In the formal languages
used in mathematical logic
and computer science
, a well-formed formula
or simply formula
(often abbreviated wff
, pronounced "wiff" or "wuff") is an idea
which is expressed using the symbols
and formation rules
(also called the formal grammar
) of a particular formal language. To say that a string
is a wff with respect to a given formal grammar
is equivalent to saying that
belongs to the language generated by
. A formal language can be identified with the set of its wffs.
) (384 BC - 322 BC) was a Greek
philosopher, a student of Plato
and teacher of Alexander the Great
. He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics
, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology.
Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. He was the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian Physics. In the biological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the nineteenth century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late nineteenth century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially Eastern Orthodox theology, and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.