is the practice of going underwater, either with breathing apparatus (scuba diving
and surface-supplied diving
) or by breath-holding.
Recreational diving is a popular activity (also called sports diving or subaquatics), and includes technical diving, recreational scuba diving, freediving, snuba, snorkeling and a range of competitive sports performed underwater.
Professional diving includes diving as part of one's occupation, and takes a range of diving activities to the underwater work site. Commercial diving, military diving, public safety diving and scientific diving are aspects of professional diving.
Freediving is a form of underwater diving that does not involve the use external breathing devices, but relies on a diver's ability to hold his or her breath until resurfacing. Activities include breath-hold spearfishing, freedive photography, apnea competitions, and to some degree, snorkeling.
The scope of this portal includes the technology supporting diving activities, the physiological and medical aspects of diving, the procedures of diving, underwater activities which are to some degree dependent on diving, economical and commercial aspects of diving, biographical information on notable divers, inventors and manufacturers of diving related equipment and researchers into aspects of diving,
A US Navy diver
at work. The umbilical supplying air from the surface is clearly visible
Professional diving is a type of diving where the divers are paid for their work. There are several branches of professional diving, the most well known of which is probably commercial diving. Any person wishing to become a professional diver normally requires specific training that satisfies any regulatory agencies which have local authority, such as US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive or South African Department of Labour. Due to the dangerous nature of some professional diving operations, specialized equipment such as an on-site hyperbaric chamber and diver-to-surface communication system is often required by law.
The primary distinction between professional and recreational diving is that the recreational diver is responsible primarily for his/her own actions and safety but may voluntarily accept limited responsibility for dive buddies, whereas the professional diver is part of a team of people with extensive responsibilities and obligations to each other and usually to an employer or client, and these responsibilities and obligations are formally defined in legislation, regulations, operations manuals, standing orders and compulsory or voluntary codes of practice. In many cases a statutory national occupational health and safety legislation constrains their activities.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976
Jacques-Yves Cousteau (French pronunciation: [?ak iv kusto]; commonly known in English as Jacques Cousteau; 11 June 1910 - 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, ecologist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-Lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française. He was also known as "le Commandant Cousteau" or "Captain Cousteau".