The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women's and men's medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
Their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18. The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 respectively, with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 respectively and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the second world war.
The Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), (CGAs), and organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games also include some sports that are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls, netball and squash.
The Commonwealth of Nations
, normally referred to as the Commonwealth
and formerly known as the British Commonwealth
, is an intergovernmental organisation
independent member states
. All but two (Mozambique
) of these countries were formerly part of the British Empire
, out of which it developed.
The member states cooperate within a framework of common values and goals as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation through which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status.
Its activities are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the Secretary-General, and biennial meetings between Commonwealth Heads of Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, which is a ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of sixteen Commonwealth members, which are known as the "Commonwealth realms".
The Commonwealth is a forum for a number of non-governmental organisations, collectively known as the Commonwealth Family, which are fostered through the intergovernmental Commonwealth Foundation. The Commonwealth Games, the Commonwealth's most visible activity, are a product of one of these organisations. These organisations strengthen the shared culture of the Commonwealth, which extends through common sports, literary heritage, and political and legal practices. Due to this, Commonwealth countries are not considered to be "foreign" to one another. Reflecting this, diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are designated as High Commissions rather than embassies.
Vijender Singh Beniwal
: ? ?
) (born October 29, 1985) (also known as Vijender Singh
or Vijender Beniwal
) is an Olympic Medalist Indian boxer
from Kalwas, Bhiwani district
. He belongs to a family of Jat
ethnicity. Vijender's early days were spent in his village where he did his schooling, after which he received a bachelor's degree from a local college in Bhiwani. He practiced boxing at the Bhiwani Boxing Club
where coach Jagdish Singh
recognized his talent and encouraged him to take to professional boxing.
Vijender went on to compete at the sub-junior nationals where he won a silver medal for two years in succession. Having won medals in different competitions at the national level, Vijender was picked to train and compete at several international level competitions such as the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. At the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, he won the bronze medal after losing the semifinal bout against Kazakhstan's Bakhtiyar Artayev. At the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, he defeated Carlos Góngora of Ecuador 9-4 in the quarterfinals which guaranteed him a bronze medal--the first ever Olympic medal for an Indian boxer.
After this historic win, Vijender was given a number of awards, including the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award--India's highest sporting honour. In 2009, he participated at the World Amateur Boxing Championships where he won the bronze medal. In the same year, the International Boxing Association (AIBA) announced Vijender as the top-ranked boxer in its annual middleweight category list with 2800 points. He is credited for bringing back the sport of boxing into the limelight in India.
The 2002 Commonwealth Games
, officially the XVII Commonwealth Games
were held in Manchester
, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom
to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
, head of the Commonwealth
, and Manchester
was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London
. The XVII Commonwealth Games was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics
, the largest multi-sport event
ever to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London 1948 Summer Olympics
in numbers of teams and athletes participating. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games
in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester
has changed following the 1996 bombing. The Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester
, and bolstered its reputation as a European and global city
internationally. Rapid economic development and continued urban regeneration of the now post-industrial Manchester
continued after the Games which helped cement its place as one of the principal cultural cities in the United Kingdom
On 7 August, at the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Vancouver, Roger Bannister competed against John Landy for the first time in a race billed as "The Miracle Mile". They were the only two men in the world to have broken the 4-minute barrier, with Landy still holding the world record.