Portal:Spirituality
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Portal:Spirituality

Spirituality

The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other.

Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. The term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during late medieval times to include mental aspects of life.

In modern times the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live", often in a context separate from organized religious institutions, such as a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension".

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Ralph Waldo Emerson ca.1857
Transcendentalism was a religious and philosophical movement that was developed during the late 1820s and 1830s in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature.

Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.

Transcendentalism first arose among New England congregationalists, who differed from orthodox Calvinism on two issues. They rejected predestination, and they emphasized the unity instead of the trinity of God. Following the skepticism of David Hume, the transcendentalists took the stance that empirical proofs of religion were not possible.

Transcendentalism developed as a reaction against 18th Century rationalism, John Locke's philosophy of Sensualism, and the predestinationism of New England Calvinism. It is fundamentally a variety of diverse sources such as Hindu texts like the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita, various religions, and German idealism.

Glossary

  • Bhakti: Devotion towards Supreme Personality of Godhead (Krishna, Chaitanya and other Vishnu avataras) by Spiritual and Religious Practices
  • Revivalism: A revival is the apparent restoration of a living creature from a dead state to a living state. In a New Testament story, Lazarus was revived by divine intervention. In religious terms, Revival is the substitution of religious fervor in life and worship, for an intellectualized, pragmatic approach to everyday conduct (often stigmatized by revivalists as 'pride').
  • Spirit: The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath...
  • Yoga: (Sanskrit , "union" of soul with SuperSoul, God) is any of authentic practices of a family of spiritual practices that originated in India, which includes meditation (dhyana), which is seen primarily as a means to enlightenment, samadhi (or bodhi)...
  • Channelling: The act of having spirits enter or possess one's body in order to speak and act through one as practised in many cultures and religions.

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Buddha-painting.jpg

Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddh?rtha Gautama, Shakyamuni,, or simply the Buddha, was a sage[1] on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. Buddha means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one". Gautama taught a Middle Way compared to the severe asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movement common in his region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Ko?ala.

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Heilig Kreuz Kerzenlabyrinth 15122012 02.JPG
  • In Hinduism and its spiritual systems of yoga and in some related eastern cultures, as well as in some segments of the New Age Movement - and to some degree the distinctly different New Thought movement - a chakra is thought to be an energy node ("wheel") in the etheric body or energy duplicate of the human physical body.

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  1. ^ Baroni 2002, p. 230.
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