nh?t d?ng thng ?àm includes an entry for rice noodles (traditional Chinese: ; ; Vietnamese: ng?c tô bính) with the definition ? (Vietnamese: là bánh ph? bò; "is beef pho noodle"), borrowing a character ordinarily pronounced "ph?" or "ph?" to refer to pho.[37] Georges Dumoutier's extensive 1907 account of Vietnamese cuisine omits any mention of pho,[9] while Nguy?n Công Hoan recalls its sale by street vendors in 1913.[38] A 1931 dictionary is the first to define ph? as a soup: "from the word ph?n. A dish consisting of small slices of rice cake boiled with beef."[9][16][39]

Possibly the earliest English-language reference to pho was in the book Recipes of All Nations, edited by Countess Morphy in 1935: In the book, pho is described as "an Annamese soup held in high esteem ... made with beef, a veal bone, onions, a bayleaf, salt, and pepper, and a small teaspoon of nuoc-mam."[40]

There are two prevailing theories on the origin of the word ph? and, by extension, the dish itself. As author Nguy?n D? notes, both questions are significant to Vietnamese identity.[14]

From French

French pot-au-feu

French settlers commonly ate beef, whereas Vietnamese traditionally ate pork and chicken and used cattle as beasts of burden.[22][41] Gustave Hue (1937) equates cháo ph? to the French beef stew pot-au-feu (literally, "pot on the fire").[9] Accordingly, Western sources generally maintain that ph? is derived from pot-au-feu in both name and substance.[3][9][42] However, several scholars dispute this etymology on the basis of the stark differences between the two dishes.[9][18][43] Ironically, pho in French has long been pronounced [fo] rather than [fø]: in Jean Tardieu's Lettre de Hanoï à Roger Martin Du Gard (1928), a soup vendor cries "Pho-ô!" in the street.[24]

Many Hanoians explain that the word ph? derives from French soldiers' ordering "feu" (fire) from gánh ph?, referring to both the steam rising from a bowl of pho and the wood fire seen glowing from a gánh ph? in the evening.[16]

Food historian Erica J. Peters argues that the French have embraced pho in a way that overlooks its origins as a local improvisation, reinforcing "an idea that the French brought modern ingenuity to a traditionalist Vietnam".[24]

It is also sometimes assumed that the names of the varieties of pho, specifically ph? bò (beef) and ph? gà (chicken), are also of French or even Latin origin, as Latin bos and gallus mean "cattle" and "chicken", respectively. But this is an apparent coincidence, as and are native Vietnamese words.

From Cantonese

Hue and Eugèn Gouin (1957) both define ph? by itself as an abbreviation of l?c ph?. Elucidating on the 1931 dictionary, Gouin and Lê Ng?c Tr? (1970) both give l?c ph? as a corruption of ng?u nh?c ph?n (Chinese: ; Cantonese Yale: ngau4 yuk6 fan2; "cow meat noodles"), which was commonly sold by Chinese immigrants in Hanoi.[9] ([?] is an allophone of /l/ in some northern dialects of Vietnamese.)

Some scholars argue that pho (the dish) evolved from xáo trâu, a Vietnamese dish common in Hanoi at the turn of the century. Originally eaten by commoners near the Red River, it consisted of stir-fried strips of water buffalo meat served in broth atop rice vermicelli.[44] Around 1908-1909, the shipping industry brought an influx of laborers. Vietnamese and Chinese cooks set up gánh to serve them xáo trâu but later switched to inexpensive scraps of beef[9][10] set aside by butchers who sold to the French.[45] Chinese vendors advertised this xáo bò by crying out, "Beef and noodles!" (Cantonese Yale: ngàuh yuhk fán; Vietnamese: ng?u nh?c ph?n).[18] Eventually the street cry became "Meat and noodles!" (Chinese: ; Cantonese Yale: yuhk fán; Vietnamese: nh?c ph?n), with the last syllable elongated.[11][16] Nguy?n Ng?c Bích suggests that the final "n" was eventually dropped because of the similar-sounding ph?n (traditional Chinese: ?; simplified Chinese: ?; "excrement").[8][46] The French author Jean Marquet refers to the dish as "Yoc feu!" in his 1919 novel Du village-à-la cité.[45] This is likely what the Vietnamese poet T?n ?à calls "nh?c-ph?" in "?ánh b?c" ("Gambling"), written around 1915-1917.[14][43]

Ingredients and preparation

Pho is served in a bowl with a specific cut of flat rice noodles in clear beef broth, with thin cuts of beef (steak, fatty flank, lean flank, brisket). Variations feature slow-cooked tendon, tripe, or meatballs in southern Vietnam. Chicken pho is made using the same spices as beef, but the broth is made using only chicken bones and meat, as well as some internal organs of the chicken, such as the heart, the undeveloped eggs and the gizzard.[47][48]


Bags of bánh ph? ti at an American grocery store

The medium-width dried rice noodle that is usually used is called bánh ph?, but some versions may be made with fresh rice noodles called bánh ph? ti in Vietnamese or kuay tiao.[49][50] These noodles are labeled on packaging as bánh ph? ti (fresh pho noodles) in Vietnamese, (fresh Chaozhou kuy teav) in Chinese, ? (Vietnamese rice noodle) in Korean, and ? (thin kuy teav) in Thai.[51]


Pho served with beef brisket

The broth for beef pho is generally made by simmering beef bones, oxtails, flank steak, charred onion, charred ginger and spices. For a more intense flavor, the bones may still have beef on them. Chicken bones also work and produce a similar broth. Seasonings can include Saigon cinnamon or other kinds of cinnamon as alternatives (may use usually in stick form, sometimes in powder form in pho restaurant franchises overseas), star anise, roasted ginger, roasted onion, black cardamom, coriander seed, fennel seed, and clove.[52] The broth takes several hours to make.[48] For chicken pho, only the meat and bones of the chicken are used in place of beef and beef bone. The remaining spices remain the same, but the charred ginger can be omitted, since its function in beef pho is to subdue the quite strong smell of beef.

A typical pho spice packet, sold at many Asian food markets, containing a soaking bag plus various necessary dry spices. The exact amount differs with each bag.

The spices, often wrapped in cheesecloth or a soaking bag to prevent them from floating all over the pot, usually contain cloves, star anise, coriander seed, fennel, cinnamon, black cardamom, ginger, and onion.

Careful cooks often roast ginger and onion over an open fire for about a minute before adding them to the stock, to bring out their full flavor. They also skim off all the impurities that float to the top while cooking; this is the key to a clear broth. Nc m?m (fish sauce) is added toward the end.


Typical garnishes for ph? Sài Gòn, clockwise from top left are: onions, chili peppers, culantro, lime, bean sprouts, and Thai basil.

Vietnamese dishes are typically served with lots of greens, herbs, vegetables, and various other accompaniments, such as dipping sauces, hot and spicy pastes such as Sriracha, and a squeeze of lime or lemon juice; it may also be served with hoisin sauce. The dish is garnished with ingredients such as green onions, white onions, Thai basil (not to be confused with sweet basil), fresh Thai chili peppers, lemon or lime wedges, bean sprouts, and cilantro (coriander leaves) or culantro. Fish sauce, hoisin sauce, chili oil and hot chili sauce (such as Sriracha sauce) may be added to taste as accompaniments.[48][53]

Several ingredients not generally served with pho may be ordered by request. Extra-fatty broth (nc béo) can be ordered and comes with scallions to sweeten it. A popular side dish ordered upon request is hành d?m, or vinegared white onions.

Regional variants

Chicken pho at a typical street stall in Hanoi - note the lack of side garnishes, typical of northern Vietnamese-style cooking

The several regional variants of pho in Vietnam, particularly divided between "northern pho" (ph? b?c) and "southern pho" or "Saigon pho" (ph? Sài Gòn). Northern pho tends to use somewhat wider noodles and much more green onion, and garnishes offered generally include only vinegar, fish sauce and chili sauce. On the other hand, southern Vietnamese pho broth is slightly sweeter and has bean sprouts and a greater variety of fresh herbs. Pho may be served with either pho noodles or kuy teav noodles (h? ti?u).[54] The variations in meat, broth, and additional garnishes such as lime, bean sprouts, ngò gai (Eryngium foetidum), húng qu? (Thai/Asian basil), and tng ?en (bean sauce/hoisin sauce), tng ?t (hot chili sauce, e.g., Sriracha sauce) appear to be innovations made by or introduced to the South.[7]

International variants include pho made using tofu and vegetable broth for vegetarians (ph? chay), and a larger variety of vegetables, such as carrots and broccoli.

Many pho restaurants in the United States offer oversized helpings with names such as "train pho" (ph? xe l?a), "airplane pho" (ph? tàu bay), or "California pho" (ph? Ca Li).[14][16][28] Some restaurants offer a pho eating challenge, with prizes for finishing as much as 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of pho in one sitting.[55] In some parts of the United States, fresh bánh ph? is not widely available. Dried noodles called bánh ph? khô are often used instead. Some restaurants may serve bánh ph? ti (fresh pho noodles) upon request.

Tables at pho restaurants abroad are set with a variety of condiments, including Sriracha sauce, and eating utensils.

Notable restaurants

Before 1975, famous pho shops in Saigon included Ph? Công Lý, Ph? Tàu Bay, Ph? Tàu Th?y, and Ph? Bà D?u. Pasteur Street (ph? ph? Pasteur) was a street famous for its beef pho, while Hien Vuong Street (ph? ph? Hi?n Vng) was known for its chicken pho.[56] At Ph? Bình, American soldiers dined as Vi?t C?ng agents planned the T?t Offensive just upstairs.[57][58] Nowadays in Ho Chi Minh City, well known restaurants include: Ph? Hòa Pasteur[59] and Ph? 2000, which U.S. President Bill Clinton visited in 2000.[30][41]

One of the largest restaurant chains in Vietnam is Pho 24, a subsidiary of Highlands Coffee, with 60 locations in Vietnam and 20 abroad.[60] The largest pho chain in the United States is Ph? Hòa, which operates over 70 locations in seven countries.[30][61][62] A similar restaurant named Pho 75 serves in the Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania areas in the United States.[63]

In 2011, Tiato in Santa Monica, California, auctioned off bowls of "AnQi Ph?", prepared with type A5 Wagyu beef, white truffles, foie gras broth, and noodles made of rare blue lobster meat, with a starting price of $5,000. Proceeds benefited Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Children's Hospital of Orange County, and UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital.[64][65]

Related dishes

Aside from pho, many other Vietnamese dishes require pho noodles, including stir-fried pho (ph? xào), pan-fried pho (ph? áp ch?o), pho spring roll (ph? cu?n), and sour pho (ph? chua).[66] Other popular Vietnamese noodle dishes include bún riêu, bún bò Hu? (another beef noodle soup), bún ch?, h? ti?u, bún th?t nng, and mì Qu?ng.[67]

See also


  1. ^ a b Tr?nh Quang D?ng (December 8, 2017). "Ph? Vi?t - K? 1: Kh?i ngu?n c?a ph?". Tu?i Tr? (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ The Vietnamese spelling is ph? – ending with an O with horn and hook above. However, the word is commonly simplified to pho in English-language text.
  3. ^ a b

    "pho, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. March 2006. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

    "pho (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013. a type of Vietnamese soup, typically made from beef stock and spices to which noodles and thinly sliced beef or chicken are added. Origin: Vietnamese, perhaps from French feu (in pot-au-feu)

    "pho (American English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012.

    "pho". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5 ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2011. A soup of Vietnamese origin typically consisting of rice noodles, onions, herbs, seasonings, and thinly sliced beef or chicken in a clear broth.

    "pho". Random House Dictionary. Random House. 2013. Retrieved 2013.

    "pho". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 2013.

    Barber, Katherine, ed. (2005). "Pho". Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press Canada. ISBN 9780191735219.

  4. ^ Ha, Michelle (2017-06-30). "Pho: A Tale of Survival (Part 1 of 2)". The RushOrder Blog. Retrieved .
  5. ^ a b Scripter, Sami; Yang, Sheng (2009). Cooking from the Heart: The Hmong Kitchen in America. University of Minnesota Press. p. 25. ISBN 1452914516. Ph? is made with small (1/16-inch-wide) linguine-shaped rice noodles labeled 'bánh ph?'.
  6. ^ Thanh Nien staff (3 February 2012). "Vietnamese street food a gourmet's delight". Thanh Nien News. Retrieved 2012. A visit to Vietnam would never be complete, Lister said, without the taste of food on the street, including ph? - beef noodle soup,...
  7. ^ a b c d Nguyen, Andrea Q. "History of Pho Noodle Soup". San Jose Mercury News, reprinted at Viet World Kitchen. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b Greeley, Alexandra (Winter 2002). "Ph?: The Vietnamese Addiction". Gastronomica. Oakland, California: University of California Press. 2 (1): 80-83. doi:10.1525/gfc.2002.2.1.80. ISSN 1529-3262. (Subscription required (help)).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Vng Trung Hi?u (July 17, 2012). "Ngu?n G?c C?a Ph?" [The Origins of Ph?]. V?n Chng Vi?t (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Nguy?n Ng?c Ti?n (2 August 2011). "Ph? Hà N?i" [Hanoi Pho]. Hàn?im?i (in Vietnamese). Communist Party Committee of Hanoi. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d An Chi (2010-06-15). "Lai l?ch c?a món ph? và tên g?i c?a nó" [Origin of the ph? dish and its name]. An Ninh Th? Gi?i (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Ministry of Public Security. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b Tr?nh Quang D?ng (2011), "100 n?m Ph? Vi?t", V?n hóa h?c, V?n hóa h?c, retrieved
  13. ^ a b Nguyen, Andrea (2016), "The History of Pho", Lucky Peach, Lucky Peach, archived from the original on 2016-07-19, retrieved
  14. ^ a b c d Nguy?n D? (February 2001). "Ph?, ph?n, ph?a ..." [Pho, euphoria, innovation...]. Chim Vi?t Cành Nam (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2013.
  15. ^ Vu Hong Lien (2016). Rice and Baguette: A History of Food in Vietnam. London: Reaktion Books. p. 147. ISBN 9781780237046 – via Google Books. Mobile ph? was always sold by men, probably because the stockpot was too heavy for a woman to shoulder.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Bùi Minh c (2009). "Tô ph? B?c và i bún bò Hu? trên bình di?n v?n hóa i chi?u" ['Ph?' of the North and Beef Noodle of Hu? as Compared Under a Cultural View]. T?p chí Nghiên c?u và Phát tri?n (in Vietnamese). 1 (72). ISSN 1859-0152.
  17. ^ a b c d Tr?nh Quang D?ng (15 January 2010). "Ph? muôn màu muôn v?" [Pho has ten thousand colors and ten thousand styles]. Báo Khoa H?c Ph? Thông (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh City Union of Science and Technology Associations. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ a b c Tr?nh Quang D?ng (8 January 2010). "Kh?i ngu?n c?a ph?" [Origins of pho]. Báo Khoa H?c Ph? Thông (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh City Union of Science and Technology Associations. Retrieved 2013.
  19. ^ Th?ch Lam (1943). "Wikisource link to Ph? thêm vào ph? [Adding to pho]" (in Vietnamese). Wikisource link to Hà N?i b?m sáu ph? phng [Hanoi: 36 streets and districts]. i Nay Publishing House. Wikisource. 
  20. ^ "A Bowl of Pho" Archived 2011-10-26 at the Wayback Machine., San Francisco Chronicle, November 1997
  21. ^ Lê V?n Ngh?a (June 11, 2017). "Chuy?n x?a - chuy?n nay: Bánh mì Sài Gòn trong th?" [Then and now: Saigon sandwiches in poetry]. Tu?i Tr? (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ a b Gibb, Camilla (2011). The Beauty of Humanity Movement: A Novel. p. 4. The history of Vietnam lies in this bowl, for it is in Hanoi, the Vietnamese heart, that ph? was born, a combination of the rice noodles that predominated after a thousand years of Chinese occupation and the taste for ...
  23. ^ Xuan Phuong; Mazingarbe, Danièle (2004) [2001]. Myers, Jonathan E., ed. Ao Dai: My War, My Country, My Vietnam. Translated by Lynn M. Bensimon. Great Neck, New York: Emquad International. pp. 169-170. ISBN 0-9718406-2-8. The soup that was presented to replace it was made of rotten rice noodles, a little bit of tough meat, and a tasteless broth. ... As for the small street peddlers, they no longer had the right to sell pho, but instead, a vile soup in which there were noodles made of potato flour.
  24. ^ a b c Peters, Erica J. (2010). "Defusing Ph?: Soup Stories and Ethnic Erasures, 1919-2009". Contemporary French and Francophone Studies. 14 (2): 159-167. doi:10.1080/17409291003644255.
  25. ^ a b Renton, Alex (May 16, 2004). "Good morning, Vietnam". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 2014.
  26. ^ Hoàng Linh (March 5, 2009). "T?n m?n v? Ph?" [Ramblings about Ph?]. BBC Vietnamese (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2013.
  27. ^ Thanh Th?o (19 August 2012). "T? bát ph? 'không ngi lái'" [From a bowl of pho, 'no pilot']. Thanh Nien (in Vietnamese). Vietnam United Youth League. Retrieved 2013.
  28. ^ a b Tr?nh Quang D?ng (22 January 2010). "Ph? theo th?i cu?c" [Pho in the present day]. Báo Khoa H?c Ph? Thông (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh City Union of Science and Technology Associations. Retrieved 2013.
  29. ^ "For Fantastic Pho, The Proof is in the Soup, Georgia Straight. April 2008.
  30. ^ a b c d e Loh, Laura (13 May 2002). "The Next Ethnic Dish of the Day: Vietnamese Pho". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved 2013.
  31. ^ Nguyen, Katherine (May 1, 2003). "Vietnamese Noodle Soup 'Pho' Scores Cross-Cultural Hit, Like Tacos, Sushi". Orange County Register. Santa Ana, California: Freedom Communications. Retrieved 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  32. ^ Ng? Yên (3 November 2005). "Ph? Sài Gòn". Báo ?i?n t? Sài Gòn Ti?p Th? (in Vietnamese). SGTT Media. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  33. ^ Schuman, Kate, "Oxford's short dictionary adds hundreds of new words, including 'carbon footprint'", U-T San Diego, September 19, 2007.
  34. ^ CNN Go.World's 50 most delicious foods Archived 2011-10-08 at the Wayback Machine.. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
  35. ^ Nhi Linh (April 4, 2016). "April 4 Pho Day in Japan". Vietnam Economic Times. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ Tr?n V?n Ki?m, Giúp c Nôm và Hán Vi?t [Help reading Nom and Sino-Vietnamese], 2004, "Entry ph?". This character was introduced in Unicode 8.0. Its Ideographic Description Sequence is . ? is an abbreviated form. [1]
  37. ^ Ph?m ?ình H? (1827). "" [rice noodle]. Nh?t d?ng thng ?àm.
  38. ^ Nguy?n Công Hoan (2004). Nh? và ghi v? Hà N?i. Youth Publishing House. p. 94.
  39. ^ V? c Vng (14 November 2005). "Ph?: t?m danh thi?p c?a ngi Vi?t". VietNamNet (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Ministry of Information and Communications. Translated into the English: "Pho: Common "name card" of Vietnamese". Sài Gòn Gi?i Phóng. Translated by Quang Hung. Communist Party Committee of Ho Chi Minh City. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  40. ^ Morphy, Marcelle (countess) (1935). "Dishes from many lands". Recipes of All Nations. New York: Wm. H. Wise & Co. p. 802. hdl:2027/coo.31924003591769?urlappend=;seq=816. PHO is the name of an Annamese soup held in high esteem. It is made with beef, a veal bone, onions, a bayleaf, salt, and pepper, and a small teaspoon of nuoc-man [sic], a typically Annamese condiment which is used in practically all their dishes. It is made from a kind of brine exuding from decaying fish, and in former days six years were required before it had reached full maturity. But in modern times the preparation has been put on the market, and can be made by chemical processes in a very short time.
  41. ^ a b Apple, Raymond Walter, Jr. (13 August 2003). "Asian Journey; Looking Up an Old Love On the Streets of Vietnam". The New York Times. New York Times Company.
  42. ^ Bloom, Dan, "What's that Pho? - French loan words in Vietnam hark back to the colonial days" Taipei Times, May 29, 2010.
  43. ^ a b Nguy?n D? (2006). Kh?i L?i Dòng X?a: Nghiên c?u - biên kh?o v?n hóa dân gian Vi?t Nam [Dredging up the past: Researching Vietnamese folk culture] (in Vietnamese). Hanoi: Nhà xu?t b?n Lao ng. p. 110. T?n ?à g?i nh?c ph?n là ph?c ph?. Ch? ph?n chuy?n qua ph? trc khi thành ph?. Ph? c?a nh?c ph? (ch? không ph?i feu c?a pot-au-feu) m?i là ti?n thân c?a ph?.
  44. ^ Siêu H?i (2000). Tr?m N?m Truy?n Th?ng Long - Hà N?i (in Vietnamese). Youth Publishing House. pp. 373-375. Ngu?n g?c c?a nó là món canh th?t trâu xáo hành r?m ?n v?i bún. Bà con ta thng g?i là xáo trâu r?t ph? bi?n ? các ch? nông thôn và các xóm bình dân ? Hà N?i.
  45. ^ a b Peters, Erica J. (16 October 2011). Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: Food and Drink in the Long Nineteenth Century. Rowman Altamira. p. 204. ISBN 0759120757. Networks of Chinese and Vietnamese who cooked or butchered meat for the French most likely diverted beef remnants to street soup vendors .... By 1919, Jean Marquet reports hearing 'Yoc Pheu!' called out on the streets of Hanoi by Vietnamese selling beef soup .... Du village à la cité, Marquet's novel about Vietnamese urbanization and radicalism, .... may be the earliest use of the word in print, and the earliest effort to label ph? a uniquely Vietnamese dish.
  46. ^ "pho". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5 ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2018. Retrieved 2018. A soup of Vietnamese origin typically consisting of rice noodles, onions, herbs, seasonings, and thinly sliced beef or chicken in a clear broth.
  47. ^ Johnathon Gold Pho Town; Noodle stories from South El Monte Dec. 12-18 2008 LA Weekly
  48. ^ a b c Diana My Tran (2003). The Vietnamese Cookbook. Capital Lifestyles (illustrated ed.). Capital Books. pp. 53-54. ISBN 1-931868-38-7. Retrieved .
  49. ^ Herbst, Sharon Tyler; Herbst, Ron (2007). The New Food Lover's Companion: More Than 6,700 A-to-Z Entries Describe Foods, Cooking Techniques, Herbs, Spices, Desserts, Wines, and the Ingredients for Pleasurable Dining. Barron's snippet. ISBN 978-0-7641-3577-4. Medium-wide noodles (known as rice fettuccine, ban pho, ho fun, haw fun, gway tio, kway teow, kui teow, lai fen and sen lek) are considered an all-purpose noodle. They're used in a wide variety of dishes (stir-frys, soups and salads) and as an accompaniment to meat dishes.
  50. ^ Pailin's Kitchen. How to Make Fresh Rice Noodles "Ho Fun" - Hot Thai Kitchen!. Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Our Noodles". Sincere Orient. Retrieved 2018.
  52. ^ Jamie Oliver. Vietnamese 'Pho Ga' Chicken Noodle Soup. Retrieved .
  53. ^ Gross, Matt (6 March 2014). "The Annoying Food Snob's Guide to Eating Pho With Sriracha". Bon Appétit. Condé Nast. Retrieved 2015.
  54. ^ "Vietnamese Noodles 101: Banh Pho Flat Rice Noodles - Viet World Kitchen". Viet World Kitchen. Retrieved 2015.
  55. ^ Brewer, John (August 4, 2010). "Fooled by pho: Big white guy thought he was up to downing a 10-pound bowl of Vietnamese soup, but ..." St. Paul Pioneer Press. St. Paul, Minnesota: MediaNews Group. Retrieved 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  56. ^ Phan Ngh?. "Ph? Saigon x?a và nay" (in Vietnamese).
  57. ^ Abt, Samuel (7 February 2008). "Restaurant in Vietnam remembers role in Tet offensive". International Herald Tribune. New York Times Company. Retrieved 2013. Upstairs above Pho Binh, the Tet offensive was planned and ordered to begin.
  58. ^ Cain, Geoffrey (4 November 2010). "Ho Chi Minh City's Secret Noodle Shop". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved 2013.
  59. ^ Gross, Matt (5 May 2013). "Learning to Love 'the People's Food'". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. TR8. At lunch, for example, I'd often order pho at the renowned Pho Hoa Pasteur.
  60. ^ Nguyen, Lan Anh (14 February 2011). "Starting From Scratch". Forbes Asia. Forbes. Retrieved 2013.
  61. ^ Hsu, Tiffany (21 March 2008). "Cooking up a growth plan". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved 2013.
  62. ^ "Company Information". Ph? Hòa. 3 July 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  63. ^ Killham, Nina (September 17, 1989), "Than Van Thien: Soupmaker, Pho 75", Washington Post.
  64. ^ Shatkin, Elina (May 11, 2011). "World's Most Expensive Pho Goes on Auction Block". LA Weekly. Voice Media Group. Retrieved 2015.
  65. ^ William-Ross, Lindsay (May 18, 2011). "Is There Such a Thing in L.A. as a $5,000 Bowl of Pho?". LAist. Gothamist. Archived from the original on June 24, 2011. Retrieved 2015.
  66. ^ V? Th? Long (18 September 2009). "Phát hi?n m?i v? ph? (Bài 2): 'Gi?i ph?u' m?t bát ph? bò" [New discoveries about pho (2nd article): 'Dissecting' a bowl of beef pho]. Báo Th? thao & V?n hóa (in Vietnamese). Vietnam News Agency. Retrieved 2013.
  67. ^ "40 delicious Vietnamese dishes". CNN Travel. CNN. Retrieved 2015.

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