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Phase Shift Module
A microwave (6 to 18 GHz) Phase Shifter and Frequency Translator
A phase shift module is a microwave network module which provides a controllable phase shift of the RF signal. Phase shifters are used in phased arrays.
- Active versus passive: Active phase shifters provide gain, while passive phase shifters are lossy.
- Analog versus digital:
- Analog phase shifters provide a continuously variable phase shift or time delay.
- Digital phase shifters provide a discrete set of phase shifts or time delays. Discretization leads to quantization errors. Digital phase shifters require parallel bus control.
- Differential, single-ended or waveguide:
- Differential transmission line: A differential transmission line is a balanced two-conductor transmission line in which the phase difference between currents is 180 degrees. The differential mode is less susceptible to common mode noise and cross talk.
- Antenna selection: dipole, tapered slot antenna (TSA)
- Examples: coplanar strip, slotline
- Single-ended transmission line: A single-ended transmission line is a two-conductor transmission line in which one conductor is referenced to a common ground, the second conductor. The single-ended mode is more susceptible to common-mode noise and cross talk.
- Antenna selection: double folded slot (DFS), microstrip, monopole
- Examples: CPW, microstrip, stripline
- Antenna selection: waveguide, horn
- Frequency band
- One-conductor or dielectric transmission line versus two-conductor transmission line
- Phase shifters versus TTD phase shifter
- A phase shifter provides an invariable phase shift with frequency, and is used for fixed-beam frequency-invariant pattern synthesis.
- A TTD phase shifter provides an invariable time delay with frequency, and is used for squint-free and ultra wideband (UWB) beam steering.
- Reciprocal versus non-reciprocal
- Reciprocal: T/R
- Non-reciprocal: T or R
- Non semi-conducting (ferrite, ferro-electric, RF MEMS, liquid crystal):
- Semi-conducting (RF CMOS, GaAs. SiGe, InP, GaN or Sb):
- Distorted if lumped
- Undistorted and TTD if distributed
- Applications: reflect arrays (S11 phase shifters)
- Distorted if S21 phase shifter, because of 3 dB coupler
- Undistorted and TTD if S11 phase shifter
- High-pass or low-pass
- or T
- Undistorted if the left-handed high-pass sections cancel out the distortion of the right-handed low-pass sections
- Applications: UWB beam steering
- Distortion: undistorted and TTD
- Vector summing
Figures of Merit
- Number of Effective bits, if digital [Bit]
- Biasing: current-driven, high-voltage electrostatic [mA,V]
- DC power consumption [mW]
- Distortion: group velocity dispersion (GVD) [ps/(km.nm)]
- Gain [dB] if active, loss if [dB] if passive
- Linearity: IP3, P1dB [dBm]
- Phase shift / noise figure [deg/dB] (phase shifter) or time delay / noise figure [ps/dB] (TTD phase shifter)
- Power handling [mW, dBm]
- Reliability [Cycles, MTBF]
- Size [mm2]
- Switching time [ns]
- ^ Microwave Solid State Circuit Design, 2nd Ed., by Inder Bahl and Prakash Bhartia, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 (Chapter 12)
- ^ RF MEMS Theory, Design and Technology by Gabriel Rebeiz, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 (Chapter 9-10)
- ^ Antenna Engineering Handbook, 4th Ed., by John Volakis, McGraw-Hill, 2007 (Chapter 21)
- ^ Phased Array Antennas, 2nd Ed., by R. C. Hansen, John Wiley & Sons, 1998
- ^ Phased Array Antenna Handbook, 2nd Ed., by Robert Mailloux, Artech House, 2005
- ^ Phased Array Antennas by Arun K. Bhattacharyya, John Wiley & Sons, 2006
- ^ Microwave Phase Shifter information from Herley General Microwave