Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.
These may be applied on their own, or as part of a larger process.
- Haber process - chemically binding gaseous nitrogen from the atmosphere to make ammonia
- Smelting - chemically enhancing metals
- Disinfection - chemical treatment to kill bacteria and viruses
- Pyroprocessing - using heat to chemically combine materials, such as in cement.
- Flash smelting - a refinement on smelting, for sulfur-containing ores (produces copper, nickel and lead)
The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals.
There are several physical processes for reshaping a material by cutting, folding, joining or polishing, developed on a large scale from workshop techniques.
The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould.
Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product.
Iron and steel
Early production of iron was from meteorites, or as a by-product of copper refining.
Petroleum and organic compounds
The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products.
Organized by product:
- Aluminium - (Deville process, Bayer process, Hall-Héroult process, Wöhler process)
- Ammonia, used in fertilizer & explosives - (Haber process)
- Bromine - (Dow process)
- Chlorine, used in chemicals - (chloralkali process, Weldon process, Hooker process)
- Fat - (rendering)
- Fertilizer - (nitrophosphate process)
- Glass - (Pilkington process)
- Gold - (bacterial oxidation, Parkes process)
- Graphite - (Acheson process)
- Heavy Water, used to refine radioactive products - (Girdler sulfide process)
- Hydrogen - (steam reforming, water gas shift reaction)
- Lead (and Bismuth) - (Betts electrolytic process, Betterton-Kroll process)
- Nickel - (Mond process)
- Nitric acid - (Ostwald process)
- Paper - (pulping, Kraft process, Fourdrinier machine)
- Rubber - (vulcanization)
- Salt - (Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process)
- Semiconductor crystals - (Bridgeman technique, Czochralski process)
- Silver - (Patio process, Parkes process)
- Silicon Carbide - (Acheson process, Lely process)
- Sodium carbonate, used for soap - (Leblanc process, Solvay process, Leblanc-Deacon process)
- Sulfuric acid - (lead chamber process, contact process)
- Titanium - (Hunter process, Kroll process)
- Zirconium - (Hunter process, Kroll process, crystal bar process, iodide process)
A list by process: