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Theatre (Greek "theatron"), enjoys the distinction of two spellings: in British English, "theatre" and in American English, "theater". There is no technical distinction between the meanings of the two spellings, however most theatre artists prefer the English spelling because it creates a historical nod to the ancient Greek term theatron. Some also use the American spelling to designate a theatre building and the English term to reference the art itself, as in the "art of theatre."

Theatre is that branch of the performing arts concerned with the creation of stories or narratives for (or with) an audience using combinations of acting, speech, gesture, music, dance, object manipulation, sound and spectacle -- indeed, any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to standard narrative dialogue style, theatre takes such forms as opera, musicals, ballet, mime, kabuki, classical Indian dance, Chinese opera, mummers' plays, improvisation, story theater and pantomime.

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Aphra Behn's "The Rover" is a popular Restoration comedy
Restoration comedy is the name given to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1700. After public stage performances had been banned for 18 years during the Interregnum, the re-opening of the theatres in 1660 signalled a rebirth of English drama. Restoration comedy is famous or notorious for its sexual explicitness, a quality encouraged by Charles II personally and by the rakish aristocratic ethos of his court. Wide and socially mixed audiences were attracted to the comedies by up-to-the-minute topical writing, by crowded and bustling plots, by the introduction of the first professional actresses, and by the rise of the first celebrity actors. This period saw the first professional woman playwright, Aphra Behn.

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The Black Crook


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Judy Garland
Judy Garland (1922-1969) was an American actress and singer. Through a career that spanned 45 of her 47 years, Garland attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist and on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she won an Academy Award and a Golden Globe for her work in films, Grammy Awards and a Tony Award. After appearing in vaudeville with her sisters, Garland was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. There she made more than two dozen films, including nine with Mickey Rooney, and the film with which she would be most identified, The Wizard of Oz (1939). After 15 years, Garland was released from the studio but gained renewed success through record-breaking concert appearances, including a critically acclaimed Carnegie Hall concert, a well-regarded but short-lived television series and a return to film acting beginning with A Star Is Born (1954). Despite her professional triumphs, Garland battled personal problems throughout her life, and attempted suicide on a number of occasions. Garland died of an accidental drug overdose at the age of forty-seven, leaving children Liza Minnelli, Lorna Luft and Joey Luft. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the ten greatest female stars in the history of American cinema.

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Florence Perry


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Sacha Guitry, portrait by Léon Gard
When they have a success, the producers think they are brilliant, but when they have a failure, they think the public are fools.

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History: Sanskrit Plays o Natya Shastra o Natya Shastra of Bharata o Koodiyattam o Bhasa o K?lid?sa o Kathakali o Bhavabhuti o Harsha o Chinese theatre o Cantonese Opera o Beijing Opera o Ramakien o Noh o Bunraku o Kabuki o Butoh o Theatre of Ancient Greece o Theatre of ancient Rome o Medieval theatre o Commedia dell'Arte o English Renaissance theatre o Restoration comedy o Restoration spectacular o Neoclassicism o Twentieth century theatre

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Types: Comedy o Drama o Musical theatre o Hip-Hop theater

Philosophy: Aristotle o Poetics o Konstantin Stanislavski o Antonin Artaud o Bertolt Brecht o Orson Welles o Peter Brook o Jerzy Grotowski o Meisner technique o Stanislavsky System o Method acting o Presentational acting

Organization: Community theatre o Dinner theatre o Fringe theatre o Summer stock theatre o Regional theatre o Off-Off-Broadway o Off-Broadway o Off West End o Broadway theatre o West End theatre

Unions: Actors' Equity Association o Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers o International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees

Awards: Back Stage West Garland Awards o Drama Desk Award o Evening Standard Awards o Green Room Award o Hans-Reinhart-Ring o Helpmann Award o Joseph Jefferson Award o Laurence Olivier Awards o London Critics' Circle Theatre Awards o Lucille Lortel Award o Manchester Evening News o Matilda Award o New York Innovative Theatre Awards o Molière Award o Obie Award o Ovation Awards o Sangeet Natak Academy Award o Theatre Pasta Theatre Awards o Tony Award

Stagecraft: Theatre director o Playwright o Actor o Production team o Set designer o Lighting designer o Costume designer o Sound design o Dramaturg o Stage management o Production manager o Technical theatre

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