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Independence Hall.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the sixth-most-populous city in the United States and the largest in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, both in area and population. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County. Philadelphia has the second-largest downtown residential population in the U.S., behind New York, just edging out Chicago. The Philadelphia metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in the U.S. by the official definition, with some 6.9 million people. Philadelphia is the central city of the Delaware Valley metropolitan area.

Philadelphia is one of the oldest and most historically significant U.S. cities. It was the nation's first capital. At the time of the American Revolution, it was the second-largest English-speaking city in the world, after only London. Into the first part of the 19th century, it was the country's most populous city and eclipsed Boston and New York City in political and social importance. Benjamin Franklin played an extraordinary role in Philadelphia's rise.

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An overview of South 9th Street, which is the location for the Italian Market.
Photo credit: Massimo Catarinella

The Schuylkill River is a river in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The river is approximately 130 miles (209 km) long. Its watershed of around 2000 square miles (5,000 km²) lies entirely within Pennsylvania. The source of its eastern branch starts in the Appalachian Mountains at Tuscarora Springs, near Tamaqua in Schuylkill County. The west branch starts near Minersville and joins the eastern branch at the town of Schuylkill Haven. The Tulpehocken Creek joins it at the western edge of Reading. Wissahickon Creek joins it in northwest Philadelphia.

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Hugh Duffy, manager, 1904-1906.

The Philadelphia Phillies has employed 51 managers and 10 general managers (GMs). Duties of the manager include team strategy and leadership on and off the field. Of those 51 managers, 15 have been "player-managers", who managed the team while still being signed as a player. In contrast, the general manager controls player transactions, hires and fires coaching staff, and negotiates players' contracts. The Phillies posted their franchise record for losses in a season during their record-setting streak of sixteen consecutive losing seasons (with a winning percentage below .500), with 111 losses in 154 games in 1941. During this stretch from 1933 to 1948, the team had seven different managers, all of whom posted winning percentages below .430 for their Phillies careers. Seven managers have taken the Phillies to the postseason, with Danny Ozark leading the team to three playoff appearances. Dallas Green and Charlie Manuel are the only Phillies managers to win a World Series: Green in 1980 against the Kansas City Royals; and Manuel in 2008 against the Tampa Bay Rays. The longest-tenured GM has been Paul Owens, with 11 years' service, from 1972 to 1983. Owens also served as the team manager in 1972, and from 1983 to 1984. After this, he served as a team executive until 2003, and was inducted into the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame in recognition of his services.

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Louis Henry Carpenter

Louis H. Carpenter was a United States Army brigadier general and Medal of Honor recipient. He began his military career in 1861, first as an enlisted soldier before being commissioned as an officer the following year. During the American Civil War, he participated in sixteen campaigns with the 6th U.S. Cavalry Regiment. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Indian Wars while serving with the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th U.S. Cavalry. He was noted several times for gallantry in official dispatches. Louis Carpenter dropped out of college to enlist in the Union Army at the beginning of the American Civil War and fought in the Gettysburg Campaign at the Battle of Fairfield. By the end of the Civil War, he held the rank of brevet lieutenant colonel, but also received a commission to first lieutenant in the Regular United States Army. After the Civil War and until his transfer back East in 1887, he served on the western frontier. He engaged many Native American tribes, dealt with many types of renegades and explored vast areas of uncharted territory from Texas to Arizona. During the Spanish-American War, he commanded an occupation force and became the first military governor of Puerto Principe, Cuba. After 38 continuous years of service to his country, he retired from the Army on October 19, 1899, as a brigadier general. After his retirement, he became a speaker and a writer.

Selected anniversaries - October

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"William Penn was the first great hero of American liberty. During the late seventeenth century, when Protestants persecuted Catholics, Catholics persecuted Protestants, and both persecuted Quakers and Jews, Penn established an American sanctuary which protected freedom of conscience."

--Jim Powell

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