Present Tense
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Present Tense

The present tense (abbreviated PRES or PRS) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.[1] The present tense is used for actions in a time which is happening now. In order to explain and understand present tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which the past tense, the present and the future tense are positioned. The term present tense is usually used in descriptions of specific language's to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the English sentence "My train leaves tomorrow morning", the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past.

There are two common types of present tense form in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood). The present tense is mainly classified into 4 parts - (i) Simple Present (ii)Present Perfect (iii) Present Continuous (iv) Present Perfect Continuous

English

The present indicative of most verbs in modern English has the same form as the infinitive, except for the third-person singular form, which takes the ending -[e]s. The verb be has the forms am, is, are. For details see English verbs. For the present subjunctive, see English subjunctive.

A number of multi-word constructions exist to express combinations of present tense with aspect. The basic form of the present tense is called the simple present; there are also constructions known as the present progressive (or present continuous) (e.g. am writing), the present perfect (e.g. have written), and the present perfect progressive (e.g. have been writing).

Use of the present tense does not always imply present time. In particular, the present tense is often used to refer to future events (I am seeing James tomorrow; My train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon). This is particularly the case in condition clauses and many other adverbial subordinate clauses: If you see him,...; As soon as they arrive... There is also the historical present, in which the present tense is used to narrate past events.

For details of the uses of present tense constructions in English, see Uses of English verb forms.

Hellenic languages

Modern Greek present indicative tense

In Modern Greek, the present tense is used in a similar way to the present tense in English and can represent the present continuous as well. As with some other conjugations in Greek, some verbs in the present tense accept different (but equivalent) forms of use for the same person. What follows are examples of present tense conjugation in Greek for the verbs (see), ? (eat) and (love).

  ?, ,
I ?, ,
thou ? ?,
/?/? he/she/it , ()
we , ?, ?,
you (pl.) ? , ? ?
//? they ?(?) ?(?), ?(?) ?(?), (?)

Romance languages

The Romance languages are derived from Latin, and in particular western Vulgar Latin. As a result, their usages and forms are similar.

Latin present indicative tense

The Latin present tense can be translated as progressive or simple present. Here are examples of the present indicative tense conjugation in Latin.

  plic?re deb?re dicere cupere sc?re
conjugation 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th
ego plic? debe? d?c? cupi? sci?
tu plic?s deb?s d?cis cupis sc?s
is, ea, id plicat debet dicit cupit scit
nos plic?mus deb?mus d?cimus cupimus sc?mus
vos plic?tis deb?tis d?citis cupitis sc?tis
ei, eae, ea plicant debent d?cunt cupiunt sciunt

French present indicative tense

In French, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. Below is an example of present tense conjugation in French.

  parler perdre finir partir
je parle perds finis pars
tu parles perds finis pars
il/elle/on parle perd finit part
nous parlons perdons finissons partons
vous parlez perdez finissez partez
ils/elles parlent perdent finissent partent

To express (and emphasise) the present continuous, expressions such as "en train de" or "en cours de" may be used. For example, Jean est en train de manger, may be translated as John is eating, John is in the middle of eating. On est en train de chercher un nouvel appartement may be translated as We are looking for a new apartment, we are in the process of finding a new apartment. Le fichier est en cours de traitement. may be transalated as The file is being processed currently.

Italian present indicative tense

In Italian, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. What follows is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Italian.

  parlare vedere sentire
io parlo vedo sento
tu parli vedi senti
egli/ella parla vede sente
noi parliamo vediamo sentiamo
voi parlate vedete sentite
essi/esse parlano vedono sentono

Portuguese and Spanish present indicative tense

The present tenses of Portuguese and Spanish are similar in form, and are used in similar ways. What follows are examples of the present indicative conjugation in Portuguese.

  falar comer insistir
eu falo como insisto
tu falas comes insistes
ele/ela/você fala come insiste
nós falamos comemos insistimos
vós falais comeis insistis
eles/elas falam comem insistem

There follow examples of the corresponding conjugation in Spanish.

  hablar comer insistir
yo hablo como insisto
hablas comes insistes
él / ella / usted habla come insiste
nosotros hablamos comemos insistimos
vosotros habláis coméis insistís
ellos / ellas / ustedes hablan comen insisten

Slavic languages

Bulgarian present indicative tense

In Bulgarian, the present indicative tense of imperfective verbs is used in a very similar way to the present indicative in English. It can also be used as present progressive. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Bulgarian.

  *
pisati
*
govoriti
*
iskati
*
otvarjati

az
?
pi?a

govorja

iskam
?
otvarjam

ti

pi?e?
?
govori?

iska?
?
otvarja?
, ,
toj, tja, to
?
pi?e

govori
?
iska

otvarja

nie

pi?em
?
govorim

iskame

otvarjame

vie

pi?ete

govorite

iskate

otvarjate

te

pi?at
?
govorjat

iskat
?
otvarjat

*Archaic, no infinitive in the modern language.

Macedonian present tense

The present tense of the Macedonian language is made of the imperfective verbs. The following table shows the conjugation of the verbs write (/pi?uva), speak (?/zboruva), want (?/saka) and open (a/otvara).

 
pi?uva
?
zboruva
?
saka
a?a
otvara

jas
?
pi?uvam

zboruvam

sakam
a
otvaram

ti
?
pi?uva?

zboruva?

saka?
a
otvara?
, ,
toj, taa, toa

pi?uva
?
zboruva
?
saka
a
otvara

nie

pi?uvame

zboruvame

sakame
a?
otvarame

vie

pi?uvate

zboruvate

sakate
a?
otvarate

tie

pi?uvaat

zboruvaat

sakaat
a?
otvaraat

See also

References

  1. ^ Comrie, Bernard, Tense, Cambridge Univ Press, 1985.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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