Protestantism By Country

There are between 800 and more than 900 million Protestants worldwide,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][a] among approximately 2.4 billion Christians.[10][1][11][12][b] In 2010, a total of more than 800 million included 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa.[2] Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population.[2] Various estimates put the percentage of Protestants in relation to the total number of world's Christians at 33%,[5] 36%,[13] 36.7%,[2] and 40%,[3] while in relation to the world's population at 11.6%[2] and 13%.[8]

In European countries which were most profoundly influenced by the Reformation, Protestantism still remains the most practiced religion.[5] These include the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom.[5][14] In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions.[15] Although Czech Republic was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements,[16] there are only few Protestant adherents;[17][18] mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs,[19] restrictions during the Communist rule, and also the ongoing secularization.[16] Over the last several decades, religious practice has been declining as secularization has increased.[5][20] According to a 2012 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Protestants made up 12% of the EU population.[21] According to Pew Research Center, Protestants constituted nearly one fifth (or 17.8%) of the continent's Christian population in 2010.[2] Clarke and Beyer estimate that Protestants constituted 15% of all Europeans in 2009, while Noll claims that less than 12% of them lived in Europe in 2010.[5][7]

Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant.[3][7][22] Since 1900, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America.[23][8][22] That caused Protestantism to be called a primarily non-Western religion.[7][22] Much of the growth has occurred after World War II, when decolonization of Africa and abolition of various restrictions against Protestants in Latin American countries occurred.[8] According to one source, Protestants constituted respectively 2.5% of South Americans, 2% of Africans, and 0.5% of Asians.[8] In 2000, percentage of Protestants on mentioned continents was 17%, more than 27% and 5.5%, respectively.[8] According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of Anglicans lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the British Commonwealth.[7] By 2010, 59% of Anglicans were found in Africa.[7]China is home to world's largest Protestant minority.[2][c]

Protestantism is growing in Africa,[23][24][25]Asia,[23][25][26]Latin America,[25][27] and Oceania,[23][22] while remaining stable or declining in Anglo America[22] and Europe,[5][28] with some exceptions such as France,[29] where it was legally eradicated after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau and the following persecution of Huguenots, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly.[29] According to some, Russia is another country to see Protestant growth.[30][31][32]

In 2010, the largest Protestant denominational families were historically Pentecostal denominations (10.8%), Anglican (10.6%), Lutheran (9.7%), Baptist (9%), United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7.2%), Presbyterian or Reformed (7%), Methodist (3.4%), Adventist (2.7%), Congregationalist (0.5%), Brethren (0.5%), The Salvation Army (0.3%) and Moravian (0.1%). Other denominations accounted for 38.2% of Protestants.[2]

The United States is home to approximately 20% of Protestants.[2] According to a 2012 study, Protestant share of U.S. population dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religion of the majority for the first time.[33][34][35] The decline is attributed mainly to the dropping membership of the Mainline Protestant churches,[33][36] while Evangelical Protestant and Black churches are relatively stable or continue to grow.[33]

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United State, a review of American Nobel prizes winners awarded between 1901 and 1972 by Harriet Zuckerman, 72% of American Nobel Prize Laureates came from Protestant backgrounds.[37] Overall, Protestants have won a total of 84.2% of all the American Nobel Prizes in Chemistry,[37] 60% in Medicine,[37] 58.6% in Physics,[37] between 1901 and 1972.

By 2050, Protestantism is projected to rise to slightly more than half of the world's total Christian population.[38][d] According to other experts such as Hans J. Hillerbrand, Protestants will be as numerous as Catholics.[39]

According to Mark Jürgensmeyer of the University of California, popular Protestantism[e] is the most dynamic religious movement in the contemporary world, alongside the resurgent Islam.[40]

Methodology

For the purposes of this list, the following Christian branches are considered Protestant:

Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites, Hussites, Brethren, Free Evangelicals, Waldensians, Quakers, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, United and Holiness are all regarded as subgroups of the previously listed denominational families (branches) of Protestantism. Evangelicals, Charismatics, Neo-charismatics and other Revivalists are found virtually across every Protestant branch. Nondenominationals, various independents and Protestants from other denominations, not easily fitting in the traditional classification, are also taken into account.

Estimates of total Protestant population vary considerably. Most reliable sources claim a range of 800 million to more than 1 billion. Difficulties occur as there is no consensus among scholars which denominations should be considered Protestant.

Countries

The seven regions considered in the following table are the six traditional ones (Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Oceania), plus Middle East (i.e. countries with Islamic majority from the Mediterranean to Iran).

Protestants by country
Region Country Total Population (year)  % Protestant Protestant Total
Asia  Afghanistan (details) 29,928,987 0.03% 10,000
Europe  Albania (details) 3,563,112 0.23% 8,191
Middle East  Algeria (details) 35,531,853 1.62% 250,000
Europe  Andorra (details) 71,201 2.1% 1,495
Africa  Angola (details) 19,600,000 30.6% 5,997,600
North America  Antigua and Barbuda (details) 68,722 68% 59,101
South America  Argentina (details) 40,500,000 9% 3,645,000
Europe  Armenia (details) 2,982,904 3.7% 110,368
Oceania  Australia (details) 23,401,892 (2016) 27.2% 6,355,952[41]
Europe  Austria (details) 8,440,465 (2012) 3.7% 326,879[42]
Europe  Azerbaijan (details) 8,581,400 0.07% 6,007
North America  Bahamas (details) 301,790 76% 229,360
Middle East  Bahrain (details) 688,345 ? ?
Asia  Bangladesh (details) 144,319,628 0.23% 331,935
North America  Barbados (details) 278,289 67% 186,454
Europe  Belarus (details) 10,300,483 5% 515,024
Europe  Belgium (details) 10,364,388 1.35% 140,000
North America  Belize (details) 279,457 30% 83,837
Africa  Benin (details) 9,100,000 23% 2,093,000
Asia  Bhutan (details) 2,232,291 0.018% 400
South America  Bolivia (details) 8,857,870 16% 1,417,259
Europe  Bosnia and Herzegovina (details) 4,025,476 0.04% 1,610
Africa  Botswana (details) 2,000,000 66% 1,320,000
South America  Brazil (details) 192,755,799 (2010) 22.2% 42,791,786[43]
Asia  Brunei (details) 372,361 1.3% 4,841
Europe  Bulgaria (details) 7,450,349 1% 74,503
Africa  Burkina Faso (details) 17,000,000 9% 1,360,000
Africa  Burundi (details) 10,200,000 20% 2,400,000
Asia  Cambodia (details) 13,607,069 0.04% 5,390
Africa  Cameroon (details) 16,380,005 20% 3,276,001
North America  Canada (details) 32,805,041 26% 9,513,462
Africa  Cape Verde (details) 415,294 3.5% 14,535
Africa  Central African Republic (details) 5,000,000 61% 3,050,000
Africa  Chad (details) 11,500,000 18% 2,070,000
South America  Chile (details) 18,192,000 13% - 15.5%[2] 2,365,000 - 2.821.000
Asia  China (details) 1,360,000,000 2% - 4% 40,000,000[f]
South America  Colombia (details) 46,900,000 (2011 est) 12.5% 5,862,500
Africa  Comoros (details) 671,247 0.25% 1,678
Africa  Congo, Republic of (details) 4,100,000 51% 2,091,000
Africa  Congo, Democratic Republic of (details) 67,800,000 51% 34,578,000
North America  Costa Rica (details) 4,700,000 (2011 est) 20% 940,000
Europe  Croatia (details) 4,495,904 2% 89,918
North America  Cuba (details) 11,346,670 11% 1,248,133
Europe  Cyprus (details) 780,133 2% 15,603
Europe  Czech Republic (details) 10,241,138 1.1% [46] 471,092
Africa  Côte d'Ivoire (details) 22,500,000 23% 5,175,000
Europe  Denmark (details) 5,700,000 77% - 82% 4,389,000 - 4,674,000
Africa  Djibouti (details) 900,000 0.2% 1,800
North America  Dominica (details) 69,278 15% 10,392
North America  Dominican Republic (details) 10,000,000 (2011 est) 18% (poll) 1,800,000
Asia  East Timor (details) 1,040,880 3% 31,226
South America  Ecuador (details) 14,700,000 12.5% 1,837,500
Middle East  Egypt (details) 82,600,000 1% 820,600
North America  El Salvador (details) 6,200,000 34.4% 2,132,800
Africa  Equatorial Guinea (details) 700,000 6% 42,000
Africa  Eritrea (details) 5,900,000 5% 295,000
Europe  Estonia (details) 1,094,564 11% 121,000
Africa  Ethiopia (details) 87,100,000 18% 15,678,000
Oceania  Fiji (details) 893,354 42.5% 379,676
Europe  Finland (details) 5,500,000 72% 3,960,000
Europe  France (details) 60,656,178 2% 1,213,124
Africa  Gabon (details) 1,500,000 24% 277,840
Africa  Gambia (details) 1,593,256 7% 360,000
Europe  Georgia (details) 4,677,401 2.14% 100,000
Europe  Germany (details) 82,800,000 (2016) 26.7% 21,922,000
Africa  Ghana (details) 25,000,000 61% 15,250,000
Europe  Greece (details) 10,668,354 0.28% 30,000
North America  Grenada (details) 89,502 30% 26,851
North America  Guatemala (details) 14,700,000 38.2% 6,038,150
Africa  Guinea (details) 10,200,000 4% 408,000
Africa  Guinea-Bissau (details) 1,600,000 2% 32,000
South America  Guyana (details) 765,283 38% 290,808
North America  Haiti (details) 10,100,000 (2011 est) 30% 3,030,000
North America  Honduras (details) 6,975,204 41% 2,859,834
Europe  Hungary (details) 10,006,835 14% 1,401,640
Europe  Iceland (details) 338,000 (2017) 76% 257,000[47]
Asia  India (details) 1,270,000,000 0.8 - 1.0% 8,500,000[g]
Asia  Indonesia (details) 237,640,000 (2010) 6.96% 16,530,000[49]
Middle East  Iran (details) 68,017,860 0.3% 204,054
Middle East  Iraq (details) 38,146,025 0.1% 40,000
Europe  Ireland (details) 4,234,925 (2006)[50] 5% 213,753[51]
Middle East  Israel (details) 6,276,883 0.01% 500
Europe  Italy (details) 58,102,112 1.3% 755,328
North America  Jamaica (details) 2,731,832 60% 1,639,099
Asia  Japan (details) 127,417,244 0.4% 509,668
Middle East  Jordan (details) 5,759,732 0.5% 28,799
Asia  Kazakhstan (details) 15,185,844 2% 303,717
Africa  Kenya (details) 41,600,000 60% 24,960,000
Oceania  Kiribati (details) 103,500 40% 41,400
Asia  Korea, North (details) 22,912,177 0.04% 10,000
Asia  Korea, South (details) 48,422,644 18.1% 8,760,000
Middle East  Kuwait (details) 2,335,648 2.14% 50,000
Asia  Kyrgyzstan (details) 5,146,281 0.03% 1,337
Asia  Laos (details) 6,217,141 0.56% 35,000
Europe  Latvia (details) 2,070,371 35% 714,000
Middle East  Lebanon (details) 3,826,018 1% 40,000
Africa  Lesotho (details) 2,200,000 50% 1,100,000
Africa  Liberia (details) 4,100,000 75% 3,075,000
Middle East  Libya (details) 6,765,563 Less than 1% ?
Europe  Liechtenstein (details) 33,436 7% 2,341
Europe  Lithuania (details) 3,596,617 1% 35,966
Europe  Luxembourg (details) 468,571 1% 4,686
Europe  Macedonia (details) 2,045,262 3% 61,358
Africa  Madagascar (details) 21,300,000 38% 8,094,000
Africa  Malawi (details) 15,900,000 55% 8,745,000
Asia  Malaysia (details) 28,900,000 4% 115,000
Asia  Maldives (details) 349,106 0 0
Africa  Mali (details) 15,400,000 1% 154,000
Oceania  Marshall Islands (details) 62,000 76.7% 47,554
Middle East  Mauritania (details) 3,500,000 0.1% 3,500
Africa  Mauritius (details) 1,230,602 4.5% 55,377
North America  Mexico (details) 114,800,000 (2011 est) 10% 11,400,000
Europe  Moldova (details) 4,455,421 0.26% 11,634
Oceania  Micronesia (details) 108,155 47% 50,833
Asia  Mongolia (details) 2,791,272 1.25% 35,000
Middle East  Morocco (details) 32,725,847 Protestant minorities ?
Africa  Mozambique (details) 23,100,000 27% 6,237,000
Asia  Myanmar (details) 42,909,464 3% 1,287,284
Africa  Namibia (details) 2,300,000 74% 1,702,000
Oceania  Nauru (details) 13,048 66% 8,612
Asia    Nepal (details) 27,676,547 0.01 3,979
Europe  Netherlands (details) 16,407,491 11% 3,445,573
Oceania  New Zealand (details) 4,242,048 33% 1,414,016
North America  Nicaragua (details) 5,900,000 (2011 est) 26.5% (PF) 1,563,500
Africa  Niger (details) 16,100,000 0.5% 80,500
Africa  Nigeria (details) 159,708,000 (2010) 37.7% 60,118,563[52]
Europe  Norway (details) 5,200,000 79% -83% 4,160,000 - 4,316,000
Middle East  Oman (details) 3,001,583 N/A N/A
Asia  Pakistan (details) 162,419,946 0.86% 1,400,000
North America  Panama (details) 3,600,000 24% 864,000
Oceania  Papua New Guinea (details) 5,545,268 61.5% 3,410,340
South America  Paraguay (details) 6,600,000 6% 396,000
South America  Peru (details) 29,400,000 (2011 est) 12.5% (2006 census) 3,675,000
Asia  Philippines (details) 100,000,000 10.0% 10,000,000
Europe  Poland (details) 38,635,144 0.34% 130,000
Europe  Portugal (details) 10,566,212 3.3% 348,685
North America  Puerto Rico (details) 3,500,000 15% 500,000
Middle East  Qatar (details) 863,051 1% Unknown
Europe  Romania (details) 22,329,977 6% 1,339,799
Europe  Russia (details) 143,420,309 0.29% 400,000
Africa  Rwanda (details) 10,900,000 43% 4,687,000
North America  Saint Kitts and Nevis (details) 38,958 74% 29,335
North America  Saint Lucia (details) 166,312 10% 16,631
North America  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (details) 117,534 77% 90,501
Oceania  Samoa (details) 179,000 49.8% 89,142
Middle East  Saudi Arabia (details) 26,417,599 3.33% 800,000
Africa  Senegal (details) 11,126,832 0.5% 55,634
Europe  Serbia (details) 7,186,175 1.2% 80,291
Africa  Seychelles (details) 81,188 8% 6,495
Africa  Sierra Leone (details) 5,400,000 14% 756,000
Asia  Singapore (details) 4,425,720 8% 354,058
Europe  Slovakia (details) 5,431,363 8.9 935,235
Europe  Slovenia (details) 2,011,070 0.8% 16,135
Africa  Somalia (details) 9,900,000 0 0
Africa  South Africa (details) 50,500,000 68% 36,865,000
Europe  Spain (details) 40,341,462 3.7% 1,500,000
Asia  Sri Lanka (details) 20,064,776 0.8% 160,518
Africa  Sudan (details) 44,600,000 5% 2,200,000
South America  Suriname (details) 500,000 25% 125,000
Africa  Swaziland (details) 1,200,000 67% 801,000
Europe  Sweden (details) 10,000,000 64% 6,400,000
Europe   Switzerland (details) 7,489,370 30% 2,023,438
Middle East  Syria (details) 18,448,752 0.2% 37,605
Asia  Taiwan (details) 22,894,384 2.6% 595,254
Asia  Tajikistan (details) 7,163,506 0.01% 711
Africa  Tanzania (details) 46,200,000 27% 12,474,000
Asia  Thailand (details) 64,076,033 0.64% 407,685
Africa  Togo (details) 5,681,519 9.5% 539,744
Oceania  Tonga (details) 112,422 73% 82,068
North America  Trinidad and Tobago (details) 1,300,000 38% 494,000
Africa  Tunisia (details) 10,074,951 3.33% 300
Middle East  Turkey (details) 69,660,559 Less than 1% 3,000
Asia  Turkmenistan (details) 4,952,081 0.6% 81
Oceania  Tuvalu (details) 11,636 94% 11,450
Africa  Uganda (details) 34,500,000 44% 15,180,000
Europe  Ukraine (details) 47,425,336 2.3% 900,000
Middle East  United Arab Emirates (details) 2,563,212 5% 128,160
Europe  United Kingdom (details) 63,181,775 50% 32,000,000
North America  United States (details) 322,014,853 (2014) 48% 149,736,900[53]
South America  Uruguay (details) 3,400,000 11% (2006 gov. survey) 374,000
Asia  Uzbekistan (details) 26,851,195 0.01% 1,345
Oceania  Vanuatu (details) 243,304 40% 97,321
Europe   Vatican City (details) 921 0% 0
South America  Venezuela (details) 33,221,865 17%[54] 5,647,717
Asia  Vietnam (details) 83,535,576 1% 835,355
Middle East  Yemen (details) 20,727,063 Approximately 1% ?
Africa  Zambia (details) 13,500,000 68% 9,180,000
Africa  Zimbabwe (details) 12,100,000 67% 8,107,000
World 7,000,000,000 12% 840,000,000

By region

The following are summary tables of the numbers and percentages of Protestants in each region. Also included are the percentages of Protestants in the world that reside in that region ("% of Protestant total").

Protestants in Africa
Region Total Population Protestants  % Protestant  % of Protestant total
Central Africa 91,561,875 18,322,151 20.01% 3.09%
East Africa 225,488,566 36,965,728 16.39% 6.23%
North Africa 161,963,837 100,300 0.06% 0.01%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 55,432,677 40.44% 9.35%
West Africa 269,935,590 49,230,627 18.24% 8.30%
Total 886,041,887 160,051,482 18.06% 26.99%
Protestants in Asia
Region Total Population Protestants  % Protestant  % of Protestant total
Central Asia 92,019,166 308,736 0.34% 0.05%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 25,550,708 1.67% 4.31%
Middle East 271,013,623 680,757 0.25% 0.11%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 9,458,283 0.66% 1.59%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 26,387,155 4.62% 4.45%
Total 3,899,656,802 62,385,639 1.6% 10.52%
Protestants in Europe
Region Total Population Protestants  % Protestant  % of Protestant total
Central Europe 82,033,047 7,803,177 9.51% 1.32%
Eastern Europe 209,198,166 1,389,452 0.66% 0.23%
Northern Europe 191,466,473 104,997,796 54.8% 17.71%
Southeastern Europe 65,407,609 1,713,080 2.62% 0.31%
Southern Europe 180,498,923 1,964,538 1.09% 0.33%
Total 728,604,218 117,868,043 16.2% 19.90%
Protestants in The Americas
Region Total Population Protestants  % Protestant  % of Protestant total
Caribbean 37,285,819 5,912,490 15.86% 0.99%
Central America 147,338,108 16,376,631 11.12% 2.76%
North America 328,539,175 172,167,236 52.4% 29.03%
South America 371,075,531 44,682,767 12.04% 7.53%
Total 884,238,633 239,139,124 27.05% 40.32%
Protestants in Oceania
Region Total Population Protestants  % Protestant  % of Protestant total
Oceania 30,809,781 13,474,012 43.73% 2.27%

=

Maps

Europe

World

See also

Other religions

Notes

  1. ^ Most current estimates place the world's Protestant population in the range of 800 million to more than a billion. For example, author Hans Hillerbrand estimated a total 2004 Protestant population of 833,457,000,[9] while a report by Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary - 961,961,000 (with inclusion of independents as defined in this article) in mid-2015.[1]
  2. ^ Current sources[which?] are in general agreement[] that Christians make up about 33% of the world's population--slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.
  3. ^ Estimates for China vary in dozens of millions. Nevertheless, in comparison to the other countries, there is no disagreement that China has the most numerous Protestant minority.
  4. ^ Protestant, Independent and Anglican parties are understood as Protestant as stated previously in the article, as well as in the book: Statistics for the P, I and A megablocs are often combined because they overlap so much-hence the order followed here.
  5. ^ A flexible term; defined as all forms of Protestantism with the notable exception of the historical denominations deriving from the Protestant Reformation.
  6. ^ Estimates vary considerably, from 18 up to 90 million or more.[44][45]
  7. ^ Estimates vary considerably, from 5 million to larger figures.[48]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Pewforum: Christianity (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved . 
  3. ^ a b c "Encyclopedia of Protestantism". Retrieved 2015. 
  4. ^ "CCC - Global Statistics". Retrieved . 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "The World's Religions". Retrieved 2015. 
  6. ^ "Protestantism". Retrieved 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Protestantism: A Very Short Introduction". Retrieved 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119. link (saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world's population--about 800 million people--but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.')
  9. ^ "Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set" by Hans J. Hillerbrand, p. 344
  10. ^ 33.39% of 7.174 billion world population (under the section "People and Society") "World". CIA world facts. 
  11. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved . 
  13. ^ "Protestant Demographics and Fragmentations". Retrieved 2015. 
  14. ^ "Religious Populations in England". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2011. 
  15. ^ "The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2012". Retrieved 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic) - Musée virtuel du Protestantisme". Retrieved 2015. 
  17. ^ "Tab 7.1 Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF) (in Czech). Czso.cz. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ "Tab 7.2 Population by religious belief and by regions" (PDF) (in Czech). Czso.cz. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Frommer's Prague & the Best of the Czech Republic". Retrieved 2015. 
  20. ^ Lilla, Mark (31 March 2006). "Europe and the legend of secularization". The New York Times. 
  21. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, retrieved 2013 
  22. ^ a b c d e "The Teachings of Modern Protestantism on Law, Politics, and Human Nature". Retrieved 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Encyclopedia of Protestantism". Retrieved 2015. 
  24. ^ "Study: Christianity growth soars in Africa - USATODAY.com". USATODAY.COM. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 2015. 
  25. ^ a b c Ostling, Richard N. (24 June 2001). "The Battle for Latin America's Soul". TIME.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  26. ^ "In China, Protestantism's Simplicity Yields More Converts Than Catholicism". International Business Times. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 2015. 
  27. ^ Chris Arsenault. "Evangelicals rise in Latin America". Retrieved 2015. 
  28. ^ "Religion in a Secularizing Society". Retrieved 2015. 
  29. ^ a b "Religious Newcomers and the Nation State". Retrieved 2015. 
  30. ^ "Moscow Church Spearheads Russia Revival". Retrieved 2015. 
  31. ^ Protestantism in Postsoviet Russia: An Unacknowledged Triumph
  32. ^ Felix Corley and Geraldine Fagan. ""Growing Protestants, Catholics Draw Ire"". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c "Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation
  34. ^ "BBC News - US Protestants no longer a majority - study". BBC News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 2015. 
  35. ^ "Protestants are no longer the majority in U.S. for the first time ever - due to rising number of Americans with 'no religion' - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. London. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 2015. 
  36. ^ "Mainline Churches: The Real Reason for Decline". Retrieved 2015. 
  37. ^ a b c d Harriet Zuckerman, Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States New York, The Free Pres, 1977, p.68: Protestants turn up among the American-reared laureates in slightly greater proportion to their numbers in the general population. Thus 72 percent of the seventy-one laureates but about two thirds of the American population were reared in one or another Protestant denomination-)
  38. ^ Johnstone, Patrick, "The Future of the Global Church: History, Trends and Possibilities", p. 100, fig 4.10 & 4.11
  39. ^ Hillerbrand, Hans J., "Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set", p. 1815, "Observers carefully comparing all these figures in the total context will have observed the even more startling finding that for the first itime ever in the history of Protestantism, Wider Protestants will by 2050 have become almost exactly as numerous as Roman Catholics - each with just over 1.5 billion followers, or 17 percent of the world, with Protestants growing considerably faster than Catholics each year."
  40. ^ Religion in Global Civil Society by Santa Barbara Mark Juergensmeyer Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global and International Studies Program University of California
  41. ^ 2016 Census of Population and General Community (Sheet G14) Australian Bureau of Statistics
  42. ^ "Zahlen & Fakten". Evang.at. 2010-12-31. Retrieved . 
  43. ^ "IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics) : 2010 Census" (PDF). Ftp.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2014. 
  44. ^ "BBC News - Christians in China: Is the country in spiritual crisis?". BBC News. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 2014. 
  45. ^ "Background Paper : Protestants in China" (PDF). Refworld.org. Retrieved 2014. 
  46. ^ CIA Factbook, 2015
  47. ^ "Populations by religious organizations 1998-2017". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 2017. 
  48. ^ "Encyclopedia of Protestantism". Books.google.pl. Retrieved 2014. 
  49. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by Region and Religion]. Sensus Penduduk 2010. Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 2011. Religion is belief in Almighty God that must be possessed by every human being. Religion can be divided into Muslim, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Hu Khong Chu, and Other Religion.  Muslim 207176162 (87.18%), Christian 16528513 (6.96), Catholic 6907873 (2.91), Hindu 4012116 (2.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.72), Khong Hu Chu 117091 (0.05), Other 299617 (0.13), Not Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118 (0.32), Total 237641326
  50. ^ [1] Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  51. ^ [2] Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  52. ^ "Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 2014. 
  53. ^ "BBC News - US Protestants no longer a majority - study". BBC News. Retrieved 2014. 
  54. ^ http://www.gisxxi.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Gustos-y-Deseos-de-la-Poblaci%C3%B2n-Venezolana-Feb-2011.pdf Religion in Venezuela (see pag 41-42)

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