Ramanuja
R?m?nuja
Ramanujacharya.jpg
Religion Hinduism
Philosophy Vishishtadvaita
Personal
Born I?aiy??v?r,[1][]
1017 CE
Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India
Died 1137 CE
Sri Rangam, Tamil Nadu, India
Literary works Traditionally 9 Sanskrit texts, including Vedartha Sangraham, Sri Bhashyam, Gita Bhashyam
Honors Emberum?r, Udaiyavar, Yatir?ja (king of sannyasis)
Propagator Vishishtadvaita Vedanta

Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017-1137 CE; IAST: R?m?nuja; [ra:ma:nud???] ) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.[2][3] He was born in a Tamil Br?hmin family in the village of Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu.[4] His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.[2][5][6]

R?m?nuja's guru was Y?dava Prak??a, a scholar who was a part of the more ancient Advaita Ved?nta monastic tradition.[7] Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that R?m?nuja disagreed with his guru and the non-dualistic Advaita Ved?nta, and instead followed in the footsteps of Indian Alv?rs tradition, the scholars N?thamuni and Yamun?ch?rya.[2]R?m?nuja is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Ved?nta,[8][9] and his disciples were likely authors of texts such as the Shatyayaniya Upanishad.[7]R?m?nuja himself wrote influential texts, such as bh?sya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.[10]

His Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism) philosophy has competed with the Dvaita (theistic dualism) philosophy of Madhv?ch?rya, and Advaita (monism) philosophy of ?di Shankara, together the three most influential Vedantic philosophies of the 2nd millennium.[11][12]R?m?nuja presented the epistemic and soteriological importance of bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God (Vishnu in R?m?nuja's case) as a means to spiritual liberation. His theories assert that there exists a plurality and distinction between ?tman (soul) and Brahman (metaphysical, ultimate reality), while he also affirmed that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman.[13][12][14]

Biography

The details of historic R?m?nuja (Tamil: ???????????) are unknown. His followers in the Vaishnava tradition wrote hagiographies, some of which were composed in centuries after his death, and which the tradition believes to be true.[3][15]

The traditional hagiographies of R?m?nuja state he was born in a Br?hmin family, to mother K?nthimathi and father Kesava Somay?ji,[4] in Sriperumbudur, near modern Chennai, Tamil N?du.[16] They place his life in the period of 1017-1137 CE, yielding a lifespan of 120 years.[17] These dates have been questioned by modern scholarship, based on temple records and regional literature of 11th- and 12th-century outside the Sri Vaishnava tradition, and modern era scholars suggest that R?m?nuja may have lived between 1077-1157.[18][4][16]

R?m?nuja married, moved to K?nchipuram, studied in an Advaita Ved?nta monastery with Y?dava Prak??a as his guru.[5][7][19]R?m?nuja and his guru frequently disagreed in interpreting Vedic texts, particularly the Upanishads.[4]R?m?nuja and Y?dava Prak??a separated, and thereafter R?m?nuja continued his studies on his own.[3][19]

He attempted to meet another famed Vedanta scholar of 11th-century Yamun?ch?rya, but Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that the latter died before the meeting and they never met.[3] However, some hagiographies assert that the corpse of Yamun?ch?rya miraculously rose and named R?m?nuja as the new leader of Sri Vaishnava sect previously led by Yamun?ch?rya.[3] One hagiography states that after leaving Y?dava Prak??a, R?m?nuja was initiated into Sri Vaishnavism by Periya Nambi, also called M?hapurna, another Ved?nta scholar. R?m?nuja renounced his married life, and became a Hindu monk.[20] However, states Katherine Young, the historical evidence on whether R?m?nuja led a married life or he did renounce and became a monk is uncertain.[21]

R?m?nuja became a priest at the Varadhar?ja Perumal temple (Vishnu) at K?nchipuram, where he began to teach that moksha (liberation and release from samsara) is to be achieved not with metaphysical, nirguna Brahman but with the help of personal god and saguna Vishnu.[19][22]R?m?nuja has long enjoyed foremost authority in the Sri Vaishnava tradition.[23]

Hagiographies

A number of traditional biographies of R?m?nuja are known, some written in 12th century, but some written centuries later such as the 17th or 18th century, particularly after the split of the ?r?vai??ava community into the Vadakalais and Te?kalais, where each community created its own version of R?m?nuja's hagiography.[21][24] The Muv?yirappa?i Guruparampar?prabh?va by Brahmatantra Svatantra J?yar represents the earliest Vadakalai biography, and reflects the Vadakalai view of the succession following R?m?nuja. ?r?yirappa?i Guruparampar?prabh?va, on the other hand, represents the Tenkalai biography.[] Other late biographies include the Yatirajavaibhavam by Andhrapurna.[21]

Modern scholarship has questioned the reliability of these hagiographies.[24] Scholars question their reliability because of claims which are impossible to verify, or whose historical basis is difficult to trace with claims such as R?m?nuja learned the Vedas when he was an eight-day-old baby, he communicated with God as an adult, that he won philosophical debates with Buddhists, Advaitins and others because of supernatural means such as turning himself into "his divine self Sesha" to defeat the Buddhists, or God appearing in his dream when he prayed for arguments to answer Advaita scholars.[24] According to J. A. B. van Buitenen, the hagiographies are "legendary biographies about him, in which a pious imagination has embroidered historical details".[19]

Historical background

R?m?nuja grew up in the Tamil culture, in a stable society during the rule of the Hindu Cholas dynasty.[25] This period was one of pluralistic beliefs, where Vaishnava, Shaiva, Smarta traditions, Buddhism and Jainism thrived together. In Hindu monastic tradition, Advaita Ved?nta had been dominant,[7] and R?m?nuja's guru Y?dava Pr?k?sha belonged to this tradition.[19] Prior to R?m?nuja, the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya was already an established organization under Yamun?ch?rya, and bhakti songs and devotional ideas already a part of south Indian culture because of the twelve Alv?rs.[26]R?m?nuja's fame grew because he was considered the first thinker in centuries that disputed Shankara's theories, and offered an alternate interpretation of Upanishadic scriptures.[25]

Some hagiographies, composed centuries after R?m?nuja's death, state that he was expelled by a Chola king, Kulottunga II,[27]R?m?nuja then moved to another kingdom for 12 years, converted a Jain king to Hinduism after miraculously healing his daughter, and later returned on his own to Tamil N?du. However, verifiable historical evidence for these legends have been lacking, and epigraphical evidence establishes that Kulottunga II came to power in 1133 CE, while R?m?nuja died in 1137 CE according to sources that claim R?m?nuja was expelled.[27] According to John Carman, R?m?nuja and his Sr?vai??ava disciples lived under the relatively stable and non-sectarian climate of the Chola empire, before its decline in the late 12th and 13th centuries.[28]

Writings

The Sri Vaisnava tradition attributes nine Sanskrit texts to R?m?nuja - Ved?rthasangraha (literally, "Summary of the Vedas meaning"), Sri Bh?shya (a review and commentary on the Brahma Sutras), Bhagavad Gita Bh?shya (a review and commentary on the Bhagavad Gita), and the minor works titled Ved?ntapida, Ved?ntas?ra, Gadya Trayam (which is a compilation of three texts called the Saran?gati Gadyam, Sriranga Gadyam and the Srivaikunta Gadyam), and Nitya Grantham.

Some modern scholars have questioned the authenticity of all but the three of the largest works credited to R?m?nuja - Shri Bh?shya, Ved?rthasangraha and the Bhagavad Gita Bh?shya.[29][30]

Philosophy

The figure of R?m?nujacharya in Upadesa Mudra inside the Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam.

R?m?nuja's philosophical foundation was qualified monism, and is called Vishishtadvaita in the Hindu tradition.[12][31] His ideas are one of three subschools in Ved?nta, the other two are known as ?di Shankara's Advaita (absolute monism) and Madhv?ch?rya's Dvaita (dualism).[12]

R?m?nuja accepted that the Vedas are a reliable source of knowledge, then critiqued other schools of Hindu philosophy, including Advaita Ved?nta, as having failed in interpreting all of the Vedic texts.[32] He asserted, in his Sri Bh?shya, that purvapaksin (previous schools) selectively interpret those Upanishadic passages that support their monistic interpretation, and ignore those passages that support the pluralism interpretation.[32] There is no reason, stated R?m?nuja, to prefer one part of a scripture and not other, the whole of the scripture must be considered on par.[32][33] One cannot, according to R?m?nuja, attempt to give interpretations of isolated portions of any scripture. Rather, the scripture must be considered one integrated corpus, expressing a consistent doctrine.[32] The Vedic literature, asserted R?m?nuja, mention both plurality and oneness, therefore the truth must incorporate pluralism and monism, or qualified monism.[32]

This method of scripture interpretation distinguishes R?m?nuja from ?di Shankara.[33] Shankara's exegetical approach Samanvayat Tatparya Linga with Anvaya-Vyatireka,[34] states that for proper understanding all texts must be examined in their entirety and then their intent established by six characteristics, which includes studying what is stated by the author to be his goal, what he repeats in his explanation, then what he states as conclusion and whether it can be epistemically verified.[35][36] Not everything in any text, states Shankara, has equal weight and some ideas are the essence of any expert's textual testimony.[33] This philosophical difference in scriptural studies, helped Shankara conclude that the Principal Upanishads primarily teach monism with teachings such as Tat tvam asi, while helping R?m?nuja conclude that qualified monism is at the foundation of Hindu spirituality.[32][37][38]

Comparison with other Ved?nta schools

R?m?nujacharya depicted with Vaishnava Tilaka and Varadraja (Vishnu) statue.

R?m?nuja's Vishishtadvaita shares the theistic devotionalism ideas with Madhv?ch?rya's Dvaita.[39] Both schools assert that J?va (human souls) and Brahman (as Vishnu) are different, a difference that is never transcended.[40][41] God Vishnu alone is independent, all other gods and beings are dependent on Him, according to both Madhv?ch?rya and R?m?nuja.[42] However, in contrast to Madhv?ch?rya's views, R?m?nuja asserts "qualified non-dualism",[43] that souls share the same essential nature of Brahman,[43] and that there is a universal sameness in the quality and degree of bliss possible for human souls, and every soul can reach the bliss state of God Himself.[40][44] While the 13th- to 14th-century Madhav?ch?rya asserted both "qualitative and quantitative pluralism of souls", R?m?nuja asserted "qualitative monism and quantitative pluralism of souls", states Sharma.[45]

R?m?nuja's Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Ved?nta schools,[19][46] both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhv?ch?rya believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[47][48] Shankara's theory posits that only Brahman and causes are metaphysical unchanging reality, while the empirical world (Maya) and observed effects are changing, illusive and of relative existence.[22][31] Spiritual liberation to Shankara is the full comprehension and realization of oneness of one's unchanging ?tman (soul) as the same as ?tman in everyone else as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.[11][46][49] In contrast, R?m?nuja's theory posits both Brahman and the world of matter are two different absolutes, both metaphysically real, neither should be called false or illusive, and saguna Brahman with attributes is also real.[31] God, like man, states R?m?nuja, has both soul and body, and all of the world of matter is the glory of God's body.[19] The path to Brahman (Vishnu), asserted R?m?nuja, is devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of personal god (saguna Brahman, Vishnu), one which ultimately leads one to the oneness with nirguna Brahman.[19][22][31]

Influence

Harold Coward describes R?m?nuja as "the founding interpreter of Sri Vaisnavite scripture."[50] Wendy Doniger calls him "probably the single most influential thinker of devotional Hinduism".[5]J. A. B. van Buitenen states R?m?nuja was highly influential, by giving "bhakti an intellectual basis", and his efforts made bhakti the major force within different traditions within Hinduism.[19]

Major Vaishnava temples are associated with the R?m?nuja's tradition, such as the above Srirangam Ranganatha temple in Tamil Nadu.[19]

Modern scholars have compared the importance of R?m?nuja in Hinduism to that of scholar Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) in Christianity.[51][52][53]

R?m?nuja reformed the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple complex, undertook India-wide tours and expanded the reach of his organization.[23] The temple organization became the stronghold of his ideas and his disciples.[54] It is here that he wrote his influential Vishishtadvaita philosophy text, Sri Bhashyam, over a period of time.[55]

R?m?nuja not only developed theories and published philosophical works, he organized a network of temples for Vishnu-Lakshmi worship.[5]R?m?nuja set up centers of studies for his philosophy during the 11th- and 12th-century, by traveling through India in that era, and these influenced generations of poet saints devoted to the Bhakti movement.[5] Regional traditions assert that his visits, debates and discourses triggered conversion of Jains and Buddhists to Vaishnavism in Mysore and Deccan region.[5][31]

The birthplace of R?m?nuja near Chennai hosts a temple and is an active Vishishtadvaita school.[19] His doctrines inspire a lively intellectual tradition in southern, northern and eastern states of India, his monastery and temple traditions are carried on in the most important and large Vaishnava centres - the Rangan?tha temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, and the Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.

Disciples

Names

He is also known as ?r? R?m?nuj?ch?rya, Udaiyavar, Ethir?jar (Yatir?ja, king of monks), Bhashyakarar, God?grajar, Thiruppavai Jeeyar, Emberum?n?r and Lakshmana Muni[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Sri Ramanuja's gift to the Lord". The Hindu. India. 24 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c C. J. Bartley 2013, pp. 1-4, 52-53, 79.
  3. ^ a b c d e Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). R?m?nuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 20-22 with footnote 32. ISBN 978-0227680247. 
  4. ^ a b c d Mishra, Patit Paban (2012). R?m?nuja (ca. 1077-ca. 1157) in Encyclopedia of Global Religion (Editors: Mark Juergensmeyer & Wade Clark Roof). doi:10.4135/9781412997898.n598. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 904. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. 
  6. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d Patrick Olivelle (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads : Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation. Oxford University Press. pp. 10-11, 17-18. ISBN 978-0-19-536137-7. 
  8. ^ C. J. Bartley 2013, pp. 1-2.
  9. ^ Carman 1974, p. 24.
  10. ^ Carman 1994, pp. 82-87 with footnotes.
  11. ^ a b William M. Indich (1995). Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1-2, 97-102. ISBN 978-81-208-1251-2. 
  12. ^ a b c d Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6. 
  13. ^ C. J. Bartley 2013, pp. 1-2, 9-10, 76-79, 87-98.
  14. ^ Sean Doyle (2006). Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J. Peter Lang. pp. 59-62. ISBN 978-3-03910-708-7. 
  15. ^ Keith E. Yandell 2001, pp. 7, 148.
  16. ^ a b Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 352.
  17. ^ Carman 1994, pp. 45, 80.
  18. ^ Carman 1974, pp. 27-28, 45.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), R?m?nuja - Hindu theologian and Philosopher, Encyclopædia Britannica
  20. ^ Alkandavilli Govind?ch?rya (1906). The Life of Râmânujâchârya: The Exponent of the Vi?istâdvaita Philosophy. S. Murthy. pp. 62-70. 
  21. ^ a b c Katherine Young (1996). Steven Rosen, ed. Vai??av?. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 286-288. ISBN 978-81-208-1437-0. 
  22. ^ a b c Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). R?m?nuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 84-87. ISBN 978-0227680247. 
  23. ^ a b Carman 1994, p. 82 with footnotes.
  24. ^ a b c Keith E. Yandell 2001, pp. 149-150.
  25. ^ a b Carman 1994, p. 80.
  26. ^ Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). R?m?nuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 10-11. ISBN 978-0227680247. 
  27. ^ a b K.V. Raman (2003). Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture. Abhinav Publications. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-7017-026-6. 
  28. ^ Carman 1974, p. 27.
  29. ^ Robert Lester (1966), R?m?nuja and Shri Vaishnavism: the Concept of Prapatti or Sharanagati, History of Religion, Volume 5, Issue 2, pages 266-282
  30. ^ Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). R?m?nuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 3-4. ISBN 978-0227680247. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Joseph P. Schultz (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81-84. ISBN 978-0-8386-1707-6. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f Shyam Ranganathan (2011), R?m?nuja (c. 1017 - c. 1137), IEP, York University
  33. ^ a b c Carman 1994, p. 86.
  34. ^ Mayeda 2006, pp. 46-53.
  35. ^ Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963-1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 529-535
  36. ^ Michael Comans (1996), ?ankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49-71
  37. ^ Carman 1994, pp. 86-88.
  38. ^ Julius Lipner (1986), The Face of Truth: A Study of Meaning and Metaphysics in the Vedantic Theology of R?m?nuja, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887060397, pages 120-123
  39. ^ Sharma 1994, p. 11-17, 372.
  40. ^ a b Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Vi?i???dvaita: Contrasting Views of Mok?a, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224
  41. ^ Edward Craig (2000), Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415223645, pages 517-518
  42. ^ Sharma 1994, p. 373.
  43. ^ a b Stoker 2011.
  44. ^ Sharma 1994, pp. 373-374.
  45. ^ Sharma 1994, p. 374.
  46. ^ a b Christopher Etter (2006). A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism. iUniverse. pp. 57-60, 63-65. ISBN 978-0-595-39312-1. 
  47. ^ Sharma 1994, pp. 374-375.
  48. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 361-362.
  49. ^ Roy W. Perrett (2013). Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 247-248. ISBN 978-1-135-70322-6. 
  50. ^ Coward, Harold G. (2008). The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 139-141. ISBN 9780791473351. 
  51. ^ Ganeri, Martin (2007). "Knowledge and Love of God in R?m?nuja and Aquinas". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 20 (1). doi:10.7825/2164-6279.1381. 
  52. ^ Carman, John B. (2007). "Loving God as a Devoted Servant". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 20 (1). doi:10.7825/2164-6279.1384. 
  53. ^ Sean Doyle (2006). Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J. Peter Lang. pp. 235-239. ISBN 978-3-03910-708-7. 
  54. ^ Narasimhachary 2004, p. 23.
  55. ^ Dasgupta 1991, p. 114.

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