is the adherence to codified beliefs
that generally involve a faith
in a spiritual nature
and a study of inherited ancestral traditions
related to understanding human life
. The term "religion" refers to both the personal practices related to faith as well as to the larger shared systems of belief.
In the larger sense, religion is a communal system for the coherence of belief--typically focused on a system of thought, unseen being, person, or object, that is considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine, or of the highest truth. Moral codes, practices, values, institutions, traditions, and rituals are often traditionally associated with the core belief, and these may have some overlap with concepts in secular philosophy. Religion can also be described as a way of life.
The development of religion has taken many forms in various cultures. "Organized religion" generally refers to an organization of people supporting the exercise of some religion with a prescribed set of beliefs, often taking the form of a legal entity (see religion-supporting organization). Other religions believe in personal revelation and responsibility. "Religion" is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system," but is more socially defined than that of personal convictions.
(pronounced in English as ['d?e?.n?zm?]
), traditionally known as Jain Dharma
(??? ????), is a religion
originating in ancient India
. A minority in modern India
, with growing immigrant communities in the United States
, Western Europe
, the Far East
and elsewhere, Jains continue to sustain the ancient Shraman
(?????) or ascetic
Jains have significantly influenced the religious, ethical, political and economic spheres in India for about three millennia. Jainism stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life with particular emphasis on non-violence. Self-control (????, vratae) is vital for attaining Keval Gyan and eventually moksha, or realization of the soul's true nature.
The Jain Sangha (???), or community, has four components: monks (????), nuns (sadhvi), laymen, (Shravakas ??????), and laywomen, (Shravikas). A Shravaka (??????) follows basic principles or "Niyam".
Selected religious figure or deity
, transliterated Kong Fuzi
, lit. "Master Kong,
" but most frequently referred to as Kongzi
??, traditionally September 28
- 479 BC
) was a famous Chinese
thinker and social philosopher
, whose teachings and philosophy
have deeply influenced East Asian
life and thought.
His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism or Daoism during the Han Dynasty. Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism. It was introduced to Europe by the Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to Latinise the name as "Confucius".
- ...that the word, Christian, only appears three times in the Bible?
- ...that according to the Torah, Moses lived to be 120 years old?
- ...that in Shinto, the family is seen as the main mechanism by which traditions are preserved? Their main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
The Book of the Law
is the central sacred text of Thelema
, written (or received) by Aleister Crowley
in the year 1904. It contains three chapters, each of which was written down in one hour, beginning at noon, on April 8
, April 9
, and April 10
. Crowley claims that the author was an entity named Aiwass
, whom he later referred to as his personal Holy Guardian Angel
(or "Secret Self"). Biographer Lawrence Sutin quotes private diaries that fit this story, and writes that "if ever Crowley uttered the truth of his relation to the Book," his public account accurately describes what he remembered on this point. The teachings within this small book are expressed as the Law of Thelema, usually encapsulated by these two phrases:
"Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law" (AL I:40) and
"Love is the law, love under will" (AL I:57)
Its full title is Liber AL vel Legis, sub figura CCXX, The Book of the Law, as delivered by XCIII=418 to DCLXVI. It is often abbreviated as Liber Legis, Liber AL, or even just AL.