Principal Upanishads
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Principal Upanishads

Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are the most ancient, widely studied Upanishads of Hinduism. Composed between 800 BCE to the start of common era, these texts are connected to the Vedic tradition.[1] While some early colonial era Indology listed 10 Upanishads as Mukhya Upanishads, most scholars now consider the Principal Upanishads to be thirteen.[2][3][4]

  1. (IsUp), Yajurveda
  2. Kena (KeUp), Samaveda
  3. Ka?ha (KaUp), Yajurveda
  4. Pra?na (PrUp), Atharvaveda
  5. Muaka (MuUp), Atharvaveda
  6. M?kya (MaUp), Atharvaveda
  7. Taittir?ya (TaiUp), Yajurveda
  8. Aitareya, (AiUp), Rigveda
  9. Ch?ndogya (ChhUp), Samaveda
  10. B?had?ra?yaka (B?Up), Yajurveda
  11. Shvetashvatara Upanishad
  12. Kaushitaki Upanishad
  13. Maitri Upanishad

The first ten of the above Principal Upanishads were commented upon by the 8th[5] century scholar Shankara. The adjective mukhya means "principal", "chief", or "primary". The Mukhya Upanishads are accepted as ?ruti by all Hindus, or the most important scriptures of Hinduism.[6]

The Principal Upanishads (1953) by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan gives the text and English translation of a total of eighteen Upanishads, including the 13 listed by Hume (1921), plus Sub?la, J?b?la, Pai?gala, Kaivalya, Vajras?cik? (Muktika nos. 30, 13, 59, 12 and 36).


See also


  1. ^ William K. Mahony (1998). The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-7914-3579-3. 
  2. ^ John G. Arapura (2012). Gnosis and the Question of Thought in Ved?nta: Dialogue with the Foundations. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 978-94-009-4339-1. ; Quote: "These are the Isha, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Aitareya, Taittiriya, Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya and Svetasvatara. To this list is usually added the Kaushitaki and Maitrayaniya or Maitri) to make the thirteen principal Upanishads, a canon which has found favor with most scholars of the present day."
  3. ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press 
  4. ^ Edward Fitzpatrick Crangle (1994). The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 8, 12. ISBN 978-3-447-03479-1. 
  5. ^ Comans, Michael (2000). The Method of Early Advaita Ved?nta: A Study of Gau?ap?da, ?a?kara, Sure?vara, and Padmap?da. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 163. 
  6. ^ Kim Knott (2016). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 12-13. ISBN 978-0-19-874554-9. 

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